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Full text of "Opera: the works of Virgil;"

CLASSIC 

WORKS B> 

Trinity College, Cam 
[ 'uiversity of Glas% 

I. A MANUAL of I 

and Numerous Engr 

II. AN ELEMENT A 

QUITIES. Witl : 

III. A MANUAL ol 
Ex unples and Criti cz 

WORKS BY I 

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I. A HISTORY of h 

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II. SPECIMENS of K 

Cruttwell, M.A., -c 
Part I. Roman T 
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Part II. ROMAl 

Humoroa 
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I, VIRGILII OPERA 

l.L.D,, Senior Classic 
Duutin. Text frcm H. 
Original, rnd Selectedfr 
trations from tii a antiqi 
completein One Vcl 

Part I. Ecloguesa 
Part II. The JErutxd 
Part III. The .Eneid 
HORATII OPERA: 
Head Ciassical Master i 
Orellius. English Nol 
Lading Commentators. 1 
8vo, complete in One Voh 

Part I. Carmina 2 

Part II. Satires and E 



:i. 



CHARLES G 

EXETER S 



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O 
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WORKS OF VIRGIL, 

FEOM THE TEXT OF HEYNE AND WAGNER, 
WlTH 

ENGLISH NOTES, 

OBIGINAL, AND SELECIED FEOM THE 5IOST EHIXEXT COJIJIEXTAIOBS. 

PART II.— .ENEID.— Liber I.-VI. 



EY 



ARCHIBALD HAMILTON BRYCE, D.C.L., LL.D.; 

SEXIOB CLASSICAL MODEEATOE, TKINllT COLLEGE, DUBLIN; OSB OF TIIE CLASSICAL 
MASIEES IX THE HIGU 6CIIO0L OF EDIXBUBGH. 



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'^V^S . 




P. VIRGILII MARONIS 

iENEIDOS 

LIBER PRIMUS. 



' JL ■ 
tlle ego, qui quondam gracih.modulatus avena <r^/\ y**^* 

Carmen, et egressus silvis vicina coegi, 

Ut quamvis avido parerent arva colono; 

Gratum opus agricolis : at nunc horrentia Martis 

Ae^ia virumime caijo, Trojse qui.prinius ab oris 

Italiam fata profugus Laviniaque venit 

Litora ; multum ille et terris jactatus et ajto 

Vi superum, ssevse mernprem Junonis* ob iram ; i/w/u/v<L r^i^ 

Multa quoque et bello passus, dum conderet urbem 5 

Inferretque deos Latio ; genus unde Latinum 

Albanique patres atque altse moenia Komae. 

Musa, mlhi causas, memora, quo numine lsesa 
Quidve dolens regina deum tot volvere casu^ 
Insignem pieta^e virum, tot adire labores, 10 

Impulerit. Tantaene animis ccelestibus ir;e \^ 

Urbs antiqua fuit, Tyrii tenuere doloni, 
Carthago, Italiam contra Tiberinaque longe. 
Ostia, dives opum studiisque asperrhna-belli; 
Quam Juno fertur terris magis omnibus unam 15 

Posthabita coluisse Samo. Hic illius arma, 
Hic currus fuit : hoc regnum dea gentibus esse,. 
Si qua fata sinant, jam tum tenditque fovetque. 
Progeniem sed enim Trojano a sanguine duci- 
Audicrat, Tyrias olim quse verteret arces ; i-x^O 

Hinc populum late regejn belloque superbum>M^<w2/^ 
Venturum escidio Libvger sic volvere Parcaa l 



T. VIIiGILII MAEONIS /„ 

Id metucns votcrisque memor Saturnia belli, qJ^- 

Prijua quod ad Trojam pro caris gesserat Argis — . J\ 

Nejxd^^ejiiam causa3 irarum sasvicjue dolorcs -^\ Vj '& 

Exciderant anirn^T manet alta mente repostum 

Judieium Paridis spretseque lnjuria forma^" A 

Et gcnus invisum, et rapti Ganymedis honores — 

His accensa super, jactatos aequore toto 

Troas, reliquias Danaum atque immitis Achilli, 30 

Arcebat longe Latio ; multosque per annos 

Errabant acti fatis maria omnia circurn. 

Tantae molis era^ Eomanam condere gentem, 

Vix e conspectu Sicula? telluris in altum 
Vela dabant leet-i et spumas sahs asre. ruebant.» 35 

Quum Juno, aeternum servans sub pectore vulnusgy^ 
ligec secum : " Mene incepto desistere victam, 
Nec posse Italia Teucrorun>^vertere regem ! 
» ;iWU>Q nipp e vetor Jatis. Pallasr/e exurere classem 

Argivum atque ipsos potuit submergere ponto 40 

Unius ob noxam et furias Ajacis Oilei ? 
Ipsa Jovis rapidum jaculata e nubibus ignem 
Disjecitque rates evertitje|iie ^£no^a ventis : 
lllum exspirantem^transnxo pecfore) f lammas 
Turbine corripuit scopuloque infixit ac.ito. 45 

3^ Ast ego, quae divum incedo regina, Jovisque 
Et soror et conjux, una cum gente tot annos 
Bella gero. Et quisquam numen Junonis adorat 
-Praeterea, aut supplex aris imponet honorem ? " 

Talia flammato secum dea corde volutans 50 

Kimborum in patriam, loca feta furentibus austris, 
iEoliam venit. Hic vasto rex iEolns antro 
Luctantes ventos tempestatesque sonoras 
Iniperio premitj ac vinclis et carcere frenat. w 
Illi indignantcs magno cum murmure montis 55 

Circum claustra fremunt- Celsa sedet ./Eolus arce 
Sceptra tenens, mollitque animos, et temperat iras; 
Ni faciat, maria ac tcrras ccelmnque profundum 
Quipjpe Terant rapidi secum verrantque per auras. 
Sed pater omnipotens speluncis abdidit atris, OQ 

Hoc metuens ; molemque et montes insuper altoS 
Xmposuit, regemque cledit, qui foedere ce*tQ' 



S 



^NEIDOS LIB. I. 

Et premere et laxas sciret dare jussus habenas. / 

Ad quem tum Juno supplex his vocibus usa est : 

" iEole — namque tibi clivum pat^r atque hominum rex G3 
Et mulcere dedit fluctus et tollere vento — 
Gens inimica mihi Tyrrhenum navigat ssquor, 
Ilium in Italiam portans victosque penates : 
Incute vim ventis, submersasque obrue puppe3 ; 
Aut age diversos et disjice corpora ponto. 70 

Sunt mihi bis septem prsestanti corpore nympha? ; 
Quarum, quoe forma pulcherrimtv Deiopea, 
Connubio jungam stabili propriamque dicabo, 
Omnes ut tecum meritis pro talibus annos 
Exigat, et pulchra faciat te prole parentem." ', 75 

tEoIus haec contra : " Tuus, o regina, quid c^ptes, 
Explorare labor; mihi jussa capessere fas est. 
Tu mihi, quodcun^ue hoc regni, tu sceptra Jovemque 
Coneilias ; tu das epulis accumbere divum, 
Nimborumque facis tempestatumque potentem." 80 

Hsec ubi dicta, cavum conversa cuspide montem 
Impuht in latus ; ac venti velut agmine facto, 
Qua data porta, ruunt et terras turbine perflant. 
Incubuere mari, totumque a sedibus imis 
Una Eurusque Notusque ruunt creberque procellis 85 

Africus, et vastos volvunt ad litora fluctus : 
^Vlnsequitur clamorque virum stridorque rudentum. . 
Eripiunt sukito nubes _ccelumque dieinque ^^JUbuSM 
Teucrorum ex oculis ; ponto nox incubat atra. , ' 

Intonuere poli, et crebris micat ignibus sether, 00 

Prsesentemque viris. intentant omnia mortem. 
Extemplo iEnece solvuntur frigore membra ; 
Ingemit, et duplices tendens ad sidera palmas 
» Talia voce refert : " terque quaterque beati, 
,y>^*^ Quis ante ora patrum Trojse sub mccnibus aitis 05 

\ Contigit oppetere ! o Danaumfortissime gentis 
Tydide, mene Iliacis occumbere campis 
i JSTon potuisse, tuaque animam hanc effundere dextra! 
^V^Seevus ubi ^Eacidee telo jacet Hector, ubi ingens 

Sarpedon ; ubi tot Simois correpta sub undis 100 

Scuta virum galeasque et fortia corpora volvit. 1 ' 
Talia jactanti stridens aquilone procella 



P. VIEGIin MAEOFIS 

Velum adversa ferit, fluctusque ad sidera tollit. 

Franguntur remi ; tum prora avertit et undis 

Dat latus ; insequitur cumulo praeruptus aquse mons. 105 

Hi summo in fluctu pendent ; his unda dehiscens Qi^ 

Terram inter fluctus aperit : furit aestus arenis. 

Tres notus abreptas in saxa latentia torquet — 

Saxa vocant Itali, mediis quas in fluctibus, Aras — 

Dorsum immane mari summo. Tres Eurus ab alto 110 

In brevia et syrtes urget, miserabile visu, 

Illiditque vadis atque aggere cingit arenae. 

Unam, quae Lycios fidumque vebebat Oronten, 

Ipsius ante oculos ingens a vertice pontus 

In puppim ferit ; excutitur pronusque magister 115 

Volvitur in caput ; ast illam ter fluctus ibidem u» l^v aLv^ 

Torquet agens circum, et rapidus vorat aequore vertex. 

Apparent rari nantes in gurgite vasto, 

Arma virura tabulaeque et Troia gaza per undas. 

Jam validam Ilionei navera, jam fortis Achatae, 120 

Et qua vcctus Abas, et qua grandaevus Aletes, 

Vicit hiems : laxis laterum compagibus omnes 

Accipiunt inimicum imbreni, rimisque fatiscunt. 

Interca magno misceri murmure pontum, ' 
Emissamque hiemem sensit Neptunus, et imis 125 

Stagna refusa vadis, graviter commotus ; et alto 
Prospiciens summa placidum caput extulit unda. 
Disjectam ^Eneae toto videt aequore classem, 
Fluetibus oppressos Troas ccehque ruina ; 
Nec latuere doh fratrem Junonis et irae. 130 

Eurum ad se Zephyrumque vocat ; dehinc talia fatur : 
" Tantane vos generis tenuifc fiducia vestri ? 
Jam ccelum teiTamque meo sine numine, Venti, 
Miscere^et tantas audetis tollere moles ? 
juos ego — Sed motos praestat componere fluctus. 1 35 

st mihi non simili pcena commissa luetisT* 
Maturate fugam, regique haac dicite vestroT 
Kon ilh imperium pelagi saevumque tridentem, 
Sed mihi sorte datum. Tenet ille immania saxa, 
Vestras, Eure, domos ;~411a se jactet in aula 14G 

^Eolus, et clauso ventorurn carcere regnet." 
Sic ait, et dicto citius tumida aequora placat, 



JENEIDOS LIB. I. 

Collectasque fugat uubes solemque reducit. 

Cymothoe simul et Triton adnixus acuto 

Detrudunt naves scopulo. Lcvat ipse tridenti, 145 

Et vastas aperit syrtes, et temperat- sequor ; 

Atquerotis summas levibus perlabitur undas. 

Ac veluti magno in populo quum saepe coorta est 

Seditio, ssevitque animis ignobile vulgus.; 

Jamque faces et saxa volant, furor arma ministrat : 150 

Tum, pietate gravem ac meritis si forte virum quem 

Conspexere, silent, arrectisque a uribus adstant ; 

Ille regit dicti^ animos et pectora mulcet^>^. 

Sic cunctus pelagi cecidit fragor, sequora postquam 

Prospiciens genitor cceloque invectus aperto 155 

Flectit equos curruque volans dat lccra secundo. 

Defessi iEneadse, quae proxima litoraj cui-su 
Contendunt petere, et Libyse vei-tuntur ad oras. 
Est in secessu longo locus ; insula portum 
Efficit objectu laterum, quibus omnis ab alto 160 

Frangitur inque sinus scindit sese unda reduetos/ 
\FIinc atque hinc vastse rupes geminique minantur 
In ccelum scopuli, quorum sub vertice late 
JEquora tuta sil^jit ; tum silvis scena coruscis 
Desuper horrentique atrum nemus imminet umbra. 165 
Fronte sub adversa scopulis pendentibus antrum ; 
Intus aquae dulces vivoque sedilia saxo, 
Nympharum domus. Hic fessas non vincula naves 
Ulla tenent ; uncp non alligat ancora morsu. y 
Hug, septem iEneas collectis navibus omni 170 

Ex numero subit ; ac magno telluris amore 
Egressi optata potiuntur Troes arena, 
Et sale tabehtes ai^us in latore ponunt. 
Ac primum silici scintillam excudit Achates 
Suscepitque ignem foliis,^tque arida circum 175 

Nutrimenta dedit rapuitque in fomite flammam. 
Tum Cererem corruptam undis Cerealiaque arma 
Expediunt fessi rerum ; frugesque receptas 
Et torrere parant flammis et frangere saxo. 

^neas scopulum interea conscendit et omnem 180 

Prospectum late pelago petit, Anthea si quem 
Jactatum vento videat Phrygiasque biremes, 



P. VIEGILII MAEONIS 

Aut Capyn, aut celsis in puppibus arma Caici. 

Navem in conspectu nullam, tres litore cervos 

Prospicit errantes ; hos tota armenta sequuntur 1S5 

A tergo, et longum per valles pascitur agmcn. 

Constitit hic, arcumque manu celeresque sagittas 

Corripuit, fidus quae tela gerebat Achates ; 

Ductoresque ipsos primum, capita alta ferentes 

Cornibus arboreis, sternhVtum vuljnis ; et omnern 190 

Miscet agens telis nemora inte.r frondea turbam ; 

Kec prius absistit, quam septem ingentia victor 

Corpora fundat humi et numerum cum navibus asquet. 

Hinc portum petit, et socios partitur in omnes. 

Vina bonus quas deinde cadis onerarat Acestes 195 

Litore Trinacrio dederatque abeuntibus heros, 

Dividit, et dictis moerentia pectora mulcet : 

" O socii, neque enim ignari sumus ante malorum, 
O passi graviora, dabit deus his quoque fmem. 
Vos et Scyllaeam rabiem penitusque sonantes 200 

Accestis scopulos ; vos et C^^clopia saxa 
Experti ; revocate animos, mcestumque timorem 
Mittite ; forsan et ha^c olim meminisse juvabit. 
Per varios casus, per tot discrimina rerum 
Tendimus in Latium, sedes ubi fata quietas 205 

Ostendunt : illic fas regna resurgere Troise. 
Durate, et vosmet rebus servate secundis." 

Talia voce refert ; cuuisque ingentibus seger 
Spem vultu simulat, premit altum corde dolorem^ 
llli se praedae accingunt dapibusque futuris : 210 

Tergora diripiunt costis et viscera nudant ; 
Pars in frusta secant veribusque trementia figunt ; 
Litore ahena locant alii flammasque ministrant^ 
Tum victu revocant vires, fusique per herbam 
Implentur veteris Bacchi pinguisque ferince. 2 1 j 

Postquam exemta fames epulis mensseque remotce, 
Amissos longo socios sermone requirunt, 
Spemque metumque inter dubii, seu vivere credant, 
Sive extrema pati, nec jam exaudire vocatos. 
Praecipue pius iEneas nunc acris Oronti 220 

Nunc Amyci casum gemit et crudelia secum 
Fata Lyci, fortemque G-yan, fortemque Cloanthum. 



JESEIDOS LIB. T. 

Et jam finis erat : quum Jupiter sethere summo 
Despiciens mare velivolum terrasque jacentes 
Litoraque et latos populos, sic vertice cceli 22* 

Constitit et Libyce defixit lumina regnis.— =^ 
Atque illum tales jactantem pectore curas 
Tristior et lacrimis ojgnjps suilusa nitentes 
Alloquitur Venus : " qui res liominumque deumquc 
iEtemis rggis imperiis, et fulmine terres, 23C 

Quid meus^Eneas in te committere tantum, 
Quid Troes potuere, quibus, tot fu^gr.a passis, 
Cunctus ob Italiam terrarum claua^ur orbis P 
Jerie hinc B^n^nos olim, volventibus anniSjX 
Tinc fore ductores, revocato a sanguine TeucM, 235 

>ui mare, qui terras omnkdpcione tenerent, 
'oJlicitus» quee te, genitor, sententi ^ wrti^ P| 
loc equldem occasum Trojae tristesque ruinas l^a^-X'^ 
Solabar, fatis contraria fata rependens. 
Nune eadem fortuna viros tot casibus actos 240 

Insequitur. Quem das finem, rex magne, laborum ?_ 
Antenor potuit, mediis elapsus Achivis, 
Illyricos penetrare sinus atque intima tutus 
Pegna Liburnorum, et fontem superare Timavi, 
Unde per ora novem vasto cum murmure montis 245 

It mare proruptum et pelago premit arva sonanti.*- 
Ilic tamen ille urbem Patavi sedesque locavit 
Teucrorum, et genti nomen dedit armaque iixit 
Troia ; nunc placida compostus pace quiescit : 
Xos, tua progenies, cceli quibus adnuis arcem, 250 

Navibus, infandumj amissis,lunius ob iram 
Prodimur, atque Italis longe disjungimur oris. 
Hic pietatis honos ? sic nos in sceptra reponis ? 

Olli subridens hominum sator atque deorum 
Vultu quo ccelum tempestatesque serenat - 255 

Oscula libavit natae ; dehinc talia fatur : 
" Parce metu, Cytherea ; manent immota tuorum 
Fata tibi ; cernes urbem et promissa Lavini 
Mcenia, sublimemc)uc_fere s ad sidera cceli' 
Magnanimum iEnean; neque me sententia vertit. 200 

Hic tibi — fabor enim, quando hsec te cura remordet, 
Longius et volvens fatorum arcana movebo — 



P. VIRGILIT MARONIS 

Bellum ingens geret Italia, populosque ferocea 
Contundet ; moresque viris et ma?nia ponet, 
Tertia dum Latio regnantem viderit aestas,. 265 

Temaque transierint Eutulis hiberna subactis. 
At puer Ascanius, cui nunc cognomen Iulo 
[Additur — Hos erat, dum res stetit Ilia regno — 
Triginta magnos volvendis mensibus orbes *" 
Imperio explebit, regnumque ab sede Lavini 270 

Transferet, et longam multa vi muniet Albam. *- 
Hic jam ter centum totos regnabitur annos 
Gente sub Hectorea, donec regina sacerdos 
Marte gravis geminam partu dabit Ilia prolem. 
'-*jL~~>Inde lupae fulvq nutricis tegmine laetus 275 

Eomuius excipiet gentem, et Mavortia condet 
Mcenia, Eomanosque suo de nomine dicet. 
His ego nec metas reinm nec tempora pono ; 
Imperium sine fine dedi. Quin aspera Juno, tvt^ 
Quae mare nunc terrasque metu ccelumque fatigat, 280 
Consilia in melius referet, mecumque fovebit 
Eomanos, rerum dominos, gentemque togatam._- 
Sic placitum. Veniet lustns labentibus setas, 
Quum domus Assaraci Plrtnlam clai-asque Mycenas 
Servitio premet ac victis dominabitur Argis. 285 

Nascetur pulchra Trojanus origine Csesar, 
Imperium oceano, famam qui t^Mijaet astris, 
Julius, a magno demissum nomen Iulo. 
Hunc tu olim ccelo, spoliis Orientis onustum, 
Accipies secura ; vocabitur bic quoque votis. 290 

Aspera tum positis mitescent sascula bellis ; ^ 
Cana Fides et Vesta, Eemo cum fratre Quirinus 
Jura dabunt ; dirae ferro et compagibus arctis 
Claudentur belli portse ; Furor impius intus 
Sseva sedens super arma et centum vinctus abenis 295 

Post tergum nodis fremet horridus ore cruento." 

Haec ait : et Maia genitum demittit ab alto, 
Ut terrse, utque novae pateant Carthaginis arces 
Hospitio Teucris, ne fati nescia Dido 
Finibus arceret. Volat ille per aera magnum 300 

Eemigio alarum, ac Libyae citus adstitit oris. 
Et jam jussa Ifacit ; ponuntque ferocia Pceni 



ZENEIDOS LIB. I. 

Corda volente deo ; in primis regina quietum 
Accipit in Teucros animum mentemque benignam. ^, 

At pius iEneas per noctem plurima volvens, 305 

Ut primum lux alma data est, exire locosque 
Explorare novos, quas vento accesserit oras, 
Qui teneant, nam inculta videt, hominesne feraene, 
Quaerere constituit, sociisque exacta referre. 
Classem in convexo nemorum sub rupe cavata 310 

Arboribus clausam circum atque horrentibus umbris 
Occulit : ipse uno graditur comitatus Achate, 
Bina manu lato crispans hastilia ferro. 
Cui mater media sese tulit obvia silva, 
Virginis os habitumque gerens et virginis arma 315 

Spartanae, vel qualis equos Threlssa fatigat 
Harpalyce volucremque fuga prsevertitur Hebrum - 
Namque humeris de more habilem suspenderat arcum 
Venatrix, dederatque comam diflundere ventis, 
Nuda genu, nodoque sinus collecta fluentes. 320 

Ac prior, "Heus," inquit, "juvenes, monstrate mearum 
Vidistis si quam hic errantem forte sororum, 
Succinctam pharetra et maculosae tegmine lyncis, | 

Aut spumantis apri cursum clamore prementem." 

Sic Venus ; et Veneris contra sic filius orsus : 325 

" Nulla tuarum audita mihi neque visa sororum, 
O — quam te memorem — virgo ? namque haud tibi vultus 
Mortalis, nec vox hominem sonat ; dea certe : 
An Phcebi soror ? an nympharum sanguinis una ? 
Sis felix, nostrumque leves, quaecumque, laborem, 330 

Et quo sub ccelo tandem, quibus orbis in oris 
Jactemur, doceas ; ignari hominumque locorumque 
Erramus, vento huc vastis et fluctibus acti. 
Multa tibi ante aras nostra cadet hostia dextra." 

Tum Venus : " Haud equidem tali me dignor honore ; 335 
Virginibus Tyriis mos est gestare pharetram, 
Purpureoque alte suras vincire cothurno. 
Punica regna vides, Tyrios et Agenoris urbem ; 
Sed fines Libyci, genus intractabile bello. 
Imperium Dido Tyria regit urbe profecta, 340 

Germanum fugiens. Longa est injuria, long» 
Ambages ; sed summa sequar fastigia rerum. 



P. YIBGILII MABONIS 

Huic conjux Sychaeus erat, ditissimus agri 

Phcenicum, et magno miserae dilectus amore, 

Cui pater intactam dederat primisque jugarat 345 

Ominibus ; sed regna Tyri germanus habebat 

Pygmalion, scelere ante alios immanior omnes. 

Quos inter medius venit furor. Ille Sychaeum 

Impius ante aras atque auri caecus amore 

Clam ferro incautum superat, securus amorum 350 

Germanse ; factumque diu celavit, et aegram, 

Multa malus simulans, vana spe lusit amantem. 

Ipsa sed in somnis inhumati venit imago 

Conjugis ; ora modis attollens pallida miris 

Crudeles aras trajectaque pectora ferro 355 

Nudavit, cascumque domus scelus omne retexit. 

Tum celerare fugam patriaque excedere suadet, 

Auxiliumque viae veteres tellure recludit 

Thesauros, ignotum argenti pondus et auri. 

His commota fugam Dido sociosque parabat. 360 

Conveniunt, quibus aut odium crudele tyranni 

Aut metus acer erat ; naves, quae forte paratae, 

Corripiunt, onerantque auro ; portantur avari 

Pygmalionis opes pelago ; dux femina facti. 

Devenere locos, ubi nunc ingentia cernes 365 

Moenia siugentemque novae Carthaginis arcem, 

Mercatique solum, facti de nomine Byrsam, 

Taurino quantum possent circumdare tergo. 

Sed vos qui tandem, quibus aut venistis ab oris, 

Quove tenetis iter ?" Qua^renti talibus ille 370 

Suspirans imoque trahens a pectore vocem : 

" dea, si prima repetens ab origine pergam, 
Et vacet annales nostrorum audire laborum, 
Ante diem clauso componet vesper Olympo. 
Nos Troja antiqua, si vestras forte per aures 375 

Trojre nomen iit, diversa per aequora vectos 
Forte sua Libycis tempestas appulit oris. 
Sum pius ^Eneas, raptos qui ex hoste penates 
Classe veho mecmn, fama super aetliera notus. 
Itaham quaero patriam et genus ab Jove summo. 380 

Bis denis Phrygium conscendi navibus aequor, 
Matre dea monstrante viam, data mta secutus. 



^NEIDOS LIB. I. 

Vix septem convulsse undis euroque supersuni. 

Ipse ignotus, egens, Libyae deserta peragro, 

Europa atque Asia pulsus." Nec plura quercntem 385 

Passa Venus medio sic intcrfata dolore est : 

" Quisquis es, haud, credo, invisus coclcstibus auras 
Vitales carpis, Tyriam qui adveneris urbcm. 
Perge modo, atque hinc te reginae ad limina pcrfer. 
Namque tibi reduces socios classemque relatam 390 

Nuncio, et in tutum versis aquilonibus actam, 
Ni frustra augurium vani docuere parentes. 
Aspicc bis senos lartantes agmine cycnos, 
c-Etheria quos lapsa plaga Jovis ales aperto 
Turbabat ccelo ; nunc terras qrdine longo 395 

Aut capere aut captas jam despectare videntur : 
Ut reduces illi ludunt stridentibus alis, 
Et ccetu cinxere polum, cantusque dedere, 
Haud aliter puppesque tuee pubesque tuorum 
Aut portum tenet, aut pleno subit ostia velo. 400 

Perge modo et qua te ducit via dirige gressum." 

Dixit ; et avertens rosea cervice refulsit, 
Ambrosiseque comse divinum vertice odorem 
Spiravere : pedes vestis defluxit ad imos ; 
Et vera incessu patuit dea. Ille ubi matrcm 405 

Agnovit, tali fugientem est voce secutus : 
11 Quid natum toties crudelis tu quoque falsis 
Ludis imaginibus ? cur dextrse jungere dextram 
Non datur, ac veras audire et reddere voces ?" 
Talibus incusat, gressumque ad mcenia tendit. 410 

At Venus obscuro gradientes aere saspsit, 
Kt multo nebulae circum dea fudit amictu, 
Cernere ne quis eos, neu quis contingere posset, 
Molirive moram, aut veniendi poscere causas. 
Ipsa Paphum sublimis abit sedesque revisit 415 

Lseta suas, ubi templum illi, centumque Sabseo 
Thure calent arae sertisque recentibus halant. 

Corripuere viam interea, qua semita monstrat. 
Jamque ascendebant collem, qui plurimus urbi 
Imminet adversasque aspectat desuper arces. 420 

Miratur molem ^Eneas, magalia quondam ; 
Miratur portas strepitumque et strata vianiw. 



P. VIEGILII MARONIS 

Instant ardentes Tyrii : pars ducere muros, 

Molirique arcem, et manibus subvolvere saxa ; 

Pars optare locum tecto et concludere sulco ; 425 

Jura magistratusque legunt sanctumque senatum ; 

Hic portus alii effodiunt ; hic alta theatris 

Fundamenta locant alii, immanesque columnas 

Rupibus excidunt, scenis decora alta futuris : 

Qualis apes testate nova per florea rura 430 

Exercet sub sole labor, quum gentis adultos 

Educunt fetus, aut quum liquentia mella 

Stipant, et dulci distendunt nectare cellas ; 

Aut onera accipiunt venientum, aut agmine facto 

Ignavum fucos pecus a praesepibus arcent : 435 

Fervet opus, redolentque thymo fragrantia mella. 

" O fortunati, quorum jam mcenia surgunt !" 

JEneas ait, et fastigia suspicit urbis. 

Infert se sseptus nebula, mirabile dictu, 

Fer medios, miscetque viris ; neque cernitur ulli. 440 

Lucus in uibe fuit media lsetissimus umbrse, 
Quo primum jactati undis et turbine Poeni 
Effodere loco signum, quod regia Juno 
Monstrarat, caput acris equi ; sic nam fore bello 
Egregiam et facilem victu per ssecula gentem. 445 

Hic templum Junoni ingens Sidonia Dido 
Condebat, donis opulentum et numine divse ; 
JErea cui gradibus surgebant limina, nixaeque 
Mie trabes ; foribus cardo stridebat ahenis. 
Hoc primum in luco nova res oblata timorem 450 

Leniit ; hic primum jEneas sperare salutem 
Ausus et amictis melius confidere rebus. 
Namque sub ingenti lustrat dum singula templo 
Reginam opperiens, dum, quae fortuna sit urbi, 
Artificumque manus inter se operumque laborem 455 

Miratur, videt Iliacas ex ordine pugnas 
Pellaque jam fama totum vulgata per orbem, 
Atridas, Priamumque, et ssevum ambobus Achillen 
Constitit, et lacrimans, " Quis jam locus," inquit, " A-chate, 
Quae regio in terris nostri non plena laboris ? 460 

En Priamus ! Sunt hic etiam sua prsemia laudi ; 
Sunt lacrimse rerum, et mentem mortalia tanguut, 



-SHEID08 LIB. I 

Solve metus ; feret hsec aliquam tibi fama salutem." 

Sic ait, atque animum pictura pascit inani, 

Multa gemens, largoque humectat flumine vultum. 465 

Namque videbat, uti bellantes Pergama circum 

Hac fugerent Graii, premeret Trojana juventus ; 

Hac Phryges, instaret curru cristatus Achilles. 

Nec procul hinc Ehesi niveis tentoria velis 

Agnoscit lacrimans, primo quse prodita somno 470 

Tydides multa vastabat caede cruentus, 

Ardentesque avertit equos in castra, prius quam 

Pabula gustassent Trojse Xanthumque bibissent. 

Parte alia fugiens amissis Troilus armis, 

Infelix puer atque impar congressus Achilli, 475 

Fertur equis, curruque hseret resupinus inani, 

Lora tenens tamen : huic cervixque comseque trahuntur 

Per terram, et versa pulvis inscribitur hasta. 

Interea ad templum non sequae Palladis ibant 

Crinibus Ihades passis, peplumque ferebant 480 

Supphciter tristes et tunsse pectora palmis j 

Diva solo fixos oculos aversa tenebat. 

Ter circum Ihacos raptaverat Hectora muros, 

Exanimumque auro corpus vendebat Achilles. 

Tum vero ingentem gemitum dat pectore ab imo, 485 

Ut spoha, ut currus, utque ipsum corpus amici 

Tendentemque manus Priamum conspexit inermes. 

Se quoque principibus permixtum agnovit Achivis, 

Eoasque acies et nigri Memnonis arma. 

Ducit Amazonidum lunatis agmina peltis 490 

Penthesilea furens, mediisque in milhbus ardet, 

Aurea subnectens exsertse cingula mammse, 

Bellatrix, audetque viris concurrere virgo. 

Hsec dum Dardanio iEnese miranda videntur, 
Dum stupet obtutuque hseret defixus in uno, 495 

Kegina ad templum, forma pulcherrima Dido, 
Incessit, magna juvenum stipante caterva. 
Qualis in Eurotae ripis, aut per juga Cynthi 
Exercet Diana choros, quam mille secutae 
Hinc atque hinc glomerantur Oreades : illa pharetram 500 
Fert humero, gradiensque deas supereminet omnes j 
Laton» tacitum pertentant gaudia pectue ; 



P. TIEGILII MAUONIS 

Talis erat Dido, talem se lseta ferebat 

Per rnedios, instans operi regnisque futuris. 

Tum foribus divse, media testudine templi, 605 

Sseptaarmis solioque alte subnixa rescdit. 

Jura dabat legesque viris, operumque laborcm 

Partibus sequabat justis, aut sorte trahebat ; 

Quum subito JEneas concursu accedere magno 

Anthea Sergestumque videt fortemque Cloanthum 510 

Teucrorumque alios, ater quos aequore turbo 

Dispulerat penitusque alias avexerat oras. 

Obstupuit simul ipse, simul percussus Achates 

Laetitiaque metuque : avidi conjungere dextras 

Ardebant, sed res animos incognita turbat. 515 

Dissiniulant, et nube cava speculantur amicti, 

Quae fortuna viris, classem quo litore linquant, 

Quid veniant : cunctis nam lecti navibus ibant, 

Orantes veniam, et templum clamore petebant. 

Postquam introgressi et coram data copia fandi, 520 
Maximus Ilioneus placido sic pectore ccepit : 
" Eegina, novam cui condere Jupiter urbem 
Justitiaque dedit gentes frenare superbas, 
Troes te miseri, ventis maria omnia vecti, 
Oramus : prohibe infandos a navibus ignes ; 525 

Parce pio generi, et propius res aspice nostras. 
Non nos aut ferro Libycos populare penates 
Venimus, aut raptas ad litora vertere praedas : 
Non ea vis animo, nec tanta superbia victis. 
Est locus, Hesperiam Graii cognomine dicunt, 530 

Terra antiqua, potens armis atque ubere gleba) : 
(Enotri coluere viri ; nunc fama, minores 
Italiam dixisse ducis de nomine gentem. 
Hic cursus fuit ; 

Quum subito assurgens fiuctu nimbosus Orion 535 

In vada cseea tuht, penitusque procacibus austris 
Perque undas, superante salo, perque invia saxa 
Dispuht ; huc pauci vestris adnavimus oris. 
Quod genus hoc hominum ? quasve hunc tam barbara morem 
Permittit patria ? hospitio prohibemur arense ! 540 

Bella cient, primaque vetant consistere terra. 
§i genus humanum et mortalia temnitis arma, 



JENELDOS LIB. I. 

At sperate deos memores fandi atque nefandi. 

Rex erat iEneas nobis, quo justior alter, 

Nec pietate fuit nee bello major et armis : 515 

Quem si fata virum servant, si vescitur aura 

iEtheria, neque adhuc crudelibus occubat umbris, 

Non metus, officio ne te certasse priorem 

Pueniteat. Sunt et Siculis regionibus urbcs 

Arvaque, Trojanoque a sanguine clarus Acestes. 550 

Quassatam ventis liceat subducere classem, 

Et silvis aptare trabes et stringere remos, 

Si datur Italiam, sociis et rege recepto, 

Tendere, ut Italiam lasti Latiumque petamus ; 

Sin absumta salus, et te, pater optime Teucrum, 555 

Pontus habet Libyas, nec spee jam restat Iuli, 

At freta Sicaniae saltem sedesque paratas, 

Unde huc advecti, regemque petamus Acesten." 

Talibus Ilioneus ; cuncti simul ore fremebant 

Dardanidae. 560 

Tum breviter Dido, vultum demissa, profatur : 
" Solvite corde metum, Teucri, secludite curas. 
Res dura et regni novitas me talia cogunt 
Moliri, et late tines custode tueri. 

Quis genus iEneadum, quis Trojce nesciat urbem, 505 

Virtutesque virosque, aut tanti incendia belli ? 
Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni, 
Nec tam aversus equos Tyria Sol jungit ab urbe. 
Seu vos Hesperiam magnam Saturniaque arva, 
Sive Erycis fines regemque optatis Acesten, 570 

Auxilio tutos dimittam opibusque juvabo 
Vultis et his mecum pariter considere regnis ; 
Urbem quam statuo, vestra est : subducite naves ; 
Tros Tyriusque mihi nullo discrimine agetur.- 
Atque utinam rex ipse noto compulsus eodem 575 

Afforet ^neas ? Equidem per litora certos 
Dimittam, et Libyae lustrare extrema jubebo, 
Si quibus ejectus silvis aut urbibus errat." 

His animum arrecti dictis et fortis Achates 
Et pater iEneas jamdudum erumpere nubem 580 

Ardebant. Prior iEnean compellat Achates : 
" Nate dea, qu» nunc animo sententia surgit ? 

B 



P. VIRGILII MABONIS 

Omnia tuta vides, classem sociosque receptos. 

Unus abest, medio in fluctu quem vidimus ipsi 

Submersum ; dictis respondent cetera matris." 585 

Vix ea fatus erat, quum circumfusa repente 

Scindit se nubes et in sethera purgat apertum. 

Restitit iEneas claraque in luce refulsit, 

Os humerosque deo similis : namque ipsa decoram 

Caesariem nato genetrix lumenque juventae 590 

Purpureum et ketos oculis afflarat honores : 

Quale manus addunt ebori decus, aut ubi flavo 

Argentum Pariusve lapis circumdatur auro. 

Tum sic reginam alloquitur, cunctisque repente 

Improvisus ait : " Coram, quem quaeritis, adsum 595 

Troius iEneas, Lybycis ereptus ab undis. 

O sola infandos Trojae miserata labores, 

Quaa nos, reliquias Danaum, terraeque marisque 

Omnibus exhaustos jam casibus, omnium egenos, 

Urbe, domo, socias ! grates persolvere dignas 600 

Non opis est nostrae, Dido, nec quidquid ubique est 

Gentis Dardaniae, magnum quae sparsa per orbem/ 

Di tibi, si qua pios respectant numina, si quid 

Usquam justitia est et mens sibi conscia recti, 

Praemia digna ferant. Quae te tam laeta tulerunt 605 

Saecula ? qui tanti talem genuere parentes ? 

In freta dum fluvii current, dum montibus umbrae 

Tjustrabunt convexa, polus dum sidera pascet, 

Semper honos nomenque tuum laudesque manebunt, 

Quae me cumque vocant terrae." Sic fatus, amicum 610 

Uionea petit dextra lawaque Serestum ; 

Post alios, fortemque Gyan fortemque Cloanthum. 

Obstupuit primo aspectu Sidonia Dido, 
Casu deinde viri tanto ; et sic ore locuta est j 
u Quis te, nate dea, per tanta pericula casus 615 

Insequitur ? quae vis immanibus applicat oris ? 
Tune ille iEneas, quem Dardamo Anchisse 
Alma Venus Phrygii genuit Simoentis ad undam ? 
Atque equidem Teucrum memini Sidona venire 
Finibus expulsum patriis, nova regna petentem 620 

Auxilio Beli : genitor tum Belus opimam 
Vastabat Cyprum, et victor dicione tenebat : 



JEKEIDOS LIB. I. 

Tempore jam ex illo casus mihi cognitus urbis 

Trojanse nomenque tuum regesque Pelasgi. 

Ipse hostis Teucros insigni laude ferebat, 625 

Seque ortum antiqua Teucrorum ab stirpe volebat. 

Quare agite, o tectis, juvenes, succedite nostris. 

Me quoque per multos similis fortuna labores 

Jactatam hac demum voluit consistere terra. 

Non ignara mali miseris succurrere disco." 630 

Sic memorat : simul iEnean in regia ducit 

Tecta; simul divum templis indicit honorem. 

Nec minus interea sociis ad litora mittit 

Viginti tauros, magnorum horrentia centum 

Terga suum, pingues centum cum matribus agnos, 635 

Munera laetitiamque dii. 

At domus interior regali splendida luxu 

Instruitur, mediisque parant convivia tectis : 

Arte laboratse vestes ostroque superbo, 

Ingens argentum mensis, caelataque in auro 64.0 

Fortia facta patrum, series longissima rerum 

Per tot ducta viros antiquse ab origine gentis. 

iEneas — neque enim patrius consistere mentem 
Passus amor — rapidum ad naves praemittit Achaten, 
Ascanio ferat hsec, ipsumque ad mcenia ducat. 645 

Omnis in Ascanio cari stat cura parentis. 
Munera prseterea, Iliacis erepta ruinis, 
Ferre jubet, pallam signis auroque rigentem, 
Et circumtextum croceo velamen acantho, 
Ornatus Argivse Helense, quos illa Mycenis, 650 

Pergama quum peteret inconcessosque hymenseos, 
Extulerat, matris Ledse mirabile donum : 
Praeterea sceptrum, IHone quod gesserat olim, 
Maxima natarum Priami, colloque monile 
Baccatum, et duplicem gemmis auroque coronam. 655 

Hkc celerans iter ad naves tendebat Achates. 

At Cytherea novas artes, nova pectore versat 
Consilia, ut faciem mutatus et ora Cupido 
Pro dulci Ascanio veniat, donisque furentem 
Incendat reginam, atque ossibus implicet ignem ; 600 

Quippe dornum timet ambiguam Tyriosque bilingues. 
Urit atrox Juno, et sub noctem cura recursat. 



P. TIBGILII MAE0NI8 

Ergo his aligerum dictis alfatur Amorem : 

" Nate, meae vires, mea magna potentia solus, 

Nate, patris summi qui tela Typhoia temnis, 665 

Ad te eonfugio et supplex tua numina posco. 

Frater ut ifcmeas pelago tuus omnia circum 

Litora jactetur odiis Junonis iniquse, 

Nota tibi, et nostro doluisti saspe dolore. 

Hunc Phcenissa tenet Dido blandisque moratur 670 

Vocibus ; et vereor, quo se Junonia vertant 

Hospitia ; haud tanto cessabit cardine rerum. 

Quocirca capere ante dolis et cingere flamraa 

Ileginam meditor, ne quo se numine mutet, 

Sed magno JEnex mecum teneatur amore. 675 

Qua facere id possis, nostram nunc accipe mentem : 

Regius accitu cari genitoris ad urbem 

Sidoniam puer ire parat, mea maxima cura, 

Dona ferens, pelago et flammis restantia Trojae : 

Hunc ego, sopitum somno, super alta Cythera 680 

Aut super Idalium sacrata sede recondam, 

Ne qua scire dolos mediusve occurrere possit. 

Tu faciem illius noctem non amplius unam 

Falle dolo, et notos pueri puer indue vultus, 

Ut quum te gremio accipiet laetissima Dido 685 

Kegales inter mensas laticemque Lyseum, 

Quum dabit amplexus atque oscula dulcia figet, 

Occultum inspires ignem fallasque veneno." 

Paret Amor dictis carse genetricis, et alas 

Exuit, et gressu gaudens incedit Iuli. 690 

A-t Venus Ascanio placidam per membra quietem 

Irrigat, et fotum gremio dea tollit in altos 

Idaliae lucos, ubi mollis amaracus illum 

Floribus et dulci aspirans complectitur umbra. 

Jamque ibat dicto parens et dona Cupido 695 

Regia portabat Tyriis, duce lastus Achate. 

Quum venit, aulseis jam se regina superbis 
Aurea composuit sponda mediamque locavit : 
Jam pater iEneas, et jam Trojana juventus 
Conveniunt, stratoque super discumbitur ostro. 70Q 

Dant famuli manibus lymphas, Cereremque cauistris 
Expediunt, tonsiso^ue ferunt mantelia villis, 



JE> T EIDOS LTD. I. 

Quinquaglnta intus famula), quibus ordine Iongam 

Cura pennm struere, et flammis adolen penates ; 

Centum alia?, todiclemque pares setate ministri, 705 

Qui dapibus mensas onerent, et pocula ponant. 

Xec non et Tyrii per limina lseta frequentes 

Convenere, toris jussi discumbere pictis. 

Mirantur dona JEneae, mirantur Iulum 

Flagrantesque dei vultus simulataque verba 710 

Pallamque et pictum croceo velamen acantlio. 

Prsecipue infelix, pesti devota futura?, 

Expleri mentem nequit, ardescitque tuendo 

Phcenissa, et pariter puero donisque movetur. 

llle ubi complexu iEnese colloque pependit, 715 

Et magnum falsi implevit gehitoris amorem, 

Reginam petit. Hsec oculis, haec pectore toto 

Hseret, et interdum gremio fovetj inscia Dido 

Insideat C{uantusmisera3 deus ! At memor ille 

Matris Acidaliae paulatim abolere Sychaeum 720 

Incipit, et vivo tentat prsevertere amore 

Jam pridem resides animos desuetaque corda. 

Postquam prima quies epulis, mensseque remotse, 
Crateras magnos statuunt et vina coronant. 
Fit strepitus tectis, vocemque per ampla volutant 725 

Atria ; dependent lychni laquearibus aureis 
Incensi, et noctem flammis funalia vincunt. 
Hic regina gravem gemmis auroque poposcit 
Implevitque mero pateram, quam Belu? et omnes 
A Belo soliti ; tum facta silentia tectis : 730 

" Jupiter, hospitibus nam te dare jura loquuntur, 
Hunc laetum Tyriisque diem Trojaque profectis 
Esse velis, nostrosque hujus meminisse minores. 
Adsri; Isetitiji* Bacchus dator, et bona Juno. 
Et vos. o, ccetum, Tyrii, celebrate faventes." 735 

Dixit, et in mensam laticum libavit honorcm, 
Primaque, libato, summo tenus attigit ore ; 
Tum Bitise dedit increpitans : ille impiger hausit 
Spumantem pateram, et pleno se proluit auro ; 
Post alii proceres. Cithara crinitus Iopas 740 

Personat aurata. docuit quem maximus Atlas. 
Hic canit errantem iunam solisque iabores ; 



P. VIRGILII MABONIS. 

Unde hominum genus et pecudes ; unde imber et ignes ; 

Arcturum pluviasque Hyadas geminosque Triones ; 

Quid tantum oceano properent se tingere soles 745 

Hiberni, vel quse tardis mora noctibus obstet. 

Ingeminant plausu Tyrii, Troesque sequuntur. 

Nec non et vario noctem sermone traliebat 

Infelix Dido, longumque bibebat amorem, 

Multa super Priamo rogitans, super Hectore muxta ; 750 

Nunc, quibus Aurorae venisset filius armis ; 

JSTunc, quales Diomedis equi ; nunc, quantus Acbilles. 

* { Immo age et a prima dic, hospes, origine nobis 

Insidias," inquit, '•' Danaum casusque tuorum 

Erroresque tuos ; nam te jam septima portat 755 

Omnibus errantem terris et fluctibus aestas." 



P. VIEGILII MABONIS 
INEIDOS 

LIBER SECUNDUS. 



Conticueee omnes, intentique ora tenebant. 
Inde toro pater iEneas sic orsus ab alto : 

" Infandum, Regina, jubes renovare dolorem, 
Trojanas ut opes et lamentabile regnum 
Eruerint Danai, quseque ipse miserrima vidi, 6 

Et quorum pars magna fui. Quis talia fando 
Myrmidonum Dolopumve aut duri miles Ulixi 
Temperet a lacrimis ! et jam nox humida ccelo 
Praecipitat, suadentque cadentia sidera somnos. 
Sed si tantus amor casus cognoscere nostros 10 

Et breviter Trojse supremum audire laborem, 
Quanquam animus meminisse horret luctuque refugit, 
Incipiam. Fracti bello fatisque repulsi 
Ductores Danaum, tot jam labentibus annis, 
Instar montis equum divina Palladis arte 15 

iEdiiicant, sectaque intexunt abiete costas. 
Votum pro reditu simulant ; ea fama vagatur. 
Huc delecta virum sortiti corpora furtim 
Includunt cseco lateri, penitusque cavernas 
Tngentes uterumque armato milite complent. 20 

" Est in conspectu Tenedos, notissima fama 
Insula, dives opum, Priami dum regna manebant, 
Nunc tantum sinus et statio male fida carinis : 
Huc se provecti deserto in litore condunt. 
Nos abiisse rati et vento petiisse Mycenas. 25 

Ergo omnis longo solvit se Teucria luctu ; 
Panduntur port» ; juvat ire et Dorica castra 



P. YlftGILII MARO^IS 

Desertosque videre locos litusque relictum. 

Hic Dolopum maxras, liic sa^vus tendebat Achilles; 

Classibus hic locus; hic acie certare solebant. 30 

Pars stupet innuptce donum exitiale Minervce, 

Et molem mirantur equi ; primusque Thymcetes 

Duci intra muros hortatur et arce locari, 

Sive dolo, seu jam Trojae sic fata ferebant. 

At Capys, et quorum melior sententia menti, 35 

Aut pelago Danaum insidias suspectaque dona 

Prrecipitare jubent subjectisque urere flammis : 

Aut terebrare cavas uteri et tentare latebras. 

Scinditur incertum studia in contraria vulgus. 

" Primus ibi ante omnes, magna comitante caterva, 40 
Laocoon ardens summa decurrit ab arce, 
Eb procul : ' miseri. qua? tanta insania, cives ? 
Creditis avectos hostes ? aut ulla putatis 
Dona carere dolis Danaum ? sic notus Ulixes ? 
Aut hoc inclusi ligno occultantur Achivi, 45 

Aut hsec in nostros fabricata est machina muros, 
Inspectura domoa venturaque desuper urbi ; 
Aut aliquis latet error : equo ne credite, Teucri. 
Quidquid id est, timeo Danaos et dona ferentes.' 
Sic fatus validis ingentem viribus hastam 50 

In latus inque feri curvam compagibus alvum 
Contorsit. Stetit illa tremens, uteroque recusso 
Insonuere cavae gemitumque dedere cavernce. 
Et, si fata deum, si mens non lasva fuisset, 
Impulerat ferro Argolicas fcedare latebras ; 55 

Trojaque nunc stares, Priamique arx alta maneres. 

"Ecce, manus juvenem interea post terga revinctum 
Pastores magno ad regem clamore trahebant 
Dai'danida?, qui se ignotum venientibus ultro, 
Hoc ipsum ut strueret Trojamque aperiret Acliivis, CO 
Obtulerat, fidens animi atque in utrumque paratus, 
Seu versare dolos, seu certa) occumbere morti. 
Undique visendi studio Trojana juventus 
Circumfusa ruit, certantque iliudere capto. 
Accipe nmic Danaum insidias, et crimine ab uno 65 

Disce omnes. 
Namque ut conspectu in medio tmbatus, inermis 



^NEIDOS LIB. IT. 

Constitit, atque oculis Phrygia agmina circumspexit : 
1 Heu, quae nunc tellus,' inquit, ' quse me sequora possunt 
Accipere ? aut quid jam misero mihi denique restat, 70 
Cui neque apud Danaos usquam locus, et super ipsi 
Dardanid^ infensi pcenas cum sanguine poscunt ?' 
Quo gemitu conversi animi, compressus et omnis 
Impetus, Hortamur fari, quo sanguine cretus, 
Quidve ferat; memoret, quoe sit fiducia capto. 75 

llle ha3C, deposita tandem formidine, fatur : 

" ' Cuncta equidem tibi, Rex, fuerit quodcumque, fatehor 
Vera,' inquit : ' neque me Argolica de gente negabo : 
Hoc primum ; nec, si miserum fortuna Sinonem 
Finxit, vanum etiam mendacemque improba finget. 80 

Fando aliquod si forte tuas pervenit ad aures 
Belidae nomen Palamedis et inclyta fama 
Grloria : quem falsa sub proditione Pelasgi 
Insontem infando indicio, quia bella vetabat, 
Demisere neci, nunc cassum lumine lugent ; 85 

Illi me comitem et consanguinitate propinquum 
Pauper in arma pater primis huc misit ab annis. 
Dum stabat regno incolumis regumque vigebat 
Consiliis, et nos aliquod nomenque decusque 
Gessimus. Invidia postquam pellacis Ulixi 90 

(Haud ignota loquor) superis concessit ab ovis, 
Afflictus vitam in tenebris luctuque trahebam, 
Et casum insontis mecum indignabar amici. 
Nec tacui demens ; et me, fors si qua tulisset, 
Si patrios unquam remeassem victor ad Argos, 93 

Promisi ultorem ; et verbis odia aspera movi. 
Hinc mihi prima mali labes ; hinc semper Ulixes 
Criminibus terrere novis ; hinc spargere voces 
In vulgum ambiguas, et quoerere conscius arma. 
Nec requievit enim, donec Calchante ministro — 100 

Sed quid ego hrec autem nequidquam ingratfi revolvo ? 
Quidve moror, si omncs uno ordine liabetis Achivos., 
Idque audire sat est ? jamdudum sumite peena» ; 

Hoc Ithacus velit, et magno mercentur Atru lpv' 

Tum vero ardemus scitari et quaarere causas, 105 

Ignari scelerum tantorum artisque Pelasgoe. 
Prosequitur pavitans et ficto pectore fatur : 



P. VIBGILII MABONIS 

" ' Saepe fugam Danai Troja cupiere relicta 
Moliri, et longo fessi discedere bello. 

Fecissentque utinam ! saepe illos aspera ponti 110 

Interclusit biems, et terruit auster euntes. 
Praecipue, quum jam bic trabibus contextus acernis 
Staret equus, toto sonuerunt aethere nimbi. 
Suspensi Eurypylum scitantem oracula Phcebi 
Mittimus ; isque adytis haec tristia dicta reportat : 115 

Sanguine placastis ventos et virgine caesa, 
Quum primum IHacas Danai venistis ad oras : 
Sanguine quaerendi reditus, animaque litandum 
Argohca. Vulgi quse vox ut venrc ad aures, 
Obstupuere animi, gclidusque per ima cucurrit 120 

Ossa tremor, cui fata parent, quem poscat Apollo. 
Hjc Itbacus vatem magno Calchanta tumutfcu 
Protrabit in medios ; quae sint ea numina divum, 
Flagitat ; et mibi jam multi crudele canebant 
Artificis scelus, et taciti ventura videbant. 125 

Bis quinos silet ille dies, tectusque recusat 
Prodere voce sua quemquam aut opponere morti. 
Vix tandem magnis Itbaci clamoribus aetus, 
Composito rumpit vocem et me destinat aroe. 
Assensere omnes ; et, quse sibi quisque timebat, 130 

Unius in miseri exitium conversa tulere. 
Jamque dies infanda aderat ; mibi sacra parari, 
Et salsse fruges, et circum tempora vittse. 
Eripui, fateor, leto me et vincula rupi ; 
Limosoque lacu per noctem obscurus in ulva 135 

Delitui,dum vela darent, si forte dedissent. 
Nec mihi jam patriam antiquam spes ulla videndi, 
Nec dulces natos exoptatumque parentem, 
Quos illi fors ad pcenas ob nostra reposcent 
Effugia, et culpam banc miserorum morte piabunt. 140 
Quod te per superos et conscia numina veri, 
Per, si qua est, quse restet adbuc mortalibus usquam 
Intemerata fides, oro, miserere laborum 
Tantorum ; miserere animi non digna ferentis.' 

" His lacrimis vitam damus, et miserescimus ultro. 145 
Ipse viro primus manicas atque arcta levari 
Vincla jubet Priamus, dictisque ita fatur amicis : 



.ENEIDOS LIB. II. 

' Quisquis es, amissos hinc jam obliviscere Graios : 
Noster eris ; mihique haec edissere vera roganti : 
Quo molem hanc immanis equi statuere? quis auctor?^150 
Quidve petunt ? quse religio ? aut quse machina belli ?' 
Dixerat. Ille dolis instructus et arte Pelasga, 
Sustulit exutas vinclis ad sidera palmas : 
1 Vos,seterni ignes, et non violabile vestrum 
Testor numen,' ait ; ' vos, arae ensesque nefandi, 155 

Quos fugi, vittaeque deum, quas hostia gessi : 
Fas mihi Graiorum sacrata resolvere jura, 
Fas odisse viros atque omnia ferre sub auras, 
Si qua tegunt : teneor patrise nec legibus ullis. 
Tu modo promissis maneas, servataque serves 160 

Troja,fidem, si vera feram, «i magna rependarn. 
" ' Omnis spes Danaum et coepti fiducia belli 
Palladis auxiliis semper stetit. Impius ex quo 
Tydides sed enim scelerumque inventor Ulixes, 
Fatale aggressi sacrato avellere templo 165 

Palladium, caesis summ33 custodibus arcis, 
Corripuere sacram effigiem, manibusque cruentis 
Virgineas ausi divae contingere vittas ; 
Ex illo fluere ac retro sublapsa referri 

Spes Danaum, fractae vires, aversa deae mens. 170 

Nec dubiis ea signa dedit Tritonia monstris. 

Vix positum castris simulacrum : arsere coruscae 

Luminibus flammse arrectis, salsusque per artus 

Sudor iit ; terque ipsa solo, mirabile dictu, 

Emicuit, parmamque ferens hastamque trementem. 175 

Extemplo tentanda fuga canit asquora Calchas, 

Nec posse Argolicis exscindi Pergama telis, 

Omina ni repetant Argis, numenque reducant, 

Quod pelago et curvis secum avexere carinis. 

Et nunc, quod patrias vento petiere Mycenas, 180 

Arma deosque parant comites, pelagoque remenso 

Improvisi aderunt. Ita digerit omina Calchas. 

Hanc pro Palladio moniti, pro numine lseso, 
.Efligiem statuere, nefas quae triste piaret. 

Hanc tamen immensam Calchas attollere molem 185 

Roboribus textis caeloque educere jussit, 

Ne recipi portis aut duci in mcenia possit, 



P. VIEGIin 3IAB0NIS j 

Neu populum antlqua sub religione tueri. 

Nam si vestra manus violasset dona Minervae, 

Tum magnum exitium (quod di prius omen in ipsum 190 

Convertant!) Priami imperio Phrygibusque futurum: 

Sin manibus vestris vestram ascendisset in urbem, 

Ultro Asiam magno Pelopea ad moenia bello 

Venturam, et nostros ea fata manere nepotes.' 

Talibus insidiis perjurique arte Sinonis 195 

Credita res, captique dolis lacrimisque coactis, 

Quos neque Tydides, nec Larissseus Achilles, 

Non anni domuere deeem, non mille carinse. 

' ; Hic aliud majus miseris multoque tremendum 
Objicitur magis, atque improvida pectora turbat. 200 

Laocoon, ductus Neptuno sorte sacerdos, 
Sollemnes taurum ingentem mactabat ad aras. 
Ecce autem gemini a Tenedo tranquilla per alta 
(Horresco referens) immensis orbibus angues 
Incumbunt pelago, pariterque ad litora tendunt ; 205 

Pectora quorum inter fluetus arrecta jubaeque 
Sanguinese exsuperant undas ; pars cetera pontum 
Pone legit sinuatque immensa volumine terga ; 
Fit sonitus spumante salo. Jamque arva tenebant, 
Ardentesque oculos suffecti sanguine et igni 210 

Sibila lambebant linguis vibrantibus ora. 
Diffugimus visu exsangues : illi agmine certo 
Laocoonta petunt. Et primum parva duorum 
Corpora natorum serpens amplexus uterque 
Implicat, et miseros morsu depascitur artus : 2 15 

Post,ipsum auxilio subeuntem ac tela ferentem 
Corripiunt, spirisque ligant ingentibus ; et jam 
Bis medium amplexi, bis collo squamea circum 
Terga dati, superant capite et cervicibus altis. 
Ille simul manibus tendit divellere nodos, 220 

Perfusus sanie vittas atroque veneno ; 
Clamores simul horrendos ad sidera tollit : 
Quales mugitus, fugit quum saucius aram 
Taurus, et incertam excussit cervice securim. 
At gemini lapsu delubra ad summa dracones 225 

Effugiunt, saBvseque petunt Tritonidis arcem, 
Sub pedibusque deae clipeique sub orbe teguntur. 



JENEIDOS LIB. II. 

Tum vero tremefacta novus per pectora cunctis 

Insinuat pavor ; et scelus expendisse merentem 

Laocoonta ferunt, sacrum qui cuspide robur 230 

Laeserit, et tergo sceleratam intorserit hastam. 

Ducendum ad sedes simulacrum, orandaque divse 

Numina conclamant. 

Dividimus muros et mcenia pandimus urbis ; 

Accingunt omnes operi, pedibusque rotarum 235 

Subjiciunt lapsus, et stuppea vincula collo 

Intendunt. Scandit fatalis machina muros, 

Feta armis : pueri circum innuptseque puellae 

Sacra canunt, funemque manu contingere gaudent. 

Illa subit, mediasque minans illabitur urbi. 240 

O patria, o divum domus llium, et inclyta bello 

Mo^nia Dardanidum ! quater ipso in limine portas 

Substitit, atque utero sonitum quater arma dedere: 

Instamus tamen immemores cseeique furore, 

Et monstrum infelix sacrata sistimus arce. 245 

Tunc etiam fatis aperit Cassandra futuris 

Ora, dei jussu non unquam credita Teucris. 

Nos delubra deum miseri, quibus ultimus esset 

Ille dies, festa velamus fronde per urbem. 

Vertitur interea ccelum, et ruit oceano nox, 250 

Involvens umbra magna terramque polumque 

Myrmidonumque dolos ; fusi per mcenia Teucri 

Conticuere ; sopor fessos complectitur artus. 

" Et jam Argiva phalanx instructis navibus ibat 
A Tenedo, tacitae per amica silentia lunae 255 

Litora nota petens ; flammas quum regia puppis 
Extulerat, fatisque deum defensus iniquis 
Inclusos utero Danaos et pinea furtim 
Laxat claustra Sinon. Illos patefactus ad auras 
Eeddit equus ; ketique cavo se robore promunt 260 

Thessandrus Sthenelusque duces, et dirus Ulixes, 
Demissum lapsi per funem, Acamasque, Thoasque, 
Pelidesque Neoptolemus, primusque Machaon, 
Et Menelaus, et ipse doh fabricator Epeos. 
Invadunt urbem somno vinoque sepultam ; 26$ 

Caeduntur vigiles, portisque patentibus omnes 
Accipiunt socios atque agmina conscia jun^unti 



P. VIEGILII MABONIS 

u Tempus erat, quo prima quies mortalibus aegris 
Incipit, et dono divum gratissima serpit ; 
In sonmis, ecce, ante oculos maestissimus Hector 270 

Visus adesse mihi, largosque efrundere fletus, 
Kaptatus bigis ut quondam, aterque cruento 
Pulvere, perque pedes trajectus lora tumentes. 
Hei mihi, qualis erat ! quantum mutatus ab illo 
Hectore, qui redit exuvias indutus Achilli, 275 

Vel Danaum Phiygios jaculatus puppibus ignes ! 
Squalentem barbam et concretos sanguine crines 
Vulneraque illa gerens, quae circum plurima muros 
Accepit patrios. Ultro flens ipse videbar 
Compellare virum et maestas expromere voces : 280 

1 lux Dardaniae, spes o fidissima Teucrum, 
Quae tantae tenuere morae ? quibus Hector ab oris 
Exspectate venis ? ut te post multa tuorum 
Funera, post varios hominumque urbisque labores 
Defessi aspicimus ! quae causa indigna serenos 285 

Foedavit vultus ? aut cur haec vulnera cerno ?' 
Ille niliil ; nec me quserentem vana moratur : 
Sed graviter gemitus imo de pectore ducens, 
' Heu ! fuge, nate dea, teque his/ ait, ' eripe flammis. 
Hostis habet muros ; ruit alto a culmine Troja. 290 

Sat patrise Priamoque datum. Si Pergama dextra 
Defendi possent, etiam hac defensa fuissent. 
Sacra suosque tibi commendat Troja penates ; 
Hos cape fatorum comites ; his mcenia quaere, 
Magna pererrato statues quae denique ponto.' 295 

Sic ait ; et manibus vittas Vestamque potentem 
-ZEternurnque adytis effert penetralibus ignem. 

" Diverso interea miscentur mcenia luctu ; 
Et magis atque magis, quanquam secreta parentis 
Anchisae domus arboribusque obtecta recessit, 300 

Clarescunt sonitus, armorumque ingruit horror. 
Excutior somno, et summi fastigia tecti ' 
Ascensu supero, atque arrectis auribus adsto ; 
In segetem veluti quum flamma furentibus austris 
Incidit, aut rapidus montano flumine torrens 305 

Sternit agros, sternit sata laeta boumque labores, 
Prascipitesque trahit silvas ; stupet inscius alto 



JBNEIDOS LIB. II. 

Accipiens sonitum saxi de vertice pastor. 

Tum vero manifesta fides, Danaumque patescunt 

Insidiae. Jam Deiphobi dedit ampla ruinam 310 

Vulcano superante domus ; jam proximus ardet 

Ucalegon ; Sigea igni freta late relucent : 

Exoritur clamorque virum clangorque tubarum. 

Arma amens capio, nec sat rationis in armis : 

Sed glomerare manum bello et concurrere in arcem 315 

Cum sociis ardent animi. Furor iraque mentem „ 

Prsecipitant, pulchrumque mori succurrit in armis. 

" Ecce autem telis Panthus elapsus Achivum, 
Panthus Othryades, arcis Phcebique sacerdos, 
Sacra manu victosque deos parvumque nepotem 320 

Ipse trahit, cursuque amens ad hmina tendit. 
1 Quo res summa loco, Panthu ? quam prendimus arcem ?' 
Vix ea fatus eram, gemitu quum talia reddit : 
' Venit summa dies et ineluctabile tempus 
Dardaniae. Fuimus Troes ; fuit Ilium et ingens 325 

Gloria Teucrorum. Ferus omnia Jupiter Argos 
Transtulit : incensa Danai dominantur in urbe. 
Arduus armatos mediis in mcenibus adstans 
Fundit equus, victorque Sinon incendia miscet 
Insultans. Portis alii bipatentibus adsunt, 330 

MiUia quot magnis unquam venere Mycenis ; 
Obsedere alii telis angusta viarum 
Oppositi ; stat ferri acies mucrone corusco 
Stricta, parata neci ; vix primi prcelia tentant 
Portarum vigiles, et caeco Marte resistunt.' 335 

Talibus Othryadse dictis et numine divum 
In flammas et in arma feror, quo tristis Erinys, 
Quo fremitus vocat et sublatus ad aethera clamor. 
Addunt se socios Khipeus et maximus armis 
Epytus, oblati per lunam, Hypanisque Dymasque, 340 

Et lateri agglomerant nostro, juvenisque Corcebus, 
Mygdonides. Illis ad Trojam forte diebus 
Venerat, insano Cassandrae incensus amore, 
Et gener auxilium Priamo Phrygibusque ferebat, 
Infelix, qui non sponsse prsecepta furentis 345 

Audierit. 
Quos ubi confestos audere in prcelia vidi, 



P. TIEGILn MAK05IS 

Incipio super his : c Juvenes, fortissima frustra 

Pectora, si vobis audentem extrema cupido 

Certa sequi, quse sit rebus fortuna, videtis : 350 

Excessere omnes adytis arisque relictis 

Di, quibus imperium hoc steterat ; succurritis urbi 

Incensse : moriamur et in media arma ruamus. 

Una salus victis nullam sperare salutem.' 

Sic animis juvenum furor additus. Inde, lupi ceu 355 

Eaptores atra in nebula, quos improba ventris 

Exegit cascos rabies, catulique relicti 

Faucibus exspectant siccis ; per tela, per hostes 

Vadimus haud dubiam in mortem, mediaequc tenemus 

Urbis iter : nox atra cava circumvolat umbra. 360 

Quis cladem illius noctis, quis funera fando 

Exphcet, aut possit lacrimis aequare labores ? 

Urbs antiqua ruit, multos dominata per annos ■ 

Plurima perque vias sternuntur inertia passim 

Corpora, perque domos et religiosa deorum 305 

Limina. Nec soli pcenas dant sanguine Teucri ; 

Quondam etiam victis redit in prsecordia virtus, 

Victoresque cadunt Danai. Crudelis ubique 

Luctus, ubique pavor et plurima mortis imago. 

" Primus se, Danaum magna comitante caterva, 370 

Andi-ogeiis offert nobis, socia agmina credens 
Inscius, atque ultro verbis compellat amicis : 
' Festinate, viri: nam quae tam sera moratur 
Segnities ? ahi rapiunt incensa feruntque 
Pergama : vos celsis nunc primum a navibus itis ?! 375 
Dixit ; et extemplo — neque enim responsa dabantur 
Fida satis — sensit medios delapsus in hostes. 
Obstupuit, retroque pedem cum voce repressit. 
Improvisum aspris veluti qui sentibus anguem 
Pressit humi nitens, trepidusque repente refugit 380 

Attollentem iras et cserula colla tumentem : 
Haud secus Androgeus visu tremefactus abibat. 
Irruimus, densis et chcumfundimur armis, 
Ignarosque loci passim et formidine captos 
Sternimus : aspirat primo fortuna labori. 385 

Atque hic successu exsultans animisque Corcebus, 
1 O socii, qua prima/ inquit, ' fortuna gajutis 



.ENEIDOS LIB. II. 

Monstrafc iter, quaque ostendit se dextra, sequamur : 

Mutemus clipeos, Danaumque insignia nobis 

Aptemus. Dolus, an virtus, quis in lioste requirat ? 390 

Arma dabunt ipsi.' Sie fatus, deinde comantem 

Androgei galeam clipeique insigne decorum 

Induitur, laterique Argivum accommodat ensem. 

Hoc Rhipeus, hoc ipse Dymas omnisque juventus 

Laeta facit ; spoliis se quisque recentibus armat. 395 

Vadimus immixti Danais haud numine nostro, 

Multaque per caecam congressi proelia noctem 

Conserimus ; multos Danaum demittimus Orco. 

Diffugiunt alii ad naves, et litora cursu 

Fida petunt ; pars ingentem formidine turpi 400 

Scandunt rursus equum et nota conduntur in alvo. 

" Heu nihil invitis fas quemquam fiderc divis ! 
Ecce trahebatur passis Priameia virgo 
Crinibus a templo Cassandra adytisque Minervae, 
Ad ccelum tendens ardentia lumina frustra, 405 

Lumina, — nam teneras arcebant vincula palmas. 
Xon tulit hanc speciem furiata mente Corcebus, 
Et sese medium injecit periturus in agmen. 
Consequimur cuneti et densis incurrimus armis. 
Hic primum ex alto delubri culmine telis 410 

Xostrorum obruiinur, oriturque miserrima csedes 
Armorum facie et Grraiarum errore jubarum. 
Tum Danai gemitu atque ereptae virginis ira 
Undique collecti invadunt, acerrimus Ajax, 
Et gemini Atridse, Dolopumque exercitus omnis : 415 

Adversi rupto ceu quondam turbine venti 
Confligunt, Zephyrusque Notusque et lsetus Eois 
Eurus equis : stridunt silvse, saevitque tridenti 
Spumeus atque imo Nereus ciet aequora fundo. 
Illi etiam, si quos obscura nocte per umbram 420 

Fudimus insidiis, totaque agitavimus urbe, 
Apparent ; primi clipeos mentitaque tela 
Agnoscunt, atque ora sono discordia signant. 
Ilicet obruimur numero : primusque Corcebus 
Penelei dextra divse armipotentis ad aram 425 

Procumbit ; cadit et llhipeus, justissimus unus 
Qui fuit in Teucris et servantissimus aequi : 

c 



P. VIEGILII MABONIS 

Dis aliter visum. Pereunt Hypanisque Dymasque 

Confixi a sociis ; nec te tua piurinia, Panthu, 

Labentem pietas nec A^ollinis infula texit. 430 

Iliaci cineres et ilamma extrema meorum, 

Testor, in occasu vestro nec tela nec ulks 

Vitavisse vices Danaum; ei,si fata fuissent 

Ut caderem, meruisse manu. Divellimur inde, 

Iphitus et Pelias mecum ; quorum Iphitus sevo 435 

Jam gravior, Pehas et vulnere tardus Ulixi ; 

Protinus ad sedes Priami clamore vocati. 

Hic vero ingentem pugnam, ceu cetera nusquam 

Bella forent, nulh tota morerentur in urbe, 

<§ie Martem indomitum, Danaosque ad tecta ruentes 440 

Cernimus, obsessumque acta testudine limen. 

Haerent parietibus scalse, postesque sub ipsos 

Nituntur gradibus, clipeosque ad tela sinistris 

Protecti objiciimt, prensant fastigia dextris. 

Dardanidas contra turres ac tecta domorum 445 

Culmina conveUunt : his se, quando ultima cernunt, 

Extrema jam in morte parant defendere telis, 

Auratasque trabes, veterum decora alta parentum, 

Devolvunt : alh strictis mucronibus imas 

Obsedere fores ; has servant agmine denso. 450 

Instaurati animi, regis succurrere tectis, 

Auxihoque levare viros, vimque addere victis. 

" Limen erat cEeceeque fores et pervius usus 
Tectorum inter se Priami, postesque rehcti 
A tergo ; infelix qua se, dum regna manebant, 455 

Ssepius Andromache ferre incomitata solebat 
Ad soceros, et avo puerum Astyanacta trahebat. 
Evado ad sunimi fastigia culminis, unde 
Tela manu miseri jactabant irrita Teucri. 
Turrim in praecipiti stantem summisque sub astra 460 
Eductam tectis, unde omnis Troja videri 
Et Danaum solitae naves et Achala castra, 
Aggressi ferro circum, quo summa labantes 
Juncturas tabulata dabant, convelhmus altis 
Sedibus impulimusque : ea lapsa repente ruinam 465 

Cum sonitu trahit et Danaum super agmina late 
Incidit. Ast ahi subeunt ; nec saxa nec uUum 



JBNEIDOS LIB. H. 

Telorum interea cessat genus. 

" Vestibulum ante ipsum primoque in limine Pyrrhus 
Exsultat, telis et luce coruscus ahena : 470 

Qualis ubi in lucem coluber, mala gramina pastus, 
Frigida sub terra tumidum quem bruma tegebat, 
Nunc positis novus exuviis nitidusque juventa, 
Lubrica convolvit sublato pectore terga 
Arduus ad solem, et linguis micat ore trisulcis. 475 

Una ingens Periphas et equorum agitator Achillis, 
Armiger Automedon, una omnis Scyria pubes 
Succedunt tecto et flammas ad culmina jactant. 
Ipse inter primos correpta dura bipenni 
Limina perrumpit, postesque a cardine vellit 480 

iEratos; jamque excisa trabe-firma cavavit 
Robora, et ingentem lato dedit ore fenestram. 
Apparet domus intus, et atria longa patescunt ; 
Apparent Priami et veterum penetralia regum, 
Armatosque vident stantes in limine primo. 485 

" At domus interior gemitu miseroque tumultu 
Miscetur, penitusque cavae plangoribus sedes 
Femineis ululant ; ferit aurea sidera clamor. 
Tum pavidse tectis matres ingentibus errant, 
Amplexaeque tenent postes atque oscula figunt. 490 

Instat vi patria Pyrrhus ; nec claustra, neque ipsi 
Custodes sufferre valent. Labat ariete crebro 
Janua, et emoti procumbunt cardine postes. 
Fit via vi : rumpunt aditus, primosque trucidant 
Immissi Danai, et late loca milite compL it. 495 

Non sic, aggeribus ruptis quum spumeus amnis 
Exiit oppositasque evicit gurgite moles, 
Fertur in arva furens cumulo, camposque per omnes 
Cum stabulis armenta trahit. Vidi ipse furentem 
Caede Neoptolemum geminosque in limine Atridas : 500 
Vidi Hecubam centumque nurus, Priamumque per aras 
Sanguine fcedantem, quos ipse sacraverat, ignes. 
Quinquaginta iUi thalami, spes tanta nepotum, 
Barbarico postes auro spoliisque superbi, 
Procubuere : tenent Danai, qua deficit ignis. 505 

" Forsitan et, Priami fuerint quae fata, requiras. 
Urbis uti captae casum convulsaque vidit 



P. VI&GILII MAROSIS 

Limina tectorum ct medium in penetralibus hostem, 

Arma diu senior desueta trementibus aevo 

Circumdat nequidquam humeris, et inutile ferrum 510 

Cingitur, ac densos fertur moriturus in hostes. 

^Edibus in mediis nudoque sub aetheris axe 

Ingens ara fuit, juxtaque veterrima laurus 

[ncumbens arae atque umbra complexa penates. 

Eiic Hecuba et natae nequidquam altaria cireum, 515 

Praecipites atra ceu tempestate columbsc, 

Condensae et divum amplcxse simulacra sedcbant. 

Ipsum autem sumtis Priamum juvenalibus armis 

Ut vidit, — ' Quae mens tam dira, miserrime conjux, 

Impulit his cingi telis ? aut quo ruis ?' inquit. 520 

1 Non tali auxilio, nec defensoribus istis 

Tempus eget ; non, si ipse meus nunc afforet Hector. 

Huc tandem eoncede ; hsec ara tuebitur omncs, 

Aut moriere simul.' Sic ore effata recepit 

Ad sese et sacra longsevum in sede locavit. 525 

" Ecce autem elapsus Pyrrhi de caede Polites, 
Unus natorum Priami, per tela. per hostes, 
Porticibus longis fugit, et vacua atria lustrat 
Saucius. Illum ardens infesto vulnere Pyrrhus 
Insequitur, jam jamque manu tenet et premit hasta. 530 
Ut tandem ante oculos evasit et ora parentum, 
Concidit, ac multo vitam cum sanguine fudit. 
Hic Priamus, quanquam in media jam morte tenetur, 
Kon tamen abstinuit, nec voci irreque pepercit. 
1 At tibi pro scelere,' exclamat, ' pro talibus ausis, 535 

Di, si qua est ccelo pietas, qua3 talia curet, 
Persolvant grates dignas et prsemia reddant 
Debita, qui nati coram me cernere letum 
Fecisti et patrios fcedasti funere vultus. 
At non ille, satum quo te mentiris, Achilles 5-10 

Talis in hoste fuit Priamo ; sed jura fidemque 
Supplicis erubuit, corpusque exsangue sepulcro 
Keddidit Hectoreum, meque in mea regna remisit.' 
Sic fatus senior, telumque imbelle sine ictu 
Conjecit, rauco quod protinus a^re repulsum 545 

Et summo chpei nequidquam umbone pependit. 
Cui Pyrrhus: 'Beferes ergo hsec et nuntius ibis 



JENETDOS LIB. II. 

Pelidae genitori : illi mea tristia facta 

Degeneremque Neoptolemum narrare memento. 

Nunc morere.' Hoc dicens altaria ad ipsa tremcntcm 530 

Traxit et in multo lapsantem sanguine nati, 

Implicuitque comam Iseva, dextraque coruscum 

Extulit ac lateri capulo tenus abdidit ensem. 

Haec finis Priami fatorum ; hic exitus illum 

Sorte tulit, Trqjam incensam et prolapsa videntem 555 

Pergama, tot quondam populis terrisque superbum 

Regnatorem Asiae. Jacet ingens litore truncus, 

Avulsumque humeris caput, et sine nomine corpus. 

" At me tum primum saevus circumstetit horror : 
Obstupui ; subiit cari genitoris imago, 5G0 

TJt regem aequaevum crudeli vulnere vidi 
Vitam exhalantem ; subiit deserta Creiisa 
Et direpta domus et parvi casus Iuli. 
Respicio et quae sit me circum copia lustro. 
Deseruere omnes defessi ; et corpora saltu 565 

Ad terram misere aut ignibus aegra dedere. 

" Jamque adeo super unus eram ; quum limina Vest» 
Servantem et tacitam secreta in sede latentem 
Tyndarida aspicio ; dant clara incendia lucem 
Erranti passimque oculos per cuncta ferenti. 570 

Iila sibi infestos eversa ob Pergama Teucros 
Et poenas Danaum et deserti conjugis iras 
Praemetuens, Trojae et patriae communis Erinys, 
Abdiderat sese atque aris invisa sedebat. 
Exarsere ignes animo ; subit ira cadentem 575 

Ulcisci patriam et sceleratas sumere pcenas : 
Scilicet haec Spartam incolumis patriasque Mycenas 
Aspiciet, partoque ibit regina triumpho ? 
Conjugiumque domumque, patres natosque videbit, 
Iliadum turba et Phrygiis comitata ministris ? 5S0 

Occiderit ferro Priamus ? Troja arserit igni ? 
Dardanium toties sudarit sanguine litus ? 
Non ita. Namque etsi nullum memorabile nomen 
Feminea in pcena est nec habet victoria laudem, 
Exstinxisse nefas tamen et sumsisse merentis 585 

Laudabor pcenas, animumque explesse juvabit 
Ultricis flammse et cineres satiasse meorum. 



P. VIBGILIT MABOITCB 

Talia jactabam et furiata mente ferebar ; 

Quum mihi se, non ante oculis tam clara, videndam 

Obtulit et pura per noctem in luce refulsit 590 

Alma parens, confessa deam, qualisque videri 

Ccelicolis et quanta solet ; dextraque prehensum 

Continuit roseoque haec insuper addidit ore : 

1 Nate, quis indomitas tantus dolor excitat iras ? 

Quid furis ? aut quonam nostri tibi cura recessit ? 595 

Non prius aspicies, ubi fessum setate parentem 

Liqueris Anchisen ? superet conjuxne Creiisa 

Ascaniusque puer ? quos omnes undique Graiae 

Circum errant acies, et, ni mea cura resistat, 

Jam namniae tulerint, inimicus et hauserit ensis. 600 

Non tibi Tyndaridis faeies invisa Lacaenae, 

Culpatusve Paris ; divum inclementia, divum, 

Has evertit opes sternitque a culmine Trojam. 

Aspice : namque omnem, quas nunc obducta tuenti 

Mortales hebetat visus tibi et humida circum 605 

Caligat, nubem eripiam : tu ne qua parentis 

Jussa time, neu prseceptis parere recusa. 

Hic, ubi disjectas moles avulsaque saxis 

Saxa vides mixtoque undantem pulvere fumum, 

Neptunus muros magnoque emota tridenti 610 

Fundamenta quatit, totamque a sedibus urbem 

Eruit : hic Juno Scasas saevissima portas 

Prima tenet, sociumque furens a navibus agmen 

Ferro accincta vocat. 

Jam summos arces Tritonia, respice, Pallas 615 

Insedit, nimbo efiulgens et Gorgone seeva. 

Ipse Pater Danais animos viresque secundas 

Suffieit, ipse deos in Dardana suscitat arma. 

Eripe, nate, fugam, finemque impone labori. 

Nusquam abero, et tutum patrio te limine sistam.' 620 

Dixerat ; et spissis noctis se condidit umbris. 

Apparent dirse facies inimicaque Trojae 

Numina magna deum. 

" Tum vero omne mihi visum considere in ignes 
Ilium, et ex imo verti Neptunia Troja ; 625 

Ac veluti summis antiquam in montibus ornum 
Quum ferro accisam crebrisque bipennibus instant 



JINEIDOS LIB. II. 

Eruere agricolee certatim ; illa usque minatur, 

Et tremefacta comam concusso vertice nutat, 

Vulneribus donec paulatim evicta supremum 6bU 

Congemuit traxitque jugis avulsa ruinam. 

Descendo, ac ducente deo flammam inter et hostes 

Expedior ; dant tela locum, flammajque recedunt. 

" Atque ubi jam patrise perventum ad limina sedis 
Antiquasque domos, genitor, quem tollere in altos 635 

Optabam primum montes primumque petebam, 
Abnegat excisa vitam producere Troja 
Exsiliumque pati. ' Vos o, quibus integer sevi 
Sanguis,' ait, ' solidseque suo stant robore vires, 
Vos agitate fugam. 640 

Me si ccelicolae voluissent ducere vitam, 
Has mibi servassent sedes. Satis una superque 
Vidimus excidia et captse superavimus urbi. 
Sic o, sic positum affati discedite corpus. 
Ipse manu mortem inveniam : miserebitur hostis 645 

Exuviasque petet. Facilis jactura sepulcri. 
Jam pridem invisus divis et inutilis annos 
Demoror, ex quo me divum pater atque hominum rex 
Fulminis afflavit ventis et contigit igni,' 
Talia perstabat memorans, fixusque manebat. 650 

Nos contra efiusi lacrimis, conjuxque Creusa 
Ascaniusque omnisque domus, ne vertere secum 
Cuncta pater fatoque urgenti incumbere vellet. 
Abnegat, inceptoque et sedibus hseret in isdem. 
Rursus in arma feror, mortemque miserrimus opto. 655 
Nam quod consilium aut quse jam fortuna dabatui' ? 
1 Mene efferre pedem, genitor, te posse reHcto 
Sperasti ? tantumque nefas patrio excidit ore ? 
Si nihil ex tanta superis placet urbe relinqui, 
Et sedet hoc animo, perituraeque addere Trojae 660 

Teque tuosque juvat, patet isti janua leto ; 
Jamque aderit multo Priami de sanguine Pyrrhus, 
Natum ante ora patris, patrem qui obtruncat ad aras. 
Hoc erat, alma parens, quod me per tela, per ignes 
Eripis, ut mediis hostem in penetralibus, utque 665 

Ascanium patremque meum juxtaque Creiisam 
A lterum in alterius mactatos sanguine cernam ? 



P. YIEGILII MAEONIS 

Arma, viri, ferte arma : vocat lux ultima victoa. 

Reddite me Danais ; sinite instaurata revisam 

Prcelia. Nunquam omnes hodie moriemur inulti.' 670 

" Hinc ferro accingor rursus, clipeoque sinistram 
Insertabam aptans, meque extra tecta ferebam. 
Ecce autem complexa pedes in limine conjux 
Haerebat, parvumque patri tendebat Iulum : 
1 Si periturus abis, et nos rape in omnia tecum ; 675 

Sin aliquam expertus sumtis spem ponis in armis, 
Hanc primum tutare domum. Cui parvus Iulus, 
Cui pater et conjux quondam tua dicta relinquor ?' 
" Talia vociferans gemitu tectum omne replebat ; 
Quum subitum dictuque oritur mirabile monstrum. 6S0 
Namque manus inter maestorumque ora parentum 
Ecce levis summo de vertice visus Iuli 
Fundere lumen apex, tactuque innoxia molle9 
Lambere flamma comas et circum tempora pasci. 
Nos pavidi trepidare metu, crinemque flagrantem 685 

Excutere et sanctos restinguere fontibus ignes. 
At pater Anchises oculos ad sidera laetus 
Extulit, et ccelo palmas cum voce tetendit : 
1 Juprter omnipotens, precibus si flecteris ullis, 
Aspice nos ; hoc tantum ; et, si pietate meremur, 690 

Da deinde auxilium, pater, atque haec omina iirma.' 

" Vix ea fatus erat senior, subitoque fragore 
Intonuit laevum, et de ccelo lapsa per umbras 
Stella facem ducens multa cum luce cucurrit. 
Illam, summa super labentem culmina tecti 695 

Ceraimus Idaea claram se condere silva 
Signantemque vias ; tum longo limite sulcus 
Dat lucem, et late circum loca sulfure fumant. 
Hic vero victus genitor se tollit ad auras, 
Affaturque deos et sanctum sidus adorat. 700 

1 Jam jam nulla mora est ; sequor, et qua ducitis, adsum. 
Di patrii, servate domum, servate nepotem ! 
Vestrum hoc augurium, vestroque in numine Troja est. 
Cedo equidem, nec, nate, tibi comes ire recuso.' 
Dixerat ille ; et jam per mcenia clarior ignis 705 

Auditur, propiusque aestus incendia volvunt. 
1 Ergo age, care pater, ceryici imponere nostr® ; 



JINETDOS LIB. II. 

Ipse subibo humeris, nec me labor iste gravabit ; 

Quo res cumque cadent, unum et commune periclum, 

TJna salus ambobus erit. Mihi parvus Iulus 710 

Sit comes, et longe servet vestigia conjux. 

Vos, famuli, quae dicam, animis advertite vestris. 

Est urbe egressis tumulus templumque vetustum 

Desertse Cereris, juxtaque antiqua cupressus, 

Religione patrum multos servata per annos : 715 

Hanc ex diverso sedem veniemus in unam. 

Tu, genitor, cape sacra manu patriosque penates : 

Me, bello e tanto digressum et caede recenti, 

Attrectare nefas, donec me flumino vivo 

Abluero.' 720 

Hsec fatus latos humeros subjectaque colla 

Veste super fulvique insternor pelle leonis» 

Succedoque oneri. Dextrae se parvus Iulus 

Implicuit, sequiturque patrem non passibus sequis : 

Pone subit conjux : ferimur per opaca locorum : 725 

Et me, quem dudum non ulla injecta movebant 

Tela, neque adverso glomerati ex agmine Graii, 

Nunc omnes terrent aurse, sonus excitat omnis 

Suspensum et pariter comitique onerique timentem. 

Jamque propinquabam portis, omnemque videbar 730 

Evasisse viam ; subito quum creber ad aures 

Visus adesse pedum sonitus, genitorque per umbram 

Prospiciens, ' Nate,' exclamat, ' fuge, nate ; propinquant ; 

Ardentes clipeos atque oera micantia cerno.' 

Hic mihi nescio quod trepido male numen amicum 735 

Confusam eripuit mentem. Namque avia cursu 

Dum sequor, et nota excedo regione viarum, 

Heu ! misero conjux fatone erepta Creiisa 

Substitit, erravitne via, seu lassa resedit, 

Ineertum ; nec post oculis est reddita nostris. 740 

Nec prius amissam respexi animumve reflexi, 

Quam tumulum antiquae Cereris sedemque sacratam 

Venimus : hic demum collectis omnibus una 

Defuit ; et comites natumque virmnque fefellit. 

Quem non incusavi amens hominumque deorumque ? 745 

Aut quid in eversa vidi crudelius urbe ? 

Aacanium Anchisenque patrem Teucrosque penates 



P. VIEGILII MABONIS. 

Commendo sociis, et curva valle recondo ; 

Ipse urbem repeto, et cingor fulgentibus armis. 

Stat casus renovare omnes, omnemque reverti 750 

Per Trojam, et rursus caput objectare periclis. 

Principio muros obscuraque limina portoe, 

Qua gressum extuleram, repeto ; et vestigia retro 

Observata sequor per noctem et lumine lustro. 

Horror ubique animos, simul ipsa silentia terrent. 755 

Inde domum, si forte pedem, si forte tulisset, 

Me refero. Irruerant Danai, et tectum omne tenebant. 

Ilicet ignis edax summa ad fastigia vento 

Yolvitur ; exsuperant flammae ; furit sestus ad auras. 

Procedo et Priami sedes arcemque reviso. 760 

Et jam porticibus vacuis Junonis asylo 

Custodes lecti Phcenix et dirus Ulixes 

Prsedam asservabant. Huc undique Troia gaza 

Incensis erepta adytis, mensasque deorum 

Crateresque auro solidi, captivaque vestis 765 

Congeritur. Pueri et pavidae longo ordine matres 

Stant circum. 

Ausus quin etiam voces jactare per umbram 

Implevi clamore vias, msestusque Creiisam 

Nequidquam ingeminans iterumque iterumque vocavi. 770 

Quaarenti et tectis urbis sine fine furenti 

Infelix simulacrum atque ipsius umbra Creiisae 

Visa mihi ante oculos et nota major imago. 

Obstupui, steteruntque comse, et vox faucibus hassit. 

Tum sic affari et curas his demere dictis : 775 

1 Quid tantum insano juvat indulgere dolori, 

O dulcis conjux ? non hsec sine numine divum 

Eveniunt : nec te comitem portare Creiisam 

Fas, aut ille sinit superi regnator Olympi. 

Longa tibi exsilia, et vastum maris sequor arandum. 780 

Et terram Hesperiam venies, ubi Lydius arva 

Inter opima virum leni fluit agmine Thybris : 

Illic res lsetse, regnumque, et regia conjux 

Parta tibi ; lacrimas dilectge pelle Creiisae. 

Kon ego Myrmidonum sedes Dolopumve superbas 785 

Aspiciam, aut Graiis servitum matribus ibo, 

Dardanis et divae Veneris nurus : 



ANEIDOS LIB. n. 

Sed me magna deum genetrix his detinet oris. 

Jamque vale, et nati serva communis amorem.' 

Haec ubi dicta dedit, lacrimantem et multa volentem 790 

Dicere deseruit, tenuesque recessit in ^uras. 

Ter conatus ibi collo dare brachia circum ; 

Ter frustra comprensa manus effugit imago, 

Par levibus ventis volucrique simillima somno. 

Sic demum socios consumta nocte reviso. 795 

" Atque hic ingentem comitum affluxisse novorum 
Tnvenio admirans numerum, matresque virosque, 
Collectam exsilio pubem, miserabile vulgus. 
Undique convenere, animis opibusque parati, 
In quascumque velim pelago deducere terras. 800 

Jamque jugis summse surgebat Lucifer Idae 
Ducebatque diem ; Danaique obsessa tenebant 
Limina portarum, nec spes opis ulla dabatur 
Ccssi, et sublato montes genitore DetivL" 



P. VIRGILII MAKONIS 
JNEIDOS 

LIBER TERTIUS. 



"Postquam res Asise Priamique evertere gentem 

Immeritam visum superis, ceciditque superbum 

Ilium et omnis humo fumat Neptunia Troja ; 

Diversa exsilia et desertas quasrere terras 

Auguriis agimur divum, classemque sub ipsa 5 

Antandro et Phrygise molimur montibus Idse, 

Incerti quo fata ferant, ubi sistere detur ; 

Contrahimusque viros. Vix prima inceperat a?stas, 

Et pater Anchises dare fatis vela jubebat ; 

Litora quum patrise lacrimans portusque relinquo 10 

Et campos, ubi Troja fuit. Feror exsul in altum 

Cum sociis natoque penatibus et magnis dis. 

" Terra procul vastis colitur Mavortia campis, 
Thraces arant, acri quondam regnata Lycurgo ; 
Hospitium antiquum Trojoe, sociique penates, 15 

Dum fortuna fuit. Feror huc, et litore curvo 
Mcenia prima loco, fatis ingressus iniquis ; 
iEneadasque meo nomen de nomine iingo. 

" Sacra Dionsea^ matri divisque ferebam 
Auspicibus cceptorum operum; superoque nitentem 20 

Coelicolum regi mactabam in litore taurum. 
Forte fuit juxta tumulus, quo cornea summo 
Virgulta et densis hastilibus horrida myrtus. 
Accessi, viridemque ab humo convellere silvam 
Conatus, ramis tegerem ut frondentibus aras, 25 

Horrendum et dictu video mirabile monstrum. 
Nam quce prima solo ruptis radicibus arbcxj 



£NEIDOS LIB. III. 

Vellitur, huic atro liquuntur sanguine guttae 

Et terram tabo maculant. Milii frigidus horror 

Mcmbra quatit, gelidusque coit formidine sanguis. 30 

Rursus et alterius lentum convellere vimen 

Insequor et causas penitus tentare latentes ; 

Ater et alterius sequitur de cortice sanguis. 

Multa movens animo Nymphas venerabar agrestes 

Gradivumque patrem,Geticis qui prsesidet arvis, 35 

Rite secundarent visus omenque levarent. 

Tertia sed postquam majore hastilia nisu 

Aggredior genibusque adversae obluctor arenae — 

Eloquar,an sileaia? — gemitus lacrimabilis imo 

Auditur tumulo, et vox reddita fcrtur ad aures : 40 

1 Quid miserum, JEnea, laceras ? jam parce sepulto ; 

Parce pias scelerare manus. Non me tibi Troja 

Externum tulit, aut cruor hic de stipite manat. 

Heu ! fuge crudeles terras, fuge litus avarum. 

Nam Polydorus ego. Hic confixum ferrea texit 45 

Telorum seges et jaculis increvit acntis.' 

Tum vero ancipiti mentem formidine pressus 

Obstupui, steteruntque comse et vox faucibus hscsit. 

" Hunc Polydorum auri quondam cum pondere magno 
Infelix Priamus furtim mandarat alendum 50 

Threicio regi, quum jam diffideret armis 
Dardaniso, cingique urbem obsidione videret. 
llle, ut opes fractaa Teucrum, et fortuna recessit, 
Bes Agamemnonias victriciaque arma secutus 
Fas omne abrumpit, Polydorum obtruncat, et auro 55 

Vi potitur. Quid non mortalia pectora cogis, 
Auri sacra fames ! Postquam pavor ossa reliquit, 
Delectos populi ad proceres primumque parentem 
Monstra deum refero, et quaa sit sententia posco. 
Omnibus idem animus scelerata excedere terra, 60 

Linqui pollutum hosfutium, et dare classibus austros. 
Ergo instauramus Polydoro funus, et ingens 
Aggeritur tumulo tellus ; stant manibus aree 
Cffiruleis msesta) vittis atraque cupresso, 
Et circum Iliades crincm de more solutae : 65 

Inferimus tepido spumantia cymbia lacte 
Sanguinis et sacri pateras, animamque sepulcro 



P. VIBGILII MAEONIS 

Condimus, et magna supremum voce ciemus. 

" Inde,ubi prima fides pelago, placataque yenti 
Dant maria, et lenis crepitans vocat auster in altum, 70 
Deducunt socii naves et litcra complent. 
Provehimur portu, terraeque urbesque recedunt. 
Sacra mari colitur medio gratissima tellus 
Nereidum matri et jSTeptuno Mgseo, 

Quam pius Arcitenens oras et litora circum 75 

Errantem Mycons e celsa Gyaroque revinxit, 
Immotamque coli dedit et contemnere ventos. 
Huc feror ; haec fessos tuto placidissima portu 
Accipit. Egressi veneraniur Apollinis urbem. 
Rex Anius, rex idem hominum Phcebique sacerdos, 80 

Vittis et sacra redimitus tempora lauro 
Occurrit ; veterem Anchisen agnoseit amicum. 
Jungimus hospitio dextras, et tecta subimus. 
Templa dei saxo venerabar structa vetusto : 
' Da propriam, Thymbraee, domum ! da moenia fessis 85 
Et genus et mansuram urbeni ! Serva altera Trojae 
Pergama, relliquias Danaum atque immitis Achilli ! 
Quem sequiniur ? quove ire jubes ? ubi ponere sedes ? 
Da, pater, augurium, atque animis illabere nostris.' 

" Yix ea fatus eram, tremere omnia visa repente, 90 
Liminaque laurusque dei, totusque moveri 
Mons cncum, et mugire adytis cortina reclusi3. 
Submissi petimus terram, et vox fertur ad aures : 
' Dardanidse duri, quae vos a stirpe parentum 
Prima tuht tellus, eadem vos ubere laeto 95 

Accipiet reduces. Antiquam exquirite matrem. 
Hic domus iEneae cunctis dominabitur oris, 
Et nati natorum, et qui nascentur ab illis.' 
Haec Phcebus : mixtoque ingens exorta tumultu 
Laetitia, et cuncti, quae sint ea mcenia, quaermit ; 100 

Quo Phcebus vocet errantes, jubeatque reverti. 
Tum genitor, veterum vojvens monumenta virorum, 
' Audite, o proceres,' ait, ' et spes discite vestras. 
Creta Jovis magni medio jacet insula ponto, 
Mons Idaeus ubi et gentis cunabula nostrae : 105 

Centum urbes habitant magnas, uberrima regna. 
Maximus unde pater, si rite audita recordor, 



«ENEIDOS LIB. III. 

Teucrus Rhoeteas primum est advectus ad oras, 

Optavitque locum regno. Nondum Ilium et arcea 

Pergameae steterant ; habitabant vallibus imis. 110 

Hinc mater cultrix Cybelae Corybantiaque aera 

Idseumque nemus ; hinc fida silentia sacris, 

Et juncti currum dominae subiere leones. 

Ergo agite, et divum ducunt qua jussa, sequamur : 

Placemus ventos et G-nosia regna petamus. 115 

Nec longo distant cursu ; modo Jupiter adsit, 

Tertia lux classem Cretaeis sistet in oris.' 

Sic fatus meritos aris mactavit honores, 

Taurum Neptuno, taurum tibi, pulcher Apollo, 

Nigram Hiemi pecudem, Zephyris felicibus albam. 120 

" Fama volat, pulsum regnis cessisse paternis 
Idomenea ducem, desertaque htora Cretae ; 
Hoste vacare domos, sedesque adstare rehctas. 
Linquimus Ortygise portus, pelagoque volamus, 
Bacchatamque jugis Naxon viridemque Donusam, 125 
Olearon niveamque Paron sparsasque per aequor 
Cycladas et crebris legimus freta concita terris. 
Nauticus exoritur vario certamine clamor ; 
Hortantur socii, Cretam proavosque petamus. 
Prosequitur surgens a puppi ventus euntes, 130 

Et tandem antiquis Curetum allabimur oris. 
Ergo avidus muros optatse molior urbis, 
Pergameamque voco, et laetam cognomine gentem 
Hortor amare focos arcemque attoUere tectis. 
Jamque iere sicco subductse litore puppes ; 135 

Connubhs arvisque novis operata juventus ; 
Jura domosque dabam ; subito quum tabida membris, 
Corrupto cceli tractu, miserandaque venit 
Arboribusque satisque lues et letifer annus. 
Linquebant dulces animas, aut aegra trahebant 140 

Corpora ; tum steriles exurere Sirius agros ; 
Arebant herbae, et victum seges aegra negabat. 
Rursus ad oraclum Ortygiae Phcebumque remenso 
Hortatur pater ire mari, veniamque precari : 
Quam fessis finem rebus ferat, unde laborum 145 

Tentare auxihum jubeat, quo vertere cursus. 

" Nox erat, et terris animaha somnus habebat : 



P. VIRGILII MAItONIS 

Effigies sacrae divuni Phrygiique penates, 

Quos mecum a Troja mediisque ex ignibus urbis 

Extuleram, visi ante oculos adstare jacentis 150 

In somnis, multo manifesti lumine, qua se 

Plena per insertas fundebat luna fenestras ; 

Tum sic affari et curas his demere dictis : 

1 Quod tibi delato Ortygiam dicturus Apollo est, 

-Hic canit, et tua nos en ultro ad limina mittit. 155 

Nos te, Dardania incensa, tuaque arma secuti, 

Nos tumidum sub te permensi classibus a^quor, 

Idein venturos tollemus in astra nepotes, 

Iinperiumque urbi dabimus. Tu moenia magnis 

Magna para, longumque fuga? ne lmque laborem. 160 

Mutanda? sedes. Non hsec tibi litora suasit 

Delius aut Cretoe jussit considere Apollo. 

Est locus, Hesperiam Graii cognomine dicunt, 

Tcrra antiqua, potens armis atque ubere gleba* j 

(Enotri coluere viri ; nunc fama minores 105 

Italiam dixisse ducis de nomine gentem. 

Hae nobis proprise sedes ; hinc Dardanus ortus 

Iasiusque pater, genus a quo principe nostrum. 

Surge age, et haec laetus longaevo dicta parenti 

Haud dubitanda refer : Corythum terrasque requirat 170 

Ausonias. Dictaea negat tibi Jupiter arva.' 

Talibus attonitus visis ac voce deorum, — 

Nec sopor illud erat ; sed coram agnoscere vultus 

Velatasque comas proesentiaque ora videbar ; 

Tum gelidus toto manabat corpore sudor — 175 

Corripio e stratis corpus, tendoque supinas 

Ad ccelum cum voce manus, et munera libo 

Intemerata focis. Perfecto la^tus honore 

Anchisen facio certum, remque ordine pando. 

Agnovit prolem ambiguam geminosque parentes, 180 

Seque novo veterum deceptum errore locorum. 

Tum memorat : ' Nate, Ihacis exercite fatis, 

Sola mihi tales casus Cassandra canebat. 

Nunc repeto, haec generi portendere debita nostro, 

Et saepe Hesperiam, s?epe Itala regna vocare. 185 

Sed quis ad Hesperia? venturos litora Teucros 

Crederet ? aut quem tum vates Cassandra moveret ? 



^NEIDOS LIB. lTI. 

Cedamus Phoebo, et moniti meliora sequamur.' 

Sic ait : et cuncti dicto paremus ovantes. 

Hanc quoque deserimus sedem, paucisque relictis 190 

Vela damus, vastumque cava trabe eurrimus rcquor. 

" Postquam altum tenuere rates, nec jam amplius ullo» 
Apparent teme, ccelum undique et undique pontus, 
Tum mihi cseruleus supra caput adstitit imbcr 
Noctcm hiemcmque ferens, et inhorruit unda tenebris. 195 
Continuo venti volvunt mare, magnaque surgunt 
yEquora ; dispcrsi jactamur gurgitc vasto. 
Involvcre diem nimbi, et nox humida ccelum 
Abstulit ; ingeminant abruptis nubibus ignes. 
Excutimur cursu et caacis erramus in undis. 200 

Ipse diem noctemque negat disccrnere ccelo 
Nec meminisse via3 media Palinurus in unda. 
Tres adeo incertos casca caligine soles 
Erramus pelago, totidem sine sidere noctes. 
Quarto terra die primum.se attollere tandem 205 

Visa, aperire procul montes, ac volvere fumum. 
Vela cadunt ; remis insurgimus ; haud mora, nautoe 
Adnixi torquent spumas et caarula verrunt. 
Servatum ex undis Strophadum me litora primum 
Accipiunt. Strophades Graio stant nomine dictse 210 

Insulco Ionio in magno, quas dira Celamo 
Harpyia3que colunt alia^, Phineia postquam 
Clausa domus, mensasque metu liquere priores. 
Tristius haud illis monstrum, nec sa>vior ulla 
Pestis et ira deum Stygiis sese extulit undis. 215 

Virginei volucrum vultus, fcedissima ventris 
rroluvies, uncseque manus, et pallida semper 
Ora fame. 

" Huc ubi delati portus intravimus, ecce 
Laeta boum passim campis armenta videmus 220 

Caprigenumque pecus nullo custode per herbas. 
Irruimus ferro, et divos ipsumque vocamus 
In partem proadamque Jovem : Tum litore curvo 
Exstruimusque toros dapibusque epulamur opimis, 
At subitse horrifico lapsu de montibus adsunt 225 

Harpyiee et magnis quatiunt clangoribus alas, 
Diripiuntque dapes contactuque omnia fadant 



P. VTBGILII MAB0NI9 

Immundo ; tum vox tetrum dira inter odorem. 

Rursum in secessu longo sub rupe cavata, 

Arboribus clausi circum atque horrentibus umbris, 230 

Instruimus mensas arisque reponhnus ignem : 

Rursum ex diverso cceli caecisque latebris 

Turba sonans prsedam pedibus circumvolat uncis 

Polluit ore dapes. Sociis tunc, arma capessant, 

Edico, et dira bellum cum gente gerendum. 235 

Haud secus ac jussi faciunt, tectosque per berbam 

£)isponunt enses et scuta latentia condunt. 

Ergo ubi delapsae sonitum per curva dedere 

Litora, dat signum specula Misenus ab alta 

Mre cavo. Invadunt socii, et nova prceiia tentant, 240 

Obscenas pelagi ferro fcedare volucres. 

Sed neque vim plumis ullam nec vulnera tergo 

Accipiunt, celerique fuga sub sidera lapsae 

Semiesam prsedam et vestigia fceda relinquunt. 

Una in praecelsa concedit rupe Celaeno, 245 

Infelix vates, rumpitque hanc pectore vocem : 

' Bellum etiam pro caede boum stratisque juvencisj 

Laomedontiadae, bellumne inferre paratis, 

Et patrio Harpyias insontes pellere regno ? 

Accipite ergo animis atque ksec mea figite dicta : 250 

Quae Phcebo pater omnipotens, mihi Phcebus Apollo 

Praedixit, vobis Furiarum ego maxima pando. 

Italiam cursu petitis ; ventisque vocatis 

Ibitis Italiam, portusque intrare licebit. 

Sed non ante datam cingetis mcenibus urbem, 255 

Quam vos dira fames nostraeque injuria caedis 

Ambesas subigat mahs absumere mensas.' 

" Dixit, et in silvam pennis ablata refugit. 
At sochs subita gehdus formidine sanguis 
Deriguit ; cecidere animi, nec jam amplius armis, 260 
Sed votis precibusque jubent exposcere pacem, 
Sive deae, seu sint diraeobscoenaeque volucres. 
Et pater Anchises passis de htore palmis 
Numina magna vocat, meritosque indicit honores : 
1 Di, prohibete minas ! di, talem avertite casum, 265 

Et placidi servate pios !' Tum htore funem 
Deripere excussosque jubet laxare rudentes. 



-EKEIDOS LIB. ILT. 

Tendunt vela noti : ferimur spumantibus undis, 

Qua cursum ventusque gubernatorque vocabat. 

Jam medio apparet fluctu nemorosa Zacynthos 270 

Dulichiumque Sameque et Neritos ardua saxis. 

Effugimus scopulos Ithacae, Laertia regna, 

Et terram altricem sasvi exsecramur Ulixi. 

Mox et Leucatse nimbosa cacumina montis 

Et formidatus nautis aperitur Apollo. 275 

Hunc petimus fessi, et parvae succedimus urbi : 

Ancora de prora jacitur, stant Htore puppes. 

" Ergo insperata tandem tellure potiti 
Lustramurque Jovi, votisque incendimus aras ; 
Actiaque Uiacis celebramus Htora ludis. 280 

Exercent patrias oleo labente palsestras 
Nudati socii : juvat evasisse tot urbes 
Argolicas mediosque fugam tenuisse per hostes. 
Interea magnum sol circumvolvitur annum, 
Et glaciahs hiems aquilonibus asperat undas ; 285 

iEre cavo chpeum, magni gestamen Abantis, 
Pustibus adversis figo, et rem carmine signo : 

iE>~EAS HiEC DE DaNAIS VICTOEIBUS AEMA. 

Linquere tum portus jubeo et considere transtris. 
Certatim socii feriunt mare et aequora verrunt. 290 

Protenus aerias Phseacum abscondimus arces, 
Litoraque Epiri legimus, portuque subimus 
Chaonio, et celsam Buthroti accedimus urbem. 
" Hic incredibilis rerum fama occupat aures, 
Priamiden Helenum Graias regnare per urbes, 295 

Conjugio iEacidse Pjrrhi sceptrisque potitum, 
Et patrio Andromachen iterum cessisse marito. 
Obstupui, miroque incensum pectus amore 
Compellare virurn et casus cognoscere tantos. 
Progredior portu, classes et litora linquens ; 300 

Sollemnes quum forte dapes et tristia dona 
Ante urbem in luco falsi Simoentis ad undam 
Libabat cineri Andromache, manesque vocabat 
Hectoreum ad tumulum, viridi quem cespite inanem 
Et geminas, causam lacrimis, sacraverat aras. 305 

Ut me conspexit venientem et Troia circum 
Arma amens vidit, magnis exterrita monstris 



P. VIEGILII MAKONIS 

Deriguit visu in medio ; calor ossa reliquit ; 
Labitur, et longo vix tandem tempore fatur : 
* Verane te facies, verus milii nuntius affers, 310 

Nate dca ? vivisne ? aut si lux alma reccssit, 
Hector ubi est?' dixit, lacrimasque effudit ct onmem 
Implevit clamore locum. Yix pauca furcnti 
Subjicio et raris turbatus vocibus hisco : 
' Yivo equidem, vitamque cxtrema pcr onmia duco. 315 
Xc dubita : nam vera vides. 
Heu ! quis te casus dejectam conjuge tanto 
Excipit ? aut quse digna satis fortuna revisit ? 
Hectoris Andromache Pyrrhin' connubia servas ?' 
Dejecit vultum et demissa voce locuta egt : 320 

' felix una ante alias Priameia virgo, 
Hostilem ad tumulum Trojae sub mcenibus altis 
Jussa mori, quae sortitus non pertulit ullos, 
NTec victoris heri tetigit captiva cubile ! 
Xos, patria incensa, diversa per oequora vectae, 325 

Stirpis Achillea^ fastus juvenemque superbum, 
Servitio enixae, tulimus ; qui deinde, secutus 
Ledaeam Hermionen Lacedamioniosque hymenoeos, 
INXe famulo famulamque Heleno transmisit habendam. 
Ast iJlum, ereptse magno inflammatus amore 330 

Conjugis et scelerum Furiis agitatus Orestes 
Excipit incautum, patriasque obtrmicat ad aras. 
Morte Xeoptolemi regnormn reddita cessit 
Pars Heleno, qui Chaonios cognomine campos 
Chaoniamque omnem Trojano a Chaone dixit, 335 

Pergamaque Iliacamque jugis hanc addidit a: : cem. 
Sed tibi qui cursum venti, qua? fata dedere ? 
Aut quisnam ignarum nostris deus appulit oris ? 
Quid puer Ascanius ? Superatne? et vescitur aura 
Qua? tibi jam Troja — 340 

Ecquatamen puero est amissse cura parentis ? 
Ecquid in antiquam vntutem animosque viriles 
Et pater iEneas et avunculus excitat Hector ':' 
" Taha fundebat lacrimans longosque ciebat 
Incassmn fletus ; quum sese a mcenibus heros 3-15 

Priamides multis Helenus comitantibus affert, 
Agnoscitque suos, l^tusque ad limina ducitj 



iESEIDOS LIB. III, 

Et multum lacrimas verba inter singula fundit, 

Proeedo, et parvam Trojam simulataque magnis 

Pergama et arentem Xanthi cognomine rivum 850 

Agnosco, Scseaeque amplector limina portse. 

Nee non et Teucri socia simul urbe fruuntur : 

Illos porticibus rex accipiebat in amplis; 

Aulai in medio libabant pocula Bacchi, 

Impositis auro dapibus, paterasque tenebant. 355 

" Jamque dies alterque dies processit, et aurse 
Vela vocant, tumidoque inflatur carbasus austro. 
His vatem aggredior dictis ac talia quseso : 
' Trojugena, interpres divum, qui numina Plicebi, 
Qui tripodas, Clarii laurus, qui sidera sentis 3G0 

Et volucrum linguas et praepetis omina pennse, 
Fare age — namque omnem cursum mihi prospera dixlt 
Religio, et cuncti suaserunt numine divi 
Italiam petere et terras tentare repostas ; 
Sola novum dictuque nefas Harpyia Celaeno 3G5 

Prodigium canit, et tristes denuntiat iras 
Obsccenamque famem — quce prima pericula vito ? 
Quidque sequens tantos possim superare labores ?' 
Hic Helenus, csesis primum de more juvencis, 
Exorat pacem divum, vittasque resolvit 370 

Sacrati capitis, meque ad tua limina, Phcebe, 
Ipse manu multo suspensum numine ducit ; 
Atque ha3c deinde canit divino ex ore sacerdos : 

1 Nate dea, — nam te majoribus ire per altum 
Auspiciis manifesta fides ; sic fata deum rex 375 

Sortitur, volvitque vices ; is vertitur ordo — 
Pauca tibi e multis, quo tutior hospita lustres 
TFquora et Ausonio possis considere portu, 
Expediam dictis ; prohibcnt nam cetera Pareco 
Scire Helenum farique vetat Saturnia Juno. CSO 

Principio Italiam, quam tu jam rere propinquam, 
Vicinosque, ignare, paras invadere portus, 
Longa procul longis via dividit invia terris. 
Ante et Trinacria lentandus remus in unda, 
Et salis Ausonii lustrandum navibus scquor 3S5 

Infernique lacus JEx&quQ insula Circae, 
Quam tuta possis urbem componere terra- 



P. VIBGILII MA.EONIS 

Signa tibi dicam ; tu condita mente teneto : 

Quum tibi sollicito secreti ad fluminis undam 

Litoreis ingens inventa sub ilicibus sus, 390 

Triginta capitum fetus enixa, jacebit, 

Alba, solo recubans, albi circum ubera nati : 

Is locus urbis erit, requies ea certa laborum. 

Nec tu mensarum morsus horresce futuros ; 

Fata viam invenient, aderitque vocatus Apollo. 395 

Has autem terras Italique hanc litoris oram, 

Proxima quse nostri perfunditur sequoris sestu, 

Effuge : cuncta mahs habitantur mcenia G-raiis. 

Hic et Xarycii posuerunt moenia Locri, 

Et Sallentinos obsedit milite campos 400 

Lyctius Idomeneus ; hic illa ducis Meliboei 

Parva Philoctetae subnixa Peteha muro. 

Quin, ubi transmissae steterint trans sequora classes, 

Et positis aris jam vota in htore solves, 

Purpureo velare comas adopertus amictu, 405 

Ne qua inter sanctos ignes in honore deorum 

Hostihs facies occurrat et omina turbet. 

Hunc socii morem sacrorum, hunc ipse teneto ; 

Hac casti maneant in religione nepotes. 

Ast, ubi digressum Siculae te admoverit orae 410 

Ventus, et angusti rarescent claustra Pelori, 

Laeva tibi tellus et longo laeva petantur 

iEquora circuitu ; dextrum fuge Htus et undas. 

Haec loca vi quondam et vasta convulsa ruina 

Tantum aevi longinqua valet mutare vetustas ! 415 

Dissiluisse ferunt, quum protinus utraque tellus 

Una foret ; venit medio vi pontus et undis 

Hesperium Siculo latus abscidit, arvaque et urbes 

Litore diductas angusto interluit aestu. 

Dextrum Scylla latus, lajvum implacata Charybdis 420 

Obsidet, atque imo barathri ter gurgite vastos 

Sorbet in abruptum fluctus, rursusque sub auras 

Erigit alternos et sidera verberat unda. 

At Scyllam coacis cohibet spelunca latebris, 

Ora exsertantem et naves in saxa trahentem. 425 

Prima hominis facies et pulchro pectore virgo 

Pube tenus ; postrema immani corpore pistrix, 



.ENEIDOS LIB. m. 

Delphinum caudas utero commissa luporum. 

Praestat Trinacrii metas lustrare Pachyni 

Cessantem, longos et circumflectere cursus, 430 

Quam semel informem vasto vidisse sub antro 

Scyllam et casruleis canibus resonantia saxa. 

Prasterea, si qua est Heleno prudentia, vati 

Si qua fides, animum si veris implet Apollo, 

Unum illud tibi, nate dea, proque omnibus unum 435 

Praedicam et repetens iterumque iterumque monebo : 

Junonis magnae primum prece numen adora ; 

Junoni cane vota libens dominamque potentem 

Supplicibus supera donis : sic denique victor 

Trinacria fines Italos mittere relicta. 440 

Huc ubi delatus Cumseam accesseris urbem 

Divinosque lacus et Avema sonantia silvis, 

Insanam vatem aspicies ; quee rupe sub ima 

Fata canit, foliisque notas et nomina mandat. 

Quaecumque in foliis descripsit carmina virgo, 445 

Digerit in numerum atque antro seclusa relinquit. 

Illa manent immota locis neque ab ordine cedunt. 

Verum eadem, verso tenuis quum cardine ventus 

Impulit et teneras turbavit janua frondes, 

Nunquam deinde cavo volitantia prendere saxo, 450 

Nec revocare situs, aut jungere carmina curat. 

Inconsulti abeunt, sedemque odere Sibyllae. 

Hic tibi ne qua morae fuerint dispendia tanti, — 

Quamvis increpitent socii, et vi cursus in altum 

Vela vocet, possisque sinus implere secundos, — 455 

Quin adeas vatem, precibusque oracula poscas. 

Ipsa canat, vocemque volens atque ora resolvat. 

llla tibi Italiae populos, venturaque bella, 

Et quo quemque modo fugiasque ferasque laborem, 

Expediet, cursusque dabit venerata secundos. 4G0 

Haec sunt, quae nostra liceat te voce moneri. 

Vade age, et ingentem factis fer ad sethera Trojam.' 

" Quae postquam vates sic ore effatus amico est, 
Dona dehinc auro gravia sectoque elephanto 
Imperat ad naves ferri, stipatque carinis 4^5 

Ingens argentum Dodonaeosque lebetas, 
Loricam consertam hamis auroque trilicem, 



P. VIRGILII MAnoyis 

Et conum insignis galece cristasque comantes, 

Arma Keoptolemi. Sunt et sua dona parenti. 

Addit equos, additque duces ; 47C 

Remigium supplet; socios simul instruit armis. 

" Intcrea classem velis aptare jubebat 
Anchises, fieret vento mora ne qua ferenti. 
Quem Phcebi interpres multo compellat honore : 
1 Conjugio, Anchisa, Yeneris dignate superbo, 475 

Cura deum, bis Pergameis erepte ruinis, 
Ecce tibi Ausonice tellus : hanc arripe velis. 
Et tamen hanc pelago praeterlabare necesse est : 
Ausonice pars illa procul. quam pandit Apollo. 
Yade,' ait, ' o felix nati pietate ! quid ultra 480 

Provehor et fando surgentes demoror austros ?' 
Xec minus Andromache, digressu maesta supremo, 
Fert pictm'atas auri subtemine vestes 
Et Phrygiam Ascanio chlamydem, nec cedit honon, 
Textilibusque onerat donis, ac talia fatm* : 4S5 

1 Accipe et hsec, manuum tibi quse monumenta mearum 
Sint, puer. et longum Andromachse testentm amorem, 

Conjugis Hectorea?. Cape dona extrema tuorum, 

mihi sola mei super Astyanactis imago. 

Sic oculos, sic ille manus, sic ora ferebat ; 490 

Et nunc aequali tecum pubesceret asvo.' 

Hos ego digrediens lacrimis affabar obortis : 

' Vivite felices, quibus est fortuna peracta 

Jam sua : nos alia ex aliis in fata vocaniur. 

Vobis parta quies ; nullum maris a^quor arandum, 495 

Arva neque Ausonice semper cedentia retro 

Qmerenda. Effigiem Xanthi Trojamque videtis, 

Quam vestrae fecere manus, melioribus, opto, 

Auspiciis, et qua3 fuerit minus obvia Graiis. 

Si quando Thybrim vicinaque Thybridis arva 500 

Intraro, gentique mece data mcenia ceraam, 

Cognatas urbes olim populosque propinquos 

Epiro, Hesperia, — quibus idem Dardanus auctor 

Atque idem casus, — unam faciemus utramque 

Trojam animis. Maneat nostros ea cura nepotes.' 505 

" Provehimur pelago vicina Ceraunia juxta, 

Unde iter Italiam cursusque brevissimus undis. 



JTXETDOS LTT3. ITT. 

Sol ruit interea et montes umbrantur opaci : 

Sternimur optatcc gremio telluris acl undam, 

Sortiti rcmos, passimque in litore sicco 510 

Corpora curamus ; fessos sopor irrigat artus. 

Necdum orbem medium Nox horis acta subibat : 

Haud segnis strato surgit Palinurus et omnes 

Explorat ventos, atque auribus aera captat ; 

Sidera cuncta notat tacito labentia ccelo, 515 

Arcturum pluviasque Hyadas geminosque Triones, 

Armatumque auro circumspicit Oriona. 

Postquam cuncta videt ccelo constare sereno, 

Dat clarum e puppi signum : nos castra movemus 

Tentamusque viam et velortrm pandimus alas. 520 

Jamque rubescebat stellis Aurora fugatis, 

Quum procul obscuros colles humilemque videmus 

Italiam. Italiam primus conclamat Achates, 

Italiam laeto socii clamore salutant. 

Tum pater Anchises magnum cratera corona 525 

Induit implevitque mero, divosque vocavit 

Stans celsa in puppi : 

1 Di maris et terrse tempestatumque potentes, 

Ferte viam vento facilem et spirate secundi.' 

Crebrescunt optataB aurae, portusque patescit 530 

Jam propior, templumque apparet in arce Minervse. 

Vela legunt socii, et proras ad litora torquent. 

Portus abEuroofluctu curvatus in arcum; 

Objecta^ salsa spumant aspargine cautes : 

Ipse latet ; gemino demittunt brachia muro 535 

Turriti scopuli, refugitque ab litore templum. 

Quatuor hic, primmn omen, equos in gramine vidi 

Tondentes campum late, candore nivali. 

Et pater Anchises : ' Bellum, o terra hospita, portas ; 

Bello armantur equi ; bellum hsec armenta minantur. 540 

Sed tamen idem olim curru succedere sueti 

Quadrupedes, et frena jugo concordia ferre ; 

Spes et pacis,' ait. Tum numina sancta precamur 

Palladis armisona), quae prima accepit ovantes ; 

Et capita ante aras Phrygio velamur amictu ; 545 

Praeceptisque Heleni, dederat qure maxima, rite 

Junoni Argiv» jussos adolemus honwocj. 



P. YIBGILII MAEOfflS 

" Haud mora : continuo perfectis ordlne votis» 
Cornua velatarum obvertimus antennarum, 
Grajugenumque domos suspectaque linquimus arva. 550 
Hinc sinus Herculei, si vera est fama, Tarenti 
Cernitur. Attollit se diva Lacinia contra, 
Caulonisque arces et navifragum Scylaeeum. 
Tum procul e fluctu Trinacria cernitur jEtna, 
Et gemitum ingentem pelagi pulsataque saxa 555 

Audimus longe, fractasque ad litora voces ; 
Exsultantque vada, atque sestu miscentur arenae. 
Et pater Anchises : ' iSlimirum haec illa Charybdis ; 
Hos Helenus scopulos, haec saxa horrenda canebat. 
Eripite, o socii, pariterque insurgite remis.' 560 

Haud mmus ac jussi faciunt ; primusque rudentem 
Contorsit kevas proram Palinurus ad undas ; 
Laevam cuncta cohors remis ventisque petivit. 
Tollimur in ccelum curvato gurgite, et idem 
Subducta ad manes imos desedimus unda. 565 

Ter scopuli clamorem inter cava saxa dedere : 
Ter spumam ehsam et rorantia vidimus astra. 
Interea fessos ventus cum sole reliquit, 
Ignarique vise Cyclopum allabimur oris. 

" Portus ab accessu ventorum immotus, et ingens 670 
Ipse ; sed horrificis juxta tonat JEtna ruinis, 
Interdumque atram prorumpit ad aethera nubem 
Tm^bine fumantem piceo et candente favilla, 
Attollitque globos flammarum et sidera lambit : 
Interdum scopulos avulsaque viscera montis 575 

Erigit eructans, hquefactaque saxa sub auras 
Cum gemitu glomerat, fundoque exsestuat imo. 
Fama est, Enceladi semiustum falmine corpus 
Urgeri mole hac, ingentemque insuper iEtnam 
Impositam mptis flammam exspirare caminis ; 580 

Et,fessum quoties mutet latus, intremere omnem 
Murmure Tiinacriam, et coelum subtexere fumo. 
Noctem illam tecti silvis immania monstra 
Perferimus, nec, quse sonitum det causa, videmus. 
Nam neque erant astrorum ignes, nec lucidus sethra 585 
Siderea polus, obscuro sed nubila ccelo, 
Et lunam in nimbo nox intempesta tenebat. 



/ENEIDOS LIB. III. 

" Postera jamque dies primo surgebat Eoo, 
Humentemque Aurora polo dimoverat umbram ; 
Quum subito e silvis, macie confccta suprema, 590 

Ignoti nova forma viri miserandaque cultu 
Procedit, supplexque manus ad litora tendit. 
Respicimus. Dira illuvies immissaque barba, 
Consertum tegumen spinis : at cetera Graius, 
Et quondam patriis ad Trojam missus in armis. 595 

Isque ubi Dardanios habitus et Troia vidit 
Arma procul, paulum aspectu conterritus hsesit, 
Continuitque gradum ; mox sese ad litora praeceps 
Cum fletu precibusque tulit : ' Per sidera testor, 
Per superos atque hoc cceli spirabile lumen : 600 

Tollite me, Teucri ; quascumque abducite terras ; 
Hoc sat erit. Scio me Danais e classibus unum, 
Et bello Iliacos fateor petiisse penates. 
Pro quo, si sceleris tanta est injuria nostri, 
Spargite me in fluctus vastoque immergite ponto. 605 

Si pereo, hominum manibus periisse juvabit.' 
Dixerat ; et genua amplexus genibusque volutans 
Haerebat. Qui sit, fari, quo sanguine cretus, 
Hortamur ; quse deinde agitet fortuna, fateri. 
Ipse pater dextram Anchises, haud multa moratus, 610 
Dat juveni, atque animum prsesenti pignore firmat. 
Ille haec, deposita tandem formidine, fatur : 

" ' Sum patria ex Ithaca, comes infelicis Ulixi, 
Nomen Achemenides, Trojam genitore Adamasto 
Paupere (mansissetque utinam fortuna!) profectus. 615 
Hic me, dum trepidi crudelia limina linquunt, 
Immemores socii vasto Cyclopis in antro 
Deseruere. Domus sanie dapibusque cruentis, 
Intus opaca, higens. Ipse arduus, altaque pulsat 
Sidera, (Di, talem terris avertite pestem !) 620 

Nec visu facilis, nec dictu affabilis ulli. 
Visceribus miserorum et sanguine vescitur atro. 
Vidi egomet, duo de numero quum corpora nostro 
Prensa manu magna medio resupinus in antro 
Frangeret ad saxum, sanieque exspersa natarent 625 

Limina; vidi,atro quum membra fluentia tabo 
Manderet, et tepidi tremerent sub dentfbus artus. 



P. VIEGILII MAEOMIS 

Haud impune quidem ; nec talia passus Ulixes-, 

Oblitusve sui est Ithacus discrimine tanto. 

Nam simul expletus dapibus vinoque sepultus G30 

Cervicem inflexam posuit, jacuitque per antrum 

Immensus, saniem eructans ac frusta cruento 

Per somnum commixta rnero, nos, magna prccati 

Numina sortitique vices, una undique circum 

Fundimur, et telo lumen terebramus acuto G35 

Ingens, quod torva solum sub fronte latebat, 

Argolici clipei aut Phcebeas lampaclis instar, 

Et tandem laeti soeiomm ulciscimur umbras. 

Sed fugite, o miseri, fugite, atque ab litorc funem 

Ptumpite. 640 

Nam, qualis quantusque cavo Polyphemus in antro 

Lanigeras claudit pecudes atque ubera pressat, 

Centum alii curva hsec habitant ad litora vulgo 

Infandi Cyclopes et altis montibus errant. 

Tertia jam Lunaa se cornua lumine complent, GI5 

Quum vitam in silvis inter deserta ferarum 

Lustra domosque traho, vastosque ab rupe Cyclopas 

Prospicio, sonitumque pedum vocemque tremisco. 

Victum infelicem, baccas lapidosaque corna, 

Dant rami, et vulsis pascunt radicibus herbse. G50 

Omnia collustrans, hanc primum ad litora classem 

Conspexi venientem. Huic me, quseeumque fuisset, 

Addixi : satis est gentem effugisse nefandam. 

Vos animam hanc potius quocumque absumite leto. 1 

'• Vix ea fatus erat, summo quum monte videmus G55 
Ipsum inter pecudes vasta se mole moventem 
Pastorem Polyphemum et litora nota petentem, — 
Monstrum horrendum, informe, ingens, cui lumen ademtum. 
Trunca manu pinus regit et vestigia firmat; 
Lanigerse comitantur oves ; ea sola voluptas GGO 

Solamenque mali. 

Postquam altos tetigit fluctus et ad sequora venit, 
Luminis effossi fiuidum lavit inde cruorem, 
Hentibus infrendens gemitu ; graditurque per aequor 
Jam medium, necdum fluctus latera ardua tinxit. Goo 

Nos procul inde fugam trepidi celerare, recepto 
Supplice sic merito, tacitique incidere funem ; 



^NEIDOS LIB. III. 

Verrimus et proni certantibus aequora remis. 

Sensit, et ad sonitum vocis vestigia torsit. 

Verum ubi nulla datur dextra afiectare potestae, 070 

Ncc potis Ionios fluctus sequare scqucndo, 

Clamorefn immensum tollit, quo pontus et omncs 

Contremuere undse, penitusque exterrita tellus 

Italiae, curvisque immugiit ^Etna cavernis. 

At genus e silvis Cyclopum et montibus altis 675 

Excitum ruit ad portus et litora complent. 

Cernimus adstantes nequidquam lumine torvo 

iEtnseos fratres, ccelo capita alta ferentes, 

Concilium horrendum : quales quum vertice celso 

Aerise quercus aut coniferse cyparissi 6S0 

Constiterunt, silva alta Jovis lucusve Dianse. 

Prsecipites metus acer agit quocumque rudentcs 

Excutere, et ventis intendere vela secundis. 

Contra jussa monent Heleni, Scyllam atque Charybdim 

Inter, utramque viam leti discrimine parvo, 685 

Ni teneant cursus ; certum est dare lintea retro. 

Ecce autem Boreas angusta ab sede Pelori 

Missus adest. Vivo praetervehor ostia saxo 

Pantagiae Megarosque sinus Thapsumque jacentem, 

Taha monstrabat relegens errata retrorsum 690 

Litora Achemenides, comes infehcis Ulixi. 

"Sicanio praetenta sinu jacet insula contra 
Plemmyrium undosum ; nomen dixere priores 
Ortygiam. Alpheum fama est huc Elidis amnem 
Occultas egisse vias subter mare, qui nunc 695 

Ore, Arethusa, tuo Siculis confunditur undis. 
Jussi numina magna loci veneramur ; et inde 
Exsupero praepingue solum stagnantis Helori. 
Hinc aitas cautes projectaque saxa Paclryni 
Hadimus, et fatis nunquam concessa moveri 700 

Apparet Camarina procul campique Geloi 
Immanisque Gela fluvii cognomine dicta. 
Arduus inde Acragas ostentat maxima longe 
Mcenia, magnanimum quondam generator equorum. 
Teque datis linquo ventis, palmosa Selinus, 705 

Et vada dura lego saxis Lilybeia csecis, 
Hinc Drepani me portus et illsetabilis ora 



P. VIBGILn MABOirre. 

Accipit. Hic, Pelagi tot tempestatibus actus, 

Heu ! genitorem, orrmis curae casusque levamen, 

Amitto Anchisen : hic me, pater optime, fessum 710 

Beseris, heu ! tantis nequidquam erepte periclis. 

Nec vates Helenus, quum multa horrenda monerct, 

Hos mihi prsedixit luctus, non dira Celamo. 

Hic labor extremus, longarum hsec meta viarura. 

Uinc me digressum vestris deus appulit oris." 715 

Sic pater iEneas intentis omnibus unus 
Fata renai-rabat divum, cursusque docebat. 
Conticuit tandem, factoque hic fine quievifc. 



P. VIEGILII HAKONIS 

^NEIDOS 

LIBER QUARTUS. 



At regina gravi jamdudum saucia cura 

Vulnus alit venis, et cseco carpitur igni. 

Multa viri virtus animo, multusque recursat 

Gentis honos ; hserent infixi pectore vultus 

Verbaque, nec placidam membris dat cura quietem* S 

Postera Phoebea lustrabat lampade terras 

Humentemque Aurora polo dimoverat umbram, 

Quum sic unanimam alloquitur male sana sororem : 

" Anna soror, quse me suspensum insomnia terrent ! 

Quis novus hic nostris successit sedibus hospes ! 10 

Quem sese ore ferens ! quam forti pectore et armis ! 

Credo equidem, nec vana fides, genus esse deorum. 

Degeneres animos timor arguit. Heu, quibus ille 

Jactatus fatis ! quae bella exhausta canebat ! 

Si mihi non animo fixum immotumque sederet, 15 

Ne cui me vinclo vellem sociare jugali, 

Postquam primus amor deceptam morte fefelht ; 

Si non pertaesum thalami tsedaeque fuisset, 

Huic uni forsan potui sucumbere culpae. 

Anna, fatebor enim, miseri post fata Sychaei 20 

Conjugis, et sparsos fraterna caede penates, 

Solus hic inflexit sensus animumque labantem 

Impuht : agnosco veteris vestigia flammae. 

Sed mihi vel telius optem prius ima dehiscat, 

Vel pater omnipotens adigat me fulmine ad umbras, 25 

Pallentes umbras Erebi noctemque profundam, 

Ante, Pudor, quam te violo, aut tua jura resolvo. 



P. VIItGILII MARONIS 

Ille mcos, primus qui me sibi junxit, amores 

Abstulit ; ille habeat secum servetquc sepulcro." 

&ic eilata sinum lacrimis implevit obortis. 3" 

Anna refcrt : <: O luce magis dilecta sorori, 
Solane perpetua maerens carpere juvcnta ? 
Tscc dulces natos, Veneris nec praemia noris ? 
Id cinerem aut manes crcdis curare sepultos ? 
Esto : aegram nulli quondam flexere mariti, 35 

Xon Libyae, non ante Tyro ; despeetus Iarbaa 
Ductoresque alii, quos Africa terra triumphis 
Dives alit : placitone etiam pugnabis amori ? 
Xcc venit in mentem, quoruni consederis arvis ? 
Hinc Gaetuke urbes, genus insuperabile bcllo, 40 

Et Numidae infreni cingunt et inhospita Syrtis; 
Hinc deserta siti regio lateque furentes 
Barcaei. Quid beUa Tyro surgentia dicam 
Gcrmanique minas ? 

Dis equidem auspicibus reor et Junone secunda 4.5 

Hunc cursum Iliacas vento tenuisse carinas. 
Quam tu urbem, soror, hanc cernes, quae surgere regua 
Conjugio tali ! Teucrum comitantibus armis 
Puniea se quantis attollet gloria rebus ! 
Tu modo poscc deos vcniam, sacrisque litatis 50 

Indulge hospitio, causasque innecte morandi, 
Dum pelago desaevit hieins et aquosus Orion, 
Quassataeque rates, dum non tractabile ccelurn." 
His dictis incensum animum inflammavit amore, 
Spemque dedit dubiae menti, solvitque pudorem. 55 

Principio delubra adeunt, pacemque per aras 
Exquirunt : mactant lectas de more bidentes 
Lcgiferae Cereri Phceboque patrique Lyaeo, 
Junoni ante omnes, cui vincla jugalia curae. 
Ipsa tenens dextra pateram pulcherrima Dido C0 

Candentis vaccae media inter cornua fundit ; 
Aut ante ora deum pingues spatiatur ad aras, 
Instauratque diem donis, pecudumque reclusis 
Pectoribus inhians spirantia consulit exta. 
Heu vatum ignarse mentes ! quid vota furentem, Go 

Quid deiubra juvant ? Est mollis flamma medullas 
interea, et tacitum vivit sub pectore vulnus. 



^NEIDOS LTB. IV 

Uritur infelix Dido totaque vagatur 

Urbe furens, qualis conjecta ccrva sagitta, 

Quam procul incautam ncmora iriter Crcsia fixit 70 

Pastor agens telis, liquitque volatile ferrum 

Nescius - : illa fuga silvas saltusque peragrat 

Dictaeos ; haeret lateri letalis arundo. 

Nunc mcdia iEnean secum per moenia ducit, 

Sidoniasque ostentat opes urbemque paratam ; 75 

Incipit effari, mediaque in voce resistit : 

Nunc eadem labente die convivia quaerit, 

Iliacosque iterum demens audire labores 

Exposcit, pendetque iterum narrantis ab ore. 

Post, ubi digressi, lumenque obscura vicissim 80 

Luna premit, suadentque cadentia sidera somnos, 

Sola domo maeret vacua, stratisque relictis 

Incubat: illum absens absentem auditque videtque. 

Aut gremio Ascanium, genitoris imagine capta, 

Detinet, infandum si fallere possit amorem. 85 

Non cceptae assurgunt turres, non arma juventus 

Excrcct, portusve aut propugnacula bello 

Tuta parant : pendent opera interrupta minaeque 

Murorum ingentes aequataque machina ccelo. 

Quam simul ac tali persensit peste teneri 90 

Cara Jovis conjux, ncc famam obstare furori, 
Talibus aggrecbtur Vancrem Saturnia dictis : 
" Egrcgiam vcro laudcm et spolia ampla refertis 
Tuque puerque tuus ; magnum et memorabile numen, 
Una dolo divum si femu.a victa duorum est. 05 

Xcc me adeo fallit, ventam te mcenia nostra, 
Suspectas babuisse domos Cartbaginis altae. 
Sed quis erit moclus ? aut quo nunc certamine tanto ? 
Quin potius pacem aeternam pactosque hymenaeos 
Exercemus ? habes, tota quod mente petisti: 100 

Ardet amans Dido traxitque per ossa furorem. 
Communem hunc ergo populum paribusque regamus 
Auspiciis ; liceat Phrygio servire marito, 
Dotalisque tuso Tyrios permittere dextrae." 

011 i — sensit enim simulata mente locutam, 105 

Quo regnum Italiae Libycas averteret oras — 
Sic contra est ingressa Vemis : " Quis talia demens 



P. VIEGILII MABOIHS 

Abnuat, aut tecum malit contendere bello ? 

Si modo, quod memoras, factum fortuna sequatur. 

Sed fatis incerta feror, si Jupiter unam 110 

Esse velit Tyriis urbem Trojaque profectis, 

Miscerive probet populos, aut foedera jungi. 

Tu conjux ; tibi fas animum tentare precando. 

Perge ; sequar." Tum sic excepit regia Juno : 

" Mecuni erit iste labor. Nunc qua ratione, quod instat, 115 

Confieri possit, paucis, adverte, docebo. 

Venatum iEneas unaque miserrima Dido 

In nemus ire parant, ubi primos crastinus ortus 

Extulerit Titan, radiisque retexerit orbem. 

His ego nigrantem commixta grandine nimbum, 120 

Dum trepidant alae, saltusque indagine ciDgunt, 

Desuper infundam, et tonitru ccelum omne ciebo. 

Diffugient comites, et nocte tegentur opaca : 

Speluncam Dido dux et Trojanus eandem 

Devenient. Adero, et, tua si mihi certa voluntas, 125 

Connubio jungam stabili propriamque dicabo. 

Hic Hynienaeus erit." Xon adversata petenti 

Annuit, atque dolis risit Cytherea repertis. 

Oceanum interea surgens Aurora reliquit. 
It portis jubare exorto delecta juventus : 130 

Retia rara, plag£e, lato venabula ferro, 
Massylique ruunt equites et odora canum vis. 
Reginam thalamo cunctantem ad limina primi 
Pcenorum exspectant ; ostroque insignis et auro 
Stat sonipes ac frena ferox spumantia mandit. 135 

Tandem progreditur magna stipante caterva, 
Sidoniam picto chlamydem circumdata limbo : 
Cui pharetra ex auro, crines nodantur in aurum, 
Aurea purpuream subnectit fibula vestem : 
Nec non et Phrygii comites et laetus Iulus 140 

Incedunt. Ipse ante alios pulcherrimus omnes 
Infert se socium iEneas, atque agmina jungit : 
Qualis ubi hibernam Lyciam Xanthique fluenta 
Deserit ac Delum maternam invisit Apollo, 
Instauratque choros, mixtique altaria circum 145 

Cretesque Dryopesque fremunt pictique Agathyrsi: 
Ipse jugis Cynthi graditur, molhque fiuentem 



JSTffEIDOS LIB. IV. 

Fronde premit crinem fingens atque implicat auro ; 

Tela sonant humeris. Haud illo segnior ibat 

iEneas ; tantum egregio decus enitet ore. 150 

Postquam altos ventum in montes atque invia lustra, 

Ecce ferae, saxi dejectse vertice, caprae 

Decurrere jugis ; alia de parte patentes 

Transmittunt cursu campos atque agmina cervi 

Pulverulenta fuga glomerant montesque relinquunt. 155 

At puer Ascanius mediis in vallibus acri 

Gaudet equo, jamque hos cursu, jam prseterit illos, 

Spumantemque dari pecora inter inertia votis 

Optat aprum, aut fulvum descendere monte leonem. 

Interea magno misceri muwmire coelum 160 

Incipit : insequitur commixta grandine nimbus ; 
Et Tyrii comites passim et Trojana juventus 
Dardaniusque nepos Veneris diversa per agros 
Tecta metu petiere : ruunt de montibus amnes. 
Speluncam Dido dux et Trojanus eandem 165 

Deveniunt. Prima et Tellus et pronuba Juno 
Dant signum : fulsere ignes et conscius sether 
Connubiis, summoque ulularunt vertice Nymphae. 
IUe dies primus leti primusque malorum 
Causa fuit ; neque enim specie famave movetur, 170 

Nec jam furtivum Dido meditatur amorem : 
Conjugium vocat ; hoc prsetexit nomine culpam. 

Extemplo Libyae magnas it Fama per urbes, — 
Fama, malum qua non aliud velocius ullum 
Mobihtate viget viresque acquirit eundo ; 175 

Parva metu primo, mox sese attolht in auras, 
Ingrediturque solo, et caput inter nubila condit. 
Illam Terra parens, ira irritata deorum, 
Extremam, ut perhib ent, C ceo Enceladoque sororem 
Progenuit, pedibus celerem et pernicibus alis ; 180 

Monstrum horrundum, ingens, cui quot sunt corpore plumae, 
Tot vigiles oculi subter, mirabile dictu, 
Tot linguae, totidem ora sonant, tot subrigit aures. 
Nocte volat coeli medio terraeque per umbram 
Stridens, nec dulci declinat lumina somno; 185 

Luce sedet custos aut summi culmine tecti, 
Turribus aut altis, et magnas territat urbes, 



P. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Tam ficti pravique tenax, quam nuntia veri. 

Haec tum multiplici populos sermone replebat 

Gaudens, et pariter facta atque infccta canebat : 190 

Venisse iEnean, Trojano a sanguine cretum, 

Cui se pulchra viro dignetur jungerc Dido ; 

Nunc hiemem inter se luxu, quam longa, fovere 

Kcgnorum immemores turpique cupidine captos. 

Haec passim dea fceda virum diflundit in ora. 195 

Protinus ad regem cursus detorquet Iarban, 

Incenditque animum dictis atque aggerat iras. 

Hic Hammone satus, rapta Garamantide Nympha, 
Templa Jovi centum latis immania rcgnis, 
Centum aras posuit, vigilemque sacraverat ignem, 200 
Excubias divum aeternas, pecudumque cruorc 
Pingue solum et variis florentia limina sertis. 
Isque amens animi et rumore accensus amaro 
Dicitur ante aras, media inter numina divum, 
Multa Jovem manibus supplex orasse supinis : 205 

" Jupiter omnipotens, cui nunc Maurusia pictis 
Gens epulata toris Lenaeum libat honorem, 
Aspicis haec ? an te, genitor, quum fidmina torques, 
Nequidquam horremus ? caecique in nubibus ignes 
Terrificant animos et inania murmura miscent ? 210 

Femina, quae nostris errans in finibus urbem 
Exiguam pretio posuit, cui litus arandum, 
Cuique loci leges dedimus, connubia nostra 
Repulit ac dominum iEnean in regna recepit. 
Et nunc ille Paris cum semiviro comitatu, 215 

Maeonia mentum mitra crinemque madentem 
Subnixus, rapto potitur : nos munera templis 
Quippe tuis ferimus, famamque fovemus inanem." 

Talibus orantem dictis arasque tenentem 
Audiit omnipotens, oculosque ad mcenia torsit 220 

Regia et oblitos famae melioris amantes. 
Tum sic Mercurium alloquitur ac talia mandat : 
" Vade age, nate, voca Zephyros et labere pennis, 
Dardaniumque ducem, Tyria Carthagine qui nunc 
Exspectat, fatisque datas non respicit urbes, 225 

Alloquere, et celeres defer mea dicta per auras. 
Non illum nobis genetrix pulcherrima talem 



JEKEIDOS LIB. IV. 

Promisit, Graiumque ideo bis vindicat armis ; 

Sed fore, qui gravidam imperiis belloque frementem 

Italiam regeret, genus alto a sanguine Teucri 230 

Proderet, ac totum sub leges mitteret orbem. 

Si nulla accendit tantarum gloria rerum, 

Nec super ipse sua molitur laude laborem, 

Ascanione pater Romanas invidet arces ? 

Quid struit ? aut qua spe, inimica in gente, moratur ? 235 

Nec prolem Ausoniam et Lavinia respicit arva ? 

Naviget : haec summa est ; hic nostri nuntias esto." 

Dixerat. Ille patris magni parere parabat 
Imperio : et primum pedibus talaria nectit 
Aurea, quae sublimem alis sivje aequora supra 210 

Seu terram rapido pariter cum flamine portant. 
Tum virgam capit ; hac animas ilLe evocat Orco 
Pallentes, alias sub Tartara tristia mittit ; 
Dat somnos adimitque, et lumina morte resignat : 
Illa fretus agit ventos, et turbida tranat 24-5 

Nubila. Jamque volans apicem et latera ardua cernit 
Atlantis duri, coelum qui vertice fulcit, — 
Atlantis, cinctum assidue cui nubibus atris 
Piniferum caput et vento pulsatur et imbri ; 
Nix humeros infusa tegit : tum flumina mento 250 

Praecipitant senis, et glacie riget horrida barba. 
Ilic primum paribus nitens Cyllenius alis 
Constitit ; hinc toto prseceps se corpore ad undas 
Misit, avi simihs, quce circum litora, circum 
Piscosos scopulos humilis volat aequora juxta. 255 

[Haud aliter terras inter coelumque volabat, 
Litus arenosum ac Libyae ventosque secabat 
"Materno veniens ab avo Cyllenia proles.J 
Ut primum alatis tetigit magalia plantis, 
./Enean fundantem arces ac tecta novantem 2G0 

Conspicit. Atque illi stellatus iaspide fulva 
Ensis erat, Tyrioque ardebat murice laena 
Demissa ex humeris, dives quse munera Dido 
Fecerat, et tenui telas discreverat auro. 
Continuo invadit : " Tu nunc Carthaginis altae 2G5 

Fundamenta locas, pulchramque uxorius urbem 
Exstruis ? heu regni rerumque oblite tuarum ! 



P. TIEGILTI MAJiOtflS 

Ipse deum tibi me claro demittit Olympo 

Regnator, ecelum et terras qui numine torquet ; 

Ipse haec ferre jubet celeres mandata per auras : 270 

Quid struis ? aut qua spe Libycis teris otia terris ? 

Si te nulla movet tantarum gloria rerum, 

Nec super ipse tua moliris laude laborem, 

Ascanium surgentem et spes heredis Iuli 

Bespice ; cui regnum Italiae Romanaque tellus 275 

Debentur." Tali Cyllenius ore locutus 

Mortales visus medio sermone reliquit, 

Et procul in tenuem ex oculis evanuit auram. 

At vero iEneas aspectu obmutuit amens, 
Arrectaeque horrore comae, et vox faucibus hsesit. 280 

Ardet abire fuga dulcesque relinquere terras, 
Attonitus tanto monitu imperioque deorum. 
Heu, quid agat ? quo nunc reginam ambire furentem 
Audeat affatu ? quae prima exordia sumat ? 
[Atque animum nunc huc celerem, nunc dividit illuc, 285 
In partesque rapit varias perque omnia versat.] 
Haec alternanti potior sententia visa est : 
Mnesthea Sergestumque vocat fortemque Serestum, 
Classem aptent taciti, sociosque ad litora cogant, 
Arma parent, et, quae rebus sit causa jiovandis, 290 

Dissimulent : sese interea, quando optima Dido 
Xesciat et tantos rumpi non speret amores, 
Tentaturuni aditus, et quae mollissima fandi 
Tempora, quis rebus dexter modus. Ocius omnes 
Imperio lseti parent ac jussa facessunt. 295 

At regina dolos (quis fallere possit amantem ?) 
Praesensit, motusque excepit prima futuros, 
Omnia tuta timens. Eadem impia Fama furenti 
Detulit armari classem cursumque parari. 
Saevit inops animi, totamque incensa per urbem 300 

Bacchatur, qualis commotis excita sacris 
Thyias, ubl audito stimulant trietcrica Baccho 
Orgia, nocturnusque vocat clamore Cithaeron. 
Tandem his ^Enean compellat vocibus ultro : 

" Dissimulare etiam sperasti, perfide, tantum 305 

Posse nefas, tacitusque mea decedere terra ? 
Nec te noster amor, nec te data dextera quondam, 



.EKEID09 LIB. IV. 

Nec moritura tenet crudeli funere Dido ? 

Quin etiani hiberno rnoliris sidere classem, 

Et mediis properas aquilonibus ire per altum, 310 

Crudelis ? Quid ? si non arva aliena-4omosque 

Ignotas peteres, et Troja antiqua maneret, 

Troja per undosum peteretur classibus sequor ? 

Mene fugis ? Per ego has lacrimas dextramque tuam te, — 

Quando aliud mihi jam miserae nihil ipsa reliqui, — 315 

Per connubia nostra, per inceptos hymenasos, 

Si bene quid de te merui, fuit aut tibi quidquam 

Dulce meum, miserere domus labentis, et istam, 

Oro, si quis adhuc precibus locus, exue nientem. 

Te propter Libycae gentes Nomadumque tyranni 320 

Odere, infensi Tyrii ; te propter eundem 

Exstinctus pudor, et, qua sola sidera adibam, 

Fama prior. Cui me moribundam deseris, hospes ? 

IIoc solum nomen quoniam de conjuge restat. 

Quid moror ? an mea Pygmalion dum mcenia frater 325 

Destruat, aut captam ducat Gaetulus Iarbas ? 

Saltem si qua mihi de te suscepta fuisset 

Ante fugam suboles, si quis mihi parvulus aula 

Luderet iEneas, qui te tamen ore referret, 

Non equidem omnino capta ac deserta viderer." 330 

Dixerat. Ille Jovis monitis immota tenebat 
Lumina, et obnixus curam sub corde premebat. 
Tandem pauca refert : " Ego te, quae plurima fando 
Enumerare vales, nunquam, Regina, negabo 
Promeritam ; nec me meminisse pigebit Elissae, 335 

Dum memor ipse mei, dum spiritus hos regit artus. 
Pro re pauca loquar. Neque ego hanc abscondere furto 
Speravi, ne finge, fugam ; nec conjugis unquam 
Prsetendi taedas, aut hsec in foedera veni. 
Ale si fata meis paterentur ducere vitam 340 

Auspiciis, et sponte mea componere curas, 
Urbem Trojanam primum dulcesque meorum 
Relliquias colerem, Priami tecta alta manerent, 
Et recidiva manu posuissem Pergama victis. 
Std nunc Italiam magnam Gryneus Apollo, 345 

Italiam Lyciae jussere capessere sortes. 
Hic amor, haec patria est. Si te Carthaginis arees, 



P. VIEGILII MAEOXIS 

Phcenissam, Libycseque aspectus detinet urbis, 

Quae tandem, Ausonia Teucros considere terra, 

Invidia est ? Et nos fas extera quaerere regna. 350 

Me patris Anchisae, quoties humentibus umbris 

Nox operit terras, quoties astra ignea surgunt, 

Admonet in somnis et turbida terret imago ; 

Me puer Ascanius capitisque injuria cari, 

Quem regno Hesperiae fraudo et fatalibus arvis. 055 

Nunc etiam interpres divum, Jove missus ab ipso, 

(Testor utrumque caput) celeres mandata per auras 

Detulit ipse deum manifesto in lumine vidi 

Intrantem muros, vocemque his auribus hausi. 

Desine meque tuis incendere teque querelis ; 360 

Italiam non sponte sequor." 

Talia dicenteni jamdudum aversa tuetur, 
Huc illuc volvens oculos, totumque pererrat 
Luminibus tacitis, et sic accensa profatur : 
' Nec tibi diva parens, generis nec Dardanus auctor, 3G3 
Perfide ; sed duris genuit te cautibus horrens 
Caucasus, Hyrcanaeque admorunt.ubera tigres. 
Nam quid dissimulo ? aut quae me ad majora reservo ? 
Num fletu ingemuit nostro ? num lumina flexit ? 
Num lacrimas victus delit, aut miseratus amantem est ? 370 
Qua3 quibus anteferam ? Jam jam nec maxima Juno, 
Nec Saturnius haac oculis pater aspicit sequis. 
Nusquam tuta fides. Ejectum litore, egentem 
Excopi, et regni demens in parte locavi ; 
Amissam classem, socios a morte reduxi. 375 

Heu furiis incensa feror ! Nunc augur Apollo, 
Nunc Lyciae sortes, nunc et Jove missus ab ipso 
Interpres divum fert horrida jussa per auras. 
Scilicet is superis labor est ! ea cura quietos 
Sollicitat! Neque te teneo, neque dicta refello. 3S0 

I, sequere Itaham ventis ! pete regna per undas ! 
Spero equidem mediis, si quid pia numina possimt, 
Supplicia hausurum scopuhs, et nomine Dido 
Saepe vocaturum. Sequar atris ignibus absens. 
Et, quum frigida mors anima seduxerit artus, 385 

Omnibus umbra locis adero. Dabis, improbe, pcenas ; 
Audiam, et haec naanes veniet mihi fama sub imos." 



JEXEID03 LIB. IV. 

His medium dictis sermonem abrumpit, et auras 

JEgra fugit, seque ex oculis avertit et aufert, 

Linquens multa metu cunctantem et multa parantem 390 

Dicere. Suscipiunt famulae, collapsaque membra 

Marmoreo referunt thalamo stratisque reponunt. 

At pius iEneas, quamquam lenire dolentem 
Solando cupit et dictis avertere curas, 
Multa gemens magnoque animum labefactus amore, 395 
Jussa tamen divum exsequitur classemque revisit. 
Tum vero Teucri incumbunt et litore celsas 
Deducunt toto naves. Natat uncta carina ; 
Frondentesque ferunt remos et robora silvis 
Infabricata fugee studio. - 400 

Migrantes cernas totaque ex urbe ruentes ; 
Ac velut ingentem formicse farris aceryum 
Quum populant, hiemis memores, tectoque reponunfc ; 
It nigrum campis agmen, praedamque'per herbas 
Conveetant calle angusto ; pars grandia trudunt 405 

Obnixae frumenta humeris ; pars agniina cogunt, 
Castigantque moras ; opere omnis semita fervet. 
Quis tibi tune, Dido, cernenti talia sensus ! 
Quosve dabas gemitus, quum litora fervere late 
Prospiceres arce ex summa, totumque videres 410 

Misceri ante oculos tantis clamoribus aequor ! 
Improbe amor, quid non mortalia pectora cogis ! 
Ire iterum in lacrimas, iterum tentare precando 
Cogitur, et supplex animos submittere amori, 
Ne quid inexpertum frustra moritura relinquat. 415 

" Anna, vides toto properari litore : circum 
Undique convenere ; vocat jam carbasus auras, 
Puppibus et Iseti nautae imposuere coronas. 
Hunc ego si potui tantum sperare dolorem, 
Et perferre, soror, potero. Miserae hoc tamen unum 420 
Exsequere, Anna, mihi ; solam nam perfidus ille 
Te colere, arcanos etiam tibi credere sensus ; 
Sola viri molles aditus et tempora noras. 
I, soror, atque hostem supplex affare superbum : 
Non ego cum Danais Trojanam exscindere gentcm 425 
Aulide juravi, classcmve ad Pergama misi, 
Nec patris Anchisae cinerem manesve revelli 



P. TIEGILII MAEOXIS 

Cur mea dicta negat duras demittere in aures Y 

Quo ruit ? extremum hoc misenfi det munus amanti, 

Exspectet facilemque fugam ventosque ferentes. 4-30 

Non jam conjugium antiquum, quod prcdidit, oro, 

!Nec pulchro ut Latio careat, regnumque relinquat : 

Tempus inane peto, requiem spatiumque furori, 

Dum mea me victam doceat fortuna dolere. 

Extremam hanc oro veniam, — miserere sororis — 435 

Quam mihi quum dederis, cumulatam morte rermttam." 

Talibus orabat, talesque miserrima fletus 
Fertque refertque soror. Sed nullis ille movetur 
Fletibus, aut voces ullas tractabilis audit ; 
Fata obstant, placidasque viri deus obstruit aures. 440 

Ac velut annoso validam.quum robore quercum 
Alpini boreae nunc hinc nmic flatibus illinc 
Eruere inter se certant ; it stridor, et alte 
Consternunt terram concusso stipite frondes : 
Ipsa haeret scopulis, et, quantum vertice ad auras 445 

iEtherias, tantum radice in Tartara tendit : 
Haud secus assiduis hinc atque hinc vocibus heros 
Tunditur, et magno persentit pectore curas : 
Mens immota manet ; lacrimae volvuntur inanes. 

Tum vero infelix fatis exterrita Dido 450 

Mortem orat ; taedet cceli convexa tueri. 
Quo magis inceptum peragat lucemque relinqua.t, 
Vidit, turicremis quum dona imponeret aris — 
Horrendum dictu — latices nigrescere sacros, 
Fusaque in obsccenum se vertere vina cruorem. 455 

Hoc visum nulli, non ipsi eflata sorori. 
Praeterea fuit in tectis de marmore templum 
Conjugis antiqui, miro quod honore colebat, 
Velleribus niveis et festa fronde revinctum : 
Hinc exaudiri voces et verba vocantis 460 

Visa viri, nox quum terras obscura teneret, 
Solaque culmimbus ferali carmine bubo 
Saspe queri et longas in fletum ducere voces. 
Multaque praeterea vatum praedicta piorum 
Terribili monitu horrificant. Agit ipse furentem 465 

In somnis ferus ^neas ; semperque relinqui 
Sola sibi, semper longam incomitata videtur 



JENEIDOS LTB. IV. 

Ire viam et Tyrios deserta quaerere terra : 

Eumenidum veluti demens videt agmina Pentheus 

Et solem geminum et duplices se ostendere Thebas ; 470 

Aut Agamemnonius scenis agitatus Orestes 

Armatam facibus matrem et serpentibus atris 

Quum fugit, ultricesque sedent in limine Dirae. 

Ergo ubi concepit Furias evicta dolore 
Decrevitque mori, tempus secum ipsa modumque 475 

Exigit, et maestam dictis aggressa sororem 
Consilium vultu tegit, ac spem fronte serenat : 
" Inveni, germana, viam — gratare sorori — 
Quae mihi reddat eum, vel eo me solvat amantem. 
Oeeani finem juxta solemque cadentem 480 

Ultimus iEthiopum locus est, ubi maximus Atlas 
Axem humero torquet steUis ardentibus aptum : 
Hinc mihi Massylae gentis monstrata sacerdos, 
Hesperidum tempH custos, epulasque draconi 
Quae dabat, et sacros servabat in arbore ramos, 485 

Spargens humida mella soporiferumque papaver. 
Haec se carminibus promittit solvere mentes, 
Quas velit, ast aliis duras immittere curas ; 
Sistere aquam fiuviis, et vertere sidera retro ; 
Nocturnosque ciet manes ; mugire videbis 490 

Sub pedibus terram, et descendere montibus ornos. 
Testor, cara, deos et te, germana, tuumque 
Dulce caput, magicas invitam accingier artes. 
Tu secreta pyram tecto interiore sub auras 
Erige, et arma viri, thalamo quae fixa reliquit 495 

Impius, exuviasque omnes lectumque jugalem, 
Quo perii, superimponas. Abolere nefandi 
Cuncta viri monumentajuvat, monstratque sacerdos." 
Haec effata silet ; pallor simul occupat ora. 
Non tamen Anna novis praetexere funera sacris 500 

Germanam credit, nec tantos mente furores 
Coneipit, aut graviora timet, quam morte Sychoei. 
Ergo jussa parat. 

At regina, pyra penetrali in sede sub auras 
Erecta ingenti taedis atque ilice secta, 505 

Intenditque locuro sertis et fronde coronat 
Funerea ; super exuvias ensemque relictum 



P. VIEGILII MAH02TIS 

Effigiemque toro locat, haud ignara futuri. 

Stant arae circum, et crines effusa sacerdos 

Ter centum tonat ore deos, Erebumque Chaosque 510 

Tergeminamque Hecaten, tria virginis ora Dianae. 

Sparserat et laticcs simulatos fontis Averni, 

Falcibus et messae ad lunam quaeruntur ahenis 

Pubentes herbae, nigri cum lacte veneni ; 

Quaeritur et nascentis equi de fronte revulsus 515 

Et matri praereptus amor. 

Ipsa mola manibusque piis altaria juxta, 

Unum exuta pedcm vinclis, in veste recincta, 

Testatur moritura deos et conscia fati 

Sidera ; tum, si quod non aequo fcedere amantes 520 

Curae numen habet justmnque memorque, precatur. 
Xox erat, et placidum carpebant fessa soporem 

Corpora per terras, silvaeque et saeva quierant 

iEquora, quum medio volvuntur sidera lapsu, 

Quum tacet omnis ager. Pecudes pictaeque volucres, 525 

Quaeque lacus late liquidos, quaeque aspera dumis 

liura tenent, somno positae sub nocte silenti, 

[Lenibant curas, et corda oblita laborum.] 

At non infelix animi Phcenissa, neque unquam 

Solvitur in somnos, oculisve aut pectore noctem 530 

Accipit ; ingeminant curae, rursusque resurgens 

Saevit amor, magnoque irarum lluctuat aestu. 

Sic adeo insistit, secumque ita corde volutat : 

" En, quid ago ? rursusne procos irrisa priores 

Experiar ? Nomadumque petam connubia supplex, 535 

Quos ego sim toties jam dedignata maritos ? 

lliacas igitur classes atque ultima Teucrum 

Jussa sequar ? quiane auxilio juvat ante levatos, 

Aut bene apud memores veteris stat gratia facti ? 

Quis me autem, fac velle, sinet ? ratibusve superbis 5 10 

Invisam accipiet ? nescis, heu perdita ! necdum 

Laomedonteae sentis perjuria gentis ? 

Quid tum ? sola fuga nautas comitabor ovantes ? 

An TjTiis omnique manu stipata meorum 

Inferar ? et, quos Sidonia vix urbe revelli, 545 

Pursus agam pelago, et ventis dare vela jubebo ? 

Quin morere, ut merita es, ferroque averte dolorem. 



wENEJ.DOS LIB. IV. 

Tu lacrimis evicta meis, tu prima furentem 

His, germana, malis oneras atque objicis hosti. 

Non licuit thalami expertcm sine crimine vitam 550 

Degerc, more ferae, tales nec tangere curas ! 

Non servata fides, cineri promissa SychsDo!" 

Tantos illa suo rumpebat pectore questus. 

JEneas celsa in puppi, jam certus eundi, 
Carpebat somnos, rebus jam rite paratis. 555 

Huic se forma dei vultu redeuntis eodem 
Obtulit in somnis, rursusque ita visa monere est, 
Omnia Mercurio similis, vocemque coloremque 
Et crines flavos et membra decora juventa : 
" Nate dea, potes hoc sub casu ducere somnos F 560 

Nec, quae te circum stent deinde pericula, cernis ? 
Demens ! nec zephyros audis spirare secundos ? 
Illa dolos dirumque nefas in pectore versat, 
Certa mori, varioque irarum fluctuat sestu. 
Non iiigis hinc praeceps, dum praecipitare potestas ? 565 
Jam mare turbari trabibus ssevasque videbis 
Collucere faces, jam fervere litora flammis, 
Si te his attigerit terris Aurora morantem. 
Eia age, rumpe moras. Varium et mutabile semper 
Femina." Sic fatus nocti se immiscuit atrae. 570 

Tum vero iEneas subitis exterritus umbris 
Corripit e somno corpus sociosque fatigat : 
" Praecipites vigilate, viri, et considite transtris ; 
Solvite vela citi. Deus,8ethere missus ab alto, 
Festinare fugam tortosque incidere funes 575 

Ecce iterum stimulat. Sequimur te, sancte deorum, 
Quisquis es, imperioque iterum paremus ovantes. 
Adsis o placidusque juves, et sidera ccelo 
Dextra feras." Dixit; vaginaque eripit ensem 
Fulmineum, strictoque ferit retinacula ferro. 580 

Idem omnis simul ardor habet ; rapiuntque ruuntque : 
Litora deseruere ; latet sub classibus aequor ; 
Annixi torquent spumas et caerula verrunt. 

Et jam prima novo spargebat lumine terras 
Tithoni croceum linquens Aurora cubile. 585 

Regina e speculis ut primum albescere lucem 
Vidit, et aequatis classem procedere veUs, 



P. VIRGILII MAEONIS 

Litoraque et vacuos sensit sme remige porais, 

Tcrque quaterque manu pectus percussa decorum 

Flaventesque abscissa comas, " Pro Jupiter ! ibit 590 

Hic," ait, " et nostris illuserit advena regnis ? 

Non arma expedient, totaque ex urbe sequentur, 

Diripientque rates alii navalibus ? Ite, 

Ferte citi flammas, date vela, impellite remos. 

Quid loquor ? aut ubi sum? Quae mentem insania mutat? 595 

Infelix Dido ! nunc te facta impia tangunt ? 

Tum decuit, quum sceptra dabas. En dextra fidesque, 

Quem seeum patrios aiunt portare penates ! 

Quem subiisse humeris confectum aetate parentem ! 

Non potui abreptum divellere corpus et undis 600 

Spargere ? non socios, non ipsum absumere ferro 

Ascanium, patriisque epulandum ponere mensis ? 

Verum anceps pugnae fuerat fortuna. — Fuisset ; 

Quem metui moritura ? Faces in castra tulissem, 

Implessemque foros flammis, natumque patremque 605 

Cum genere exstinxem, memet super ipsa dedissem. 

Sol, qui terrarum flammis opera omnia lustras, 

Tuque harum interpres curarum et conscia Juno, 

Nocturnisque Hecate triviis ululata per urbes, 

Et Dirae ultrices, et di morientis ElissEe, 61C 

Accipite haec, meritumque malis advertite numen, 

Et nostras audite preces. Si tangere portus 

Infandum caput ac terris adnare necesse est, 

Et sic fata Jovis poscunt, hic terminus hseret : 

At bello audacis populi vexatus et armis, 615 

Finibus extorris, complexu avulsus Iuli, 

Auxilium imploret, videatque indigna suorum 

Funera ; nec, quum se sub leges pacis iniquae 

Tradiderit, regno aut optata luce fruatur, 

Sed cadat ante diem mediaque inhumatus arena. 620 

Haec precor ; hanc vocem extremam cum sanguine tundo. 

Tum vos, o Tyrii, stirpem et genus omne futurum 

Exercete odii ; , cinerique haec mittite nostro 

Munera. Nullus amor populis, nec fcedera sunto. 

Exoriare aliquis nostris ex ossibus ultor, 625 

Qui face Dardanios ferroque sequare colonos, 

Nunc, olim, quocumque dabunt se tempore vires, 



iENEIDOS LIB. I\ 

Litora litoribus contraria, fluctibus undas 

Imprecor, arma armis ; pugnent ipsique nepotesque." 

Haec ait, et partes animum versabat in omnes, 630 

Invisam quaerens quam primum abrumpere lucem. 
Tum breviter Barcen nutricem affata Sychaei, 
Namque suam patria antiqua cinis ater habebat : 
" Annam cara mihi nutrix huc siste sororem ; 
Dic, corpus properet fluviali spargere- lympha, 635 

Et pecudes secum et monstrata piacula ducat : 
Sic veniat ; tuque ipsa pia tege tempora vitta. 
Sacra Jovi Stygio, quae rite incepta paravi, 
Perficere est animus, finemque imponere curis, 
Dardaniique rogum capitis permittere flarnmae." 640 

Sic ait. Illa gradum studio celerabat anili. 
At trepida et cceptis immanibus effera Dido, 
Sanguineam volvens aciem, maculisque trementes 
Interfusa genas, et pallida morte futura, 
Interiora domus ii*rumpit limina, et altos 645 

Conscendit furibunda rogos, ensemque recludit 
Dardanium, non hos quaesitum munus in usus. 
Hic postquam Iliacas vestes notumque cubile 
Conspexit, paulum lacrimis et mente morata, 
Incubuitque toro, dixitque novissima verba : 650 

" Dulces exuvia^, dum fata deusque sinebat, 
Accipite hanc animam, meque his exsolvite curis. 
Vixi, et, quem dederat cursum fortuna, peregi ; 
Et nunc magna mei sub terras ibit imago. 
Urbem praeclaram statui, mea mcenia vidi; 655 

Ulta virum, pcenas inimico a fratre recepi : 
Felix, heu nimium felix, si litora tantum 
Nunquam Dardaniae tetigissent nostra carinse!" 
Dixit : et os impressa toro, " Moriemur inultse ! 
Sed moriamur !" ait. " Sic, sic juvat ire sub umbras. 660 
Hauriat hunc oculis ignem crudelis ab alto 
Dardanus, et nostrse secum ferat omina mortis." 

Dixerat : atque illam media inter talia ferro 
Collapsam aspiciunt comites, ensemque cruore 
Spumantem sparsasque manus. It clamor ad alta 665 
Atria ; concussam bacchatur fama per urbem, 
Lamentis gemituque et femineo ululatu 



P. VIRGILII MAR0NI8 

Tecta fremunt ; rcsonat magnis plangoribus aithcr : 

Non alitcr quam si immissis ruat hostibus omnis 

Carthago aut antiqua Tyros ; flammtcquc furentes 670 

Culmina perque hominum volvantur perque deorum. 

Audiit exanimis, trepidoque exterrita cursu, 

Unguibus ora soror fcedans et pectora pugnis, 

Pcr medios ruit, ac morientem nomine clamat : 

" Hoc illud, germana, fuit ? me fraude petebas ? 675 

Hoc rogus iste mihi, hoc ignes araeque parabant ?. 

Quid primum deserta querar ? comitemne sororem, 

Sprevisti moriens ? Eadem me ad fata vocasses : 

ldcm ambas ferro dolor atque eadem hora tuli^set. 

His etiam struxi manibus, patriosque vocavi 680 

Voce deos, sic te ut posita crudelis abessem ? 

Exstinxli me teque, soror, populumque patresque 

Sidonios urbemque tuam. Date, vulncra lymphis 

Abluam, et, extremus si quis super halitus errat, 

Ore lcgam." Sic fata gradus evaserataltos, G65 

Semianimemque sinu germanam amplexa fovebat 

Cum gemitu, atque atros siccabat veste cruores. 

llla, graves oculos conata attollere, rursus 

Dcficit ; infixum stridit sub pectore vulnus. 

Ter sese attollens cubitoque annixa levavit : G90 

Tcr revoluta toro est, oculisque errantibus alto 

Qusesivit ccelo lucem, ingemuitque reperta. 

Tum Juno omnipotens, longum miserata dolorem 
Difncilesque obitus, Irim demisit Olympo, 
Quie luctantem animam nexosque resolveret artus. 695 

Xam, quia nec fato merita nec morte peribat, 
Scd misera ante diem subitoque accensa furore, 
Nondum illi flavum Proserpina vertice crinem 
Abstulerat, Stygioque caput damnaverat Orco. 
Ergo Iris croceis per ccelum roscida pennis, 700 

Mille trahens vaiios adverso sole colores, 
Devolat, et supra caput adstitit : " Hunc ego Diti 
Sacrum jussa fero, teque isto corpore solvo." 
Sic ait, et dextra crinem secat ; omnis et una 
Dilapsus calor, atque in ventos vita recessit. 705 



t. VIRGILII MAE0NI8 

M N E I D O S 

LIBER QUINTUS. 



Intehea medium jEncas jam"classe tenebat 

Certus iter, fluctusque atros aquilone secabat, 

Mcehia respiciens, quse jam infelicis Elissse 

Collucent flammis. Quae tantum accenderit ignem, 

Causa latet ; duri magno sed amore dolores 5 

Polluto, notumque, furens quid femina possit, 

Triste per augurium Teucrorum pectora ducunt. 

Ut pelagus tenuere rates, nec jam amplius ulla 

Occurrit tellus, maria undique et undique ccelum ; 

Olli ca^rulejis. supra caput adstitit imber, H^- f-mn^ 10 

Noctem hiemenfque ferens ; et inhorruit unda tenebris. 

Ipse gubernator puppi Palinurus ab a}ta : y^ 10 ^ *JU) _ ^n^w 

" Heu ! quianam tanti cinxerunt sefchera ntmbi ? \ 

Quidve, pater Neptune, paras ?" Sic deinde locutus 

Colligere arma jubet validisque incumbere remis, 15 

Obliquatque sinus in ventum, ac talia fatur : 

" Magnanime iEnea, non, si mihi Jupiter auctor 

Spondeat, hoc sperem Italiam contingere ccelo. 

Mutati transversa fremunt et vespere ab atro". ■ 

Consurgunt venti, atque in nubem cogitur aer. 20 

Nec nos obniti contra n ec tendere. ta njum 

Sufficimus. Superat quoniam fortuna, sequamur, 

Quoque vocat, vertamus iter. Nec litora longe 

Fida reor fraterna Erycis portusque Sicanos, 

Si rnodo rite memor servata remetiQr astra." 25 

Tum pius iEneas : " Equidem sic poscere ventos 

Jamdudum et frustra cerno te tendere contral 



P. VIRUILII MARONIS 

Flecte viajn velis. An sit mihi gratior ulla, 
Quove m^gis fessas optem demittere naves, 
Quam quee Dardanium tellus mihi ser^at Acesten, 80 

Et patris Anchisae gremio complcctitur ossa ?" 
/WL- Hsec uM dicta, petunt portus, et vela secundi 

Intendunt zephyri ; fertur ci£a gurgite classis, 2^, .- X- *t^_ ( 
Et tandem laeti notae advertuntur ar^njg. 

At procul excelso miratus vertice montis 35 

Adventum sociasque rates occurrjt Acestes,' 
Iiorridus in jaculis et pelle Libystidis ursse, 
Troja Crimiso conceptum flumine mater 
Quem genuit. Veterum non immemor ille parentum 
Gratatur reduces et gaza lsetus agresti 40 

Excipit, ac fessos opibus solatur amicis. 

Postera quum primo stellas oriente fugara t /^-QA/wr^/K* 
Clara dies, socios in coetum litore ab omni V ' 
Advocat ^Eneas, tumulique ex aggere fatur : CaaXwv/ 

u Dardanidae magni, genus alto a sanguine divum, 45 
Annuus exactis completur mensibus orbis, > 
Ex quo relliquias divinique ossa parentis 
Condidimus terra, maestasque sacravimus aras. 
Jamque dies, ni fallor, adest, quem semper acerbum, 
Semper honoratum (sic di voluistis), hahfiho. , 50 

Hunc ego, Graetulis agerem si Svrtibus exsul,^ 
Argolicove mari deprensus et urbe Mycenae, 
Aimua vota tamen solemnesque ordine pompas , , 

Exsequerer, strueremque suis altaria donis. y^r^^U 
Nunc ul£ro ad cineres ipsius et ossa parentis, 55 

Haud equidem sine mente reor, sine numine divum, 
Adsumus, et portus dejati intramus amicos. 
Ergo agite, et laetum cuncti celebremus honorem ; 
Poscamus ventos, atque haec mec^acra quotannis 
Urbe veht posi£a temphs sibi ferre dicatis. 60 

Bina boum vobis Troja generatus Acestes 
Dat numero capita in naves ; adhibete penates 
Et patrios epulis et quos colit hospes Acestes. 
Praeterea, si nona diem mortahbus almum 
Aurora extulerit radiisque retexerit orbem, 05 

Prima citae Teucris ponam certamina classis ; 
Quique pedum cursu valet, et qui viribus audax 







Aut jaculo incedit melior levibusque sagittis, 
Scu crudo fidit pugnam committere cestu ; /^u. 
Cuncti adsint, meritaeque exspectent prsemia palmse. 
Ore favete omnes, et tempora cingite ramis." 

Sic fatus, velat mate/na tempora myrtjQ. ' *^-4 ^ 
Hoc Helymus facit, hoc sevi maturus Acestes, 
Hoc puer Ascanius, sequitur quos cetera pubes. 
Ille e concilio multis cum millibus ibat 75 

Ad tumulum, magna medius comitante caterva. 
Hic duo rite mero libans carchesia Baccho . ' J^[ 
Fundit humi, du o lact e novo, duo sanguine sacro, 
Purpureosque jacit flores, ac talia fatur : 
" Salve, sancte parens, iterum ; salvete,recepti 80 

Nequidquam cineres animaeque umbrseque paternse. • 
Non licuit fines Italos fataliaque avxa, 
Nec tecum Ausonium, quicumque est, quserere Thybrim." 
Dixerat haec ; adytis quum lubricus anguis ab imis j 
Septem ingens gyros, sentena volumina traxit, 85 

Aniplexus placide tumulum lapsusque per aras, 
CaBruTese cui terga notse maculosus et auro 
Squamam incendebat fulgor, ceu nubibus arcus '^ 
Mille jacit varios adverso sole colores. 
Obstupuit visu iEneas : ille agmine longo 90 

Tandem inter pateras et levia pocula serpens 
Libavitque dapes, rursusque innoxius imo 
Successit tumulo et depasta altaria liquit. 
Hoc magis inceptos genitori instaurat honores, 
Incertus, Geniumne loci famulumne parentis 95 

Esse putet: csedit binas de more oidentes ,v*^v 
Totque sues totidem nigrantes terga juvencos ; 
■ Vinaque fundebat pateris, animamque vocabat 
Anchisee magni manesque Acheronte remissos. 
Kec non et socii, quse cuique est copia, laeti 3 00 

Donaterunt. onerant aras, mactantque juvencos : 
Ordine ahena locant alii, fusique per herbam 
Subjiciunt veribus prunas et viscera torrent,^ 

Exspectat? dies aderat nonamque serena 
Auroram Phaetnontis equi jam luce vehebanfc, 105 

Famaque finitimos et clari nomen Acestse 
TSxcierat : l&to complerant litora coetu, a.-m/ • 

■ 



P. VIE3ILII MARONIS 

Visuri JEneadas, pars et certare parati. 
Munera principio aivte oculos circoque locantur 
In meclio, sacri tripodes viridesque coronae 1 10 

Et palmse, pretium victoribus, armaque et ostro 
Pcrfusse vestes, argenti aurique talentifi^ 
Et tuba commissos medio canit aggere ludos. 
Prima pares ineunt gravibus certamina remis 
Quatuor ex omni delectsj classe carinse:^ 115 

Velocem Mnestheus agit acri remige Fristim, r«~>-*-y. 
Mox Italus Mnestheus, genus a quo nomine Memmi ; 
Ingentemque Gyas ingenti mole Chimaeram, 
Urbis opus, triplici pubes quam Dardana versu 
Impellunt, terno consurgunt ordine vpmi ; 120 

Sergestusque, domus tenet a quo Sergia nomen, 
Centauro invehitur magna ; Scyllaque Cloanthus 
'Caerulea, genus unde tibi, Komane Cluenti. 

Est procul in pelago saxum spumantia contra 
Litora, quod tumidis submersum tunditur olim 125 

Fluctibus, hiberni condmit ubi sidera Cojd ; 
Tranquillo silet, immotaque attollitur unda 
Campus et apricis statio gratissima mergis. 
Ilic viridem iEneas frondenti ex ilice metam 
Constituit signum nautis pater, unde reverti 130 

Scirent et longos ubi circumflectere cursus. 
Tum loca sorte legunt, ipsique in puppibus auro 
Ductores longe eifulgent ostroque decori ; 
Cetera populea velatur fronde juventus 
Nudatosque humeros oleo perfusa nitescit. 135 

Considunt transtris, intentaque brachia remis : 
Intenti exspectant signum, exsultantiaque haurit . 

Corda pavor pulsans laudumque arrecta cupklo. cJ < 

'^**^ Inde ubi clara dedit sonitum tuba, finibus omnes, 

Haud mora, prosiluere suis : ferit aethera clamor 140 

Nauticus ; adductis spumant freta versa lacertis. 

Infindunt pariter sulcos, totumque dehiscit 

Convulsum remis rosTrisque tridentibus aequor, -rfr^-o t ^ 

Non tam praecipites bijugo certamine campum 

Corripuere ruuntque effusi carcere currus ; 145 

****c^ Nec sic immissis aurigae undantia lora t*0aol. - 
Concussere jugis pronique in verbera pendent 



• ^XEtDOS LIB. V. 

Tum plausu fremituque virum studiisque faventum 2*h>****a 

Consonat omne nemus, vocemque lnclusa volutant 

Litora ; pulsati colles clamore resultant. 150 

Effugit ante alios primisque elabitufundis 

Turbam inter fremitumque Gyas ; quem deinde Cloanthus 

Consequitur, melior remis ; sed pondere pinus 

Tai-da tenet. Post hos sequo discrimine Pristis 

Centaurusque locum tendunt superare priorem ; 155 

Et nunc Pristis habet, nunc victam praeterit ingens 

Centaurus ; nunc una ambae junctisque feruntur 

Frontibus et longa sulcant vada salsa carina. 

Jamque propinquabant scopulo metamque tenebant :f**^ 

(fjQkim. princeps medioque Gyas in gurgite victor 1G0 

^Eectorem navis compellat voce Menceten : 

" Quo tantum mihi dexter abis ? huc dirige gressum ; 

Litus ama , et lasvas stringat,sine,palmula cautes ; 

Alt\un alii teneant." Dixit : Sed cseca Mencetes 

Saxa timens proram pelagi detorquet ad undas. 165 

11 Quo diversus abis ?"' '-iterum pete saxa, Mencete," 

Cum clamore Gyas revocabat ; et ecce Cloanthum 

Respicit instantem tergo et propiora tenentem. 

Ille inter navemque Gyoe scopulosque sonantes 

Radit iter laevum interior, subitoque prioremy 170 

Praeterit et metis tenet cequora tuta relictis. 

Tum vero exarsit juveni dolor ossibus ingens, 

Nec lacrimis caruere gena) ; segnemque Menceten, 

Oblitus decorisque sui sociumque salutis, 

In mare prsecipitem puppi deturbat ab alta : 175 

Ipse gubernaclo rector subit, ipse magister, 

Ilortaturque viros, clavumque ad litora torquet. 

At gravis, ut fiinilo vix tandem redditus imo est, 

Jam senior madidaque fluens m veste Mencetes 

Summa petit scopuli siccaque in rupe resedit. 180 

lllum ct labentem Teucri et risere natantcm, 

Et salsos rident revomentem pectore fluctus. 

Hic lceta extremis spes est accensa duobus, I.. j- 

Sergesto Mnestheique, Gyan superare morantem. 

Sergestus capit ante locum scopuloque propinquat : 185 

Nec tota tamen ille prior prseeunte carina ; 

Parte prior ; partem rostro premit semula Pristis. 



P. VIRGILII MARONIS 

At media socios incedens nave per ipsos 

Hortatur Mnestheus : " Nunc, nunc insurgite remis, 

Hectorei socii, Trojse quos sorte suprema 190 

Delegi comites ; nunc illas promite vires, 

Nunc aninios, quibus in Gsetulis Syrtibus usi 

Ionioque mari Maleseque sequacibus undis. 

Non jam prima peto Mnestheus, neque vincere certo ; 

Quamguamo! — sed superent quibus hoc, Neptune, dedisti ; 

Extremos pudeat rediisse : hoc vincite, cives, [195 

Et prohibete nefas." Olli certamine summo 

Procambunt : vastis tremit ictibus serea puppis, 

Subtrahiturque solum ; tnm creber anhelitus artus )V 

Aridaque ora quatit ; sudor fluit undique rivis. 200 

Attulit ipse viris optatum casus honorem. 

Namque furens animi dum proram ad saxa suburget 

Interior spatioque subit Sergestus iniquo, 

Infelix saxis in procurrentibus haasit. 

Concussoe cautes, et acuto in murice remi 205 

Obnixi crepuere, il lisaque prora pe pend it. 

Consurgunt nautseCc inagno clamore morantur, 

Ferratasque^rudes et acuta cuspide contos 

Expediunt, rractosque legunt in gurgite remos^ 

At lsetus Mnestheus successuque acrior ipso 210 

Agmine remorum celep. ventisque vocatis 

Prona petit maria et pelago decurrit aperto. 

Qualis spelunca subito commota columba, 

Cui domus et dulces latebroso in pumice uidi, 

Fertur in arya volans, plausumque exterrita pennis 215 

Dat tecto ingentem, mox aere lapsa quieto 

Jiaxht iter liquidum, celeres neque commovet alas : 

Sic Mnestheus, sic ipsa fuga secat ultima Pristis 

JEquora, sic illam fei-t impetus ipse volantem. . ^^^ 

Et primum in scopulo luctantem deserit alto 220 

Sergestum brevjj^usgue vadis frustraque vocantem 

Auxilia et fractiscuscentem currere remis. 

Inde G-yan ipsamque iugenti mole Chimseram 

Consequitur ; cedit, quoniam spoliata magistro est. 

Solus jamque ipso superest in fine Cloanthus, 225 

Quem petit, et summis adnixus viribus urget. 

Tum vero ingeminat clamor, cunctique sequentem . 



JENEIDOS LIB. T. 

Instigant studiis, resonatque fragoribus sether. 

Hi proprium decus et partum indignantur honorem 

Ni teneant, vitamque volunt pro laude pacisci ; 230 

Hos successus alit : possunt, quia posse videntur. 

Et fors aequatis cepissent prcemia rostris, 

Ni palmas ponto tendens utrjgque Cloanthus 

Fudissetque preces, divosque in vota vocasset : 

" Di, quibus imperium est pelagi, quorum aequora curro, 235 

Vobis lsetus ego hoc candentem in litore taurum 

Constituam arite aras, voti reus, extaque salsos 

Porriciam in fluctus et vina liquentia fundam." 

Dixit, eumque imis sub fluctibus audiit omnis 

Nereidum Phorcique chorus" Panopeaque virgo ; 240 

Et pater ipse manu magna Portunus euntem 

Impulit ; illa noto citius volucrique sagitta 

Ad terram fugit, e£ portu se condidit alto. j^ 

Tum satus Anchisa, cunctis ex more vocatis, 

Victorem magna praeconis voce Cloanthum 245 

Declarat, viridique advelat tempora lauro ; 

Muneraque in naves ternos optare juvencos 

Vinaque et argenti magnum dat ferre talentum. 

Ipsis praecipuos ductoribus addit honores : 

Victori chlamydem auratam, quam plurima circum 250 

Purpura Mseandro duplici Melibcea cucuiTit, • 

Intextusque puer frondosa regius Ida Xe ■ 

Veloces jaculo cervos cursuque faj^gat y^-^^ju 

Acer, anhelanti similis, quem prsepes ao Ida 

Sublimem pedibus rapuit Jovis armiger uncis ; 255 

Longsevi palmas nequidquam ad sidera tendunt 

Custodes, saevitque canum latratus in auras. 

At qui demde locum tenuit virtute secundum, 

Levibus huic hamis conserjiam am^oque trilicem ^*sr**> 

Loricam, quam Demoleo detraxerat ipse 26^ 

Victor apud rapidum Simoenta sub Iho alto, 

Donat habere viro, decus et tutamen in armis. 

Vix illam famuli Phcgeus Sagarisque ferebant 

Multiplicem, connixi humeris ; indutus at olim ' • ■ ^* 

Demoleos cursu palantes Troas agebat. 265 

Tertia dona facit geminos ex aere lebetas, 

Cymbiaque argento perfecta atque aspera signis. v • 



P. YIEGILII MAEOXIS 

Jamque adeo donati omnes opibusque superbi 
Puniceis ibant evincti tempora tamiis, ^Ji^ u { Vvw, 
Quum saevo e scopulo multa vix arte revulsus, , . 270 

Amissis remis atque ordine debilis uno, *" ^^.SycMcv**^*** 
f+jL uZ I rr i sam si^e honore ratem Sergestus agebat. 
Qualis ssepe viae deprensus in aggere serpens, 
/Erea quem obliquum rota transiit, aut gravis ictu 
Seminecem liquit saxo lacerumque viator ; 273 

Nequidquam longos fugiens dat corpore tortus, 4 . 1 \ *i . 
Parte ferox, ardensque oculis, et sibila colla 
Arduus attollens ; pars vumere clauda retentat 
Nexantem nodis seque in sua membra plicantem. 
Tali remigio navis se tarda movebat ; 2S0 

Vela facit tamen, et velis subit ostia plenis. 
Sergestum iEneas promisso munere donat, 
Servatam ob navem Isetus sociosque reductos. 
Olli serva datur, operum haud ignara Minervae, 
Cressa genus, Pholoe, geminique sub ubere nati. 285 

Hoc pius ^Eneas misso certamine tendit 
Gramineum in campum, quem collibus undique curvis 
Cingebant silvae, mediaque in valle theatri 
Circus erat, quo se multis cum millibus heros 
Consessu medium tuht exstructoque resedit. 290 

Hic, qui forte vehnt rapido contendere cursu, 
Invitat pretiis animos, et praemia ponit. 
Undique conveniunt Teucri mixtique Sicani ; 
• Nisus et Euiyalus primi, 

Euryalus forma insignis viridique juventa, 295 

Nisus amore pio pueri ; quos deinde secutus 

Regius egregia Priami de stirpe Diores ; 

Hunc Salius simul et Patron, quorum alter Acarnan, 

Alter ab Arcadio Tegeseae sanguine gentis 1 

Tum duo Trina.crii juvenes, Helymus Panopesque, 300 

Assueti silvis, comites senioris Acesta? ; 

ISTulti praeterea, quos fama obscura recondit. 

/Eneas quibus in mediis sic deinde locutus : 

' : Accipite hsec animis, laatasque advertite mentes. 

Nemo ex hoc numero mihi non donatus abibit. 305 

Gnosia bina dabo levato lucida ferro 

Spicula caelatamque argento ferre bipennem : 



JENEIDOS LIB. V. 

Omnibus hic erit unus honos. Tres prsemia primi 

Accipient, flavaque caput nectentur oliva. 

Primus equum phaleris insignem victor habeto ; 310 

Alter Amazoniam pharetram plenamque sagittia 

Threiciis, lato quam circumplectitur auro 

Balteus, et tereti subnectit tibula gemma ; 

Tertius Argohca hac galea contentus abito.'!^ ) 

Haec ubi dicta, locum capiunt, signoque repejite 315 

Corripiunt spatia audito, limenque relinquunt, 

Effusi nimbo similes, simul ultima signant. 

Primus abit longeque ante omnia corpora Nisus 

Emicat, et ventis et fulminis ocior alis. 

Proximus huic, longp sed proximus intervallo, 320 

Insequitur Salius ; spatio post deinde relicto 

Tertius Euryalus : 

Eurvalumque Helymus sequitur ; quo deinde sub ipso 

Ecce volat calcemque terit jam calce Diores, 

Incumbens humero ; spatia et si plura supersint, 325 

Transeat elapsus prior, ambiguumve relinquat. 

Jamque fere spatio extremo fessique sub ipsam 

Finem adventabant, lev^jfum sanguine Nisus 

Labitur infelix, caesis ut forte juvencis £pv *£zt 

Fusus humum viridesque super madefecerat herbas. 330 

Hic juvenis jam victor ovans vestigia presso 

Haud tenuit titubata solo ; sed pronus in ipso u</i«AMi . 

Concidit immundoque fimo sacroque cruore^ 

Non tamen Euryali, non ille oblitus amorum : 

Nam sese opposuit Salio per lubrica surgen3 ; 335 

Ille autem spissa jacuit revolutus arena. 

Emicat Euryalus, et munere victor amici . 

Prima tenet, plausuque volat fremituque secundo. 

Post Helymus subit, et nunc tertia palma Diores. 

Hic totum caveae"consessum ingentis et ora 310 

Prima patrum magnis Salius clamoribus implet, 

Ereptumque dolo reddi sibi poscit honorem. 

Tutatur favor Euryalum, lacrimaeque decone, 

Gralior et pulchro veniens in corpore virtus. 

Adjuvat et magna proclamat voce Diores, 315 

i suiiiit palmce, frustraque ad praemia venit 

ima, si prirni Salio redduntur lionores. 



P. VIRGILII MARONIS 

Tum pater JEneas, "Vestra," inquit, " munera vobis 
Certa manent, pueri; et palmam movet ordine nemo; 
Me liceat casus miserari insontis amici." 350 

Sic fatus tergum Gsetuli immane leonis 
Dat Salio, villis onerosum atque unguibus aureis. 
Hic Nisus, " Si tanta," inquit, " sunt praeniia victis, 
Et te lapsorum miseret, quse munera Niso 
Digna dabis ? primam merui qui laude coronam, 355 

Ni me, quse Salium, fortuna inimica tulisset:" 
Et simul his dictis faciem ostentabat et udo 
" • jT u IF a memora umo ' ^ sit P ater optimus olli, 
ttteTipeum efferri jussit, Didymaonis artes, 
Neptuni sacro Dajiajs de poste refixum. 360 

Hoc-juvenem egregium praestanti munere donat. 

Post, ubi confecti cursus, et dona peregit : 
" Nunc, si cui virtus animusque in pectore praesens 
Adsit, et evinctis attollat brachia palmis." 
Sic ait et geminum pugnse proponit honorem: 365 

Yictori velatum auro vittisque juvencum ; 
Ensem atque insignem galeam, solatia victo. 
Nec mora ; continuo vastis cum viribus cfFert 
Oxa Dares, magnoque virum se murmure tollit ; 
Solus qui Paridem solitus contendere contra, 370 

Idemque ad tumulum, quo rnaximus occubat Hector, » 
Victorem Buten immani corpore, qui se ** 
Bebrycia veniens Amyci de gente ferebat, 
Perou lit. et fulva moribundum extendit arena. 
Talis prima Dares caput altum in prcelia tollit, 375 

Ostenditque humeros latos, alternaque jactat 
Brachia protendens, et verberat ictibus auras. i 

Quseritur liuic alius : nec quisquam ex agmine tanto 
Audet adire virurh manibusque inducere cestus. 
Ergo alacris, cunctosque putans excedere palma, 3S0 

iEnese stetit ante pedes ; nec plura moratus, 
Tum lseva taurum cornu tenet, atque ita fatur : 
" Nate dea, si nemo audet se credere pugna% 
Quse finis standi ? quo me decet uscnie teneri ? 
Ducere dona jube." tJuncti simul ore fremebant 385 

Dardanidae, reddique viro promissa jubebant. ^ 
Hic gravis Entellum dictis castigat Acestes, >„»y*vM 



^NEIDOS LIB. V. 

Proximus ut viridante toro consederat herb® : 

" Entelle, heroum quondam fortissime frustra, 

Tantane tam patiens nullo certamine tolli 390 

Dona sines ? ubi nunc nobis deus ille magister 

Nequidquam memoratus Eryx ? ubi fama per omnem 

Trinacriam, et spolia illa tuis pendentia tectis ?" 

Ille sub hsec : " Non laudis amor nec gloria cessit 

Pulsa metu ; sed enhn gehdus tardante senecta 395 

Sanguis hebet, frigentque effeta3 in corpore vires. 

Si mihi, quse quondam fuerat, quaque improbas iste 

Exsultat fidens, si nunc foret illa juventas, ' 

Haud equidem pretio induc£us pulchroque juvenco 

Venissem : nec dona moror." Sic deinde locutus 400 

In medium geminos immani pondere cestus 

Projecit, quibus "acer Eryx in prceha suetus 

Ferre manum duroque intendere brachia tergo. 6v«~-U» 

Obstupuere animi : tantorum ingentia septem 

Terga boum plumbo insuto ferroque rigebant. iuJ^ 405 

Ante omnes stupet ipse Dares, lqngeque recusat ; 

Magnanimusque Anchisiades et pondus et ipsa 

Huc illuc vinclorum immensa volmnina versat. v 

Tum senior tales referebat pectore voces : 

" Quid, si quis cestus ipsius et Hercuhs arma 410 

Vidisset tristemque hoc ipso in litore pugnam ? 

Haec germanus Eryx quondam tuus arma gerebat ; — 

Sanguine cernis adhuc fractoque infecta cerebro ; — 

His magnum Alciden contra stetit ; his ego suetus, 

Dum mehor vires sanguis dabat, seinula necdum 415 

Temporibus geminis canebat sparsa senectus. 

Sed si nostra Dares hsec Troius arma recusat, 

Idquepio s edet iEnese, probat auctor Acestes, S^*** 

iEquemus pugnas. Erycis tibi terga remitto ; i y^ 

Solve metus ; et tu Trqjanos exue cestus." 420 

Haec fatus duplicem ex humeris rejecit amictum, ; 

Et magnos membrorum artus, magna ossa lacertos^ue 

Exuit, atque ingens media consistit arena. 

Tum satus Anchisa cestus pater extuht sequos, 

Et paribus palmas amborum innexuit armis. 425 

Constitit in digitos extemplo arrectus uterque, 

Brachiaque ad superas interritus extulit auras. 






P. YIEGILII ilAUONIS 

Abduxere retro longe capita ardua ab ictu, 
Immiscentque manus nianibus, pugnamque lacessunt ; 
Ille pedum melior motu fretusque juventa, y-tXu*-*** 430 
Hic membris et mole valensT sed tarda trementi 
Genua labant, vastos quatit aeger anhelitus artus. *,. . 
Multa viri nequidquam inter se vulnera jactant, 
Multa cavjiiateri ingeminant et pectore vastos fvv f^M^^S^-^ 
Dant sonitus, erratque aures et tempora circum • 435 
Crebra manus, duro crepitant sub vulnere nialae. 
Stat gravis Entellus nisuque immotus eodem 
Corpore tela mqdo atque oculis vigilantibus exit. ^ v -»-^*^v 
gjfcj^ Ille, velut celsam oppugnat qui molibus urbem, 

Aut montana sedet circum castella sub armis, 44G 

Nunc hos, nunc illos aditus, omnemque pergrrat : . I i 
Arte locum, et variis assultibus irrjius urget. C^ 
Ostendit dextram insirrgens Entellus et alte 
Extulit : ille ictum venientem a vertice vqlox 9 
Praevidit, celerique elapsus corpore cessit. 445 

Entellus vires in ventum effudit, et ultrp * ' • "**i j!£j . 

Ipse gravis graviterque ad terram pondere vasto 

Concidit : ut quondam cava concidit aut Erymantho, 

Aut Ida in magna radicj^us eruta pinus. 

Consurgunt studiis Teucri et Trinacria pubes ;'.*■• • 45Q 

Ifc clamor ccelo, primusque accurrit Acestes, 

iEquaevumque ab humo miserans attollit amicum. 

At non tardatus casu neque territus heros 

Acrior ad pugnam redit, ac vim suscitat ira ; 

Tum pudor incendit vires et conscia virtus, 455 

Praecipitemque Daren ardens agit aoquore toto, 

Nunc dextra ingemmans rctus, nunc ille sinistra. 

Nec mora, nec requies. Quam multa grandine nimbi 

Culminibus crepitant, sic densis ictibus heros 

Creber utraque manu pulsat versatque Dareta: ^ 4G0 

Tum pater JEneas procedere longius iras 

Et saevire animis Entellum haud passus acerbis ; 

Sed finem imposuit pugnse, fessumque Dareta 

Eripuit, mulcens dictis, ac taha fatur : 

" Infelix, qune tanta animum dementia cepit ? 4G5 

Non vires alias conversaqile numina sentis ? 

Cede deo." Dixitque, et prcelia voce dkejnit. 'r^ 



7EXEID0S LIB. V. 

Aft illurn fidi acquales, genua segra trahentem, 

Jactantemque utroque caput, crassumque cruorem 

Ore ejectantem mixtosque in sanguine dentes, 470 

Ducunt ad naves ; galeamque ensemque vocati 

A.ccipiunt : palmam Entello taurumqtte relinquunt. 

Mic victor, superans animis tauroque superbus : 

"Nate dea, vosque hrecT^inquit, "cognoscite Teucri, 

Et mihi quae fuerint juvenali in corpore vjres, 475 

Et qj^i servetis revocatum a mpjj-c Dareta. 

Dixit, et adversi contra stetit ora juvenci, 

Qui donum adstabat pugnse, durosque reducta 

Libravit dextra media inter cornua cestus 

.Ar^mis, effractoque illisit in ossa cerebro. 4S0 

Sternitur exanimisque trerrrens procumbit humi bos. 

Ille super tales effundit pectore voces : 

" Hanc tibi, Eryx, meliorem animam pro morte Daretis 

Persolvo: hic victor cestus artemque repQno." , X^ K/ ^ OAM ^ L 

Protinus iEneas celeri certare sasritta 4S5 

Invitat, qui forte velint, et praemia ponit ; 
Ingentique manu nfalum de nave Seresti 
Erigit, et volucrem trajecto injune columbam, 
Quo tendant ferrum, malo suspendit ab alto. 
Convenere viri, dejectamque rerea sortem 490 

Accepit galea; et primus clamore secundo 
Hyrtacidae ante omnes exit locus Hippocoontis ; 
Quem mojlQ, navali Mnestheus certamine victor 
Consequitur, viridi Mnestheus evinctus oliva : 
Tertius Eurytion, tuus, o clarissime, frater, 495 

Pandare, qui quondam, jussus confundere fcedus, 
In medios telum torsisti primus Achivos. 
Extremus galeaque ima subsedit Acestes, 
Ausus et ipse manu juvenum tentare laborem. c^OLaj^IJ^' 
Tum validis flexos incurvant viriDus arcus 500 

Pro se quisque viri, et depromurrb tela pharetris. 
Primaque per coelum nervo stridente sagitta 
Hyrtacidas juvenis volucres div erbe rat auras ; o : ■ -'. r ; / . 
Et venit, adversique infigitur arbore mali. 
Intremuit malus, timuitque exterrita pennis 505 

Ales, et ingenti sonuemnt omnia plausu. 
Post acer Mnestheus aducto constitit arcu, 



P. VIEGILII MAKONIS 



V 

Alta petens, pariterque oculos telumque tetendit. **"' J 

Ast ipsam miserandus avem contmgere ferro 

Non valuit ; nodos et vincula linea rupit, 610 

Queis innexa pedem malo pendebat ab alto : pjyt, <*1 / V«-^ 

Illa notos atque atra volans in nubila fugit. 

Tum rapidus, jumdudum arcu contenta parato 

Tela tenens, fratrem Eurytion in vota vocavit, 

Jam vacuo lsetam coelo speculatus, et alis 515 

Plaudentem nigra figit sub nube columbam. 

Decidit exanimis, vitamque reliquit in astris 

iEtheriis, fixamque refert delapsa sagittam. ^ 

Aonissa solus palma superabat Acestes : 

Qui tamen aerias telum contendit in-anxas, 520 

Ostentans artemque pater arcumque sonantem. ^. ^V^jJ^XC^ 

Hic oculis subitum objicitur magnoque futurum 

Augurio monstrum : docuit post exitus ingens, 

Seraque terrifici cecinerunt omina vates. 

Namque volans liquidis in nubibus arsit arundo, 525 

Signavitque viam flammis, tenuesque recessit 

Consumta in ventos : ccelogeu ssepe refixa 

Transcurrunt crinemque volantia sidera ducunt. 

Attonitis hsesere animis, superosque precati 

Trinacrii Teucrique viri : nec maximus omen 530 

Abnuit iEneas ; sed lsetum amplexus Acesten 

Muneribus cumulat magnis, ac talia fatur : 

" Sume, pater ; nam te voluit rex magnus Olympi 

Talibus auspiciis exsortem ducere honores. 

Ipsius Anchisae longaevi hoc mmms habebis, 535 

Cratera impressum signis; queni Thrasius ohm 

Anchisae genitori in magno munere Cisseus 

Ferre sui dederat monumentum et pignus amoris." 

Sic fatus cingit viridanti tempora lauro, 

Et primum ante omnes victorem appellat Acesten. 540 

Nec bonus Eurytion praelato invidit honori, 

Quamvis solus avem ccelo dejecit ab alto. 

Proximus ingreditur donis, qui vincula rupit ; 

Extremus, volucri qui fixit arundine malum. 

At pater ^Eneas, nondum certamine misso, 545 

Custodem ad sese comitemque impubis Iuli 
Epytiden vocat, et fidam sic fatur ad aurem : 



JEWEIDOS LIB. V. 

" Vade age, et Ascanio, si jam puerile paratum 

Agmen habet secum, cursusque instruxit equorum, 

Ducat avo turmas, et sese ostendat in armis, 530 

Dic," ait. Ipse omnem longo decedere circo 

Infusum populum, et campos jubet esse patentes. 

Incedunt pueri, pariterquo ante ora parentum 

Frenatis lucent in equis, quos omnis euntes 

Trinacriae mirata fremit Trojseque juventus. _ 555 

Omnibus in morem tonsa coma pressa corona : <^~~.— ^r. 

Cornea bina ferunt preenxo hastilia ferro, 

Pars leves humero pharetras ; it pectore summo 

Flexilis obtorti per collum circulus auri. 

Tres equitum numero turmas, ternique vagantur 560 

Ductores ; pueri bis seni quemque secuti 

Agmine partito fulgent paribusque magistris. 

Una acies juvenum, ducit quam parvus ovantem 

Nomen avi referens Priamus, tua clara, Polite, 

Progenies, auctura Italos ; quem Thracius albis 565 

Portat equus bicolor maculis, vestigia primi 

Alba pedis frontemque ostentans arduus albam. 

Alter Atys, genus unde Atii duxere Latini, 

Parvus Atys, pueroque puer dilectus Iulo. 

Extremus formaque ante omnes pulcher Iulus 570 

Sidonio est invectus equo, quem candida Dido 

Esse sui dederat monumentum et pignus amoris : 

Cetera Trinacriif pubes senioris Acestae 

Fertur equis. 

Excipiunt plausu pavidos, gaudentque tuentes 575 

Dardanidae, veterumque agnoscunt ora parentum. 

Postquam omnem laeti consessum oculosque suorum 

Lusirayere in equis, signum clamore paratis 

Epytides longe dedit insonuitque flagelio. 

Olli discurrere pares, atque agmina terni _ 580 

Did u^cti s solyere chQris, rursusque vocati -^/AXc^ZW 

Convertere vias infestaque tela tulere. 

Inde alios ineunt cursus aliosque recursus 

Adversi spatiis, alternosque orbibUs orbes 

Impediunt, pugnseque cient simulacra sub armis : 585 

Et nunc terga fuga nudant, nunc spicula vertunt 

Infensi, facta pariter nunc pace feruntur. 



P. VIEOILII MAEONIS 

Ut quondam Creta fertur Labyrinthus in alta 
Parietibus textum caecis iter ancipi^rnque , 

Mille viis liabuisse dolnm. qua signa sequendi \aAta> 590 
Falleret indeprensus et lrrefheabilis error : 
Haud alio Teucrum nati vestigia cursu 
Impediunt, texuntque fugas et preelia ludo, 
Delphinum similes, qui per maria humida nando 
Carpathium Libycumque secant [luduntque per undas.] 505 
Hunc morem, hos cursus, atque haec certamina primus 
Aseanius, Longam muris quum cingeret Albam, 
Retulit, et priscos docuit celebrare Latinos, l*r\r>++-> C/H-W»", t{ 
Quo puer ipse modo, secum quo Troia pubes : 
Albani docnere suos ; hinc maxima porro 600 

Accepit Eoma, et patrium servavit honorem ; 
Trojaque nunc, pueri Trojanum dicitur agmen. ** 
llac celebrata tejius sancto certamina patri. x 
Hic primum fortuna fidem mutata novavit. 
Dum variis tumido referunt solemnia ludis, 605 

Irim de ccelo misit Saturnia Juno 
lliacam ad classem, ventosque aspirat eunti, 
Multa movens, necdum antiquum saturata dolorem. 
Illa viam celerans per mille coloribus arcum, 
Nulli visa cito decurrit tramite virgo : C10 

Conspicit ingentem concursum, et htora lustrat, 
Desertosque videt portus ciassemque rehctam. 
At procul in sola secretae Troades acta 
Amissum Anchisen flebant, cunctaeque profundum 
Pontum aspectabant flentes : " Heu, tot vada fessis 615 
Et tantum superesse maris!" vox omnibus una. 
Urbem orant ; tsedet pelagi perferre laborem. 
Ergo inter medias sese haud ignara nocendi 
Conjicit, et faciemque deae vestemque reponit : 
Fit Beroe, Tmarii conjux longaeva Dorycli, 620 

Cui genus et quondam nomen natique fuissent ; 
Ac sic Dardanidum mediam se matribus infert : 
" miserae, quas non manus," inquit, " Achaica bello 
Traxerit ad letum patriae sub mcenibus ! gens 
Infelix ! cui te exitio fortuna reservat ? 625 

Septima post Troja? excidium jam vertitur sestas, 
^rixL Quu.rn freta, quum terras omnes, tot inhospita saxa 



-ENEIDOS LIB. Y. 

Sideraque emensae ferimur ; dum per mare magnum 

Italiam sequimur fugientem, et volvhnur undis. 

Hic Erycis fines fraterni atque hospes Acestes : G30 

Quid prohibet muros jacere et dare civibus urbem ? 

O patria et rapti nequidquam ex hoste penates, 

Nullane jam Trojae dicentur mcenia ? nusquam 

Hectoreos anmes, Xanthum et Simoenta, videbo ? 

Quin agite, et mecum infaustas exuritc puppes. 035 

Nam mihi Cassandrse per somnum vatis imago 

Ardentes dare visa faces. Hic quserite Trojam ; 

Hic domus est, niquit, vobis. Jam tempus agi res, 

Nec tantis mora prodigiis. En quatuor arae 

Neptuno ; deus ipse faces animumquc ministrat." 610 

Ha:c memorans prima infcnsum vi corripit ignem, 

Sublataque procul dextra connixa coruscat, 

Et jacit. Arrectse mentes stupefactaque corda 

Iliadum. Hic una e muitis, quse maxima natu, 

Pyrgo, tot Priami natorum regia nutrix : 615 

" Xon Beroe vobis, non hasc Rhceteia, matres, 

Est Dorycli conjux ; divini signa decoris 

Ardentesque notate oculos ; qui spiritus illi, 

Qui vultus, vocisque sonus, vel gressus eunti. 

Ipsa egomet dudum Beroen digressa reliqui 650 

iEgram, indignantem, tali quod sola careret 

Munere, nec meritos Anchisa? inferret honores." 

Ha)c effata. 

At matres primo ancipites oculisque malignis 

Ambiguoe spectare rates miserum inter amorem 65a 

Prsesentis terra3 fatisque vocantia regna : 

Quurn dea se paribus per ccelum sustuht alis, 

Ingentemque fuga secuit sub nubibus arcum. 

Tum vero attonita^ monstris actaeque furore 

Conclamant, rapiuntque focis penetralibus ignem ; 660 

Pars spoliant aras, frondem ac virgulta facesque 

Conjiciunt. Furit immissis Vulcanus habenis 

Transtra per et remos et pictas abiete puppes. x. 

Nuntius Anchisse ad tumulum cuneosque theatri 

Incensas perfert naves Eumelus, et ipsi 665 

Respiciunt.atram in nimbo volitare favillam. ■ 

Primus et/Xscanius, cursus ut laetus equestresN 



P. YIRGILII MAE0NI8 

Ducebat, sic acer equo turbata petivit 

Castra, nec exanimes possunt retinere magistri. 

" Quis furor iste novus ? quo nunc, quo tenditis," inquit, 670 

" Heu misera? cives ? non hostem inimicaque castra 

Argivum, vestras spes uritis. En ego vester 

Ascanius." Galeain ante pedes projecit inanem, 

Qua ludo indutus belli simulacra ciebat. 

Accelerat simul iEneas, simul agmina Teucrum. 675 

Ast illae diversa metu per litora passjm 

Diffugiunt, silvasque et sicubi concava furtim $, *-\i, \J^ 

Saxa petunt ; piget incepti lucisque, suosque 

Mutatae agnoscunt, excussaque pectore Juno est. 

Sed non idcirco flanimse atque incendia vires 6£0 

Tndomitas posuere: udo sub robore vivit v^" *HvH« S^^fcj 

Stuppa vomens tardum fmnum, lentusque carinas V-^at, 

Est vapor, et toto descendit corpore pestia, 

Nec vires ^e^omnhifusaque numina prosunt. 

Tum pius iEneasmrmeris abscindere vestem, 685 

Auxilioque vocare deos, et tendere palmas : 

" Jupiter omnipotens, si nondum exosus ad unum 

Trojanos, si qujd pietas antiqua labores o>ca ^-KA^vd" 

Eespicit humanos, da flammam evadere classi 

Nunc, Pater, et tenues Teucrum res eripe leto. 690 

Vel tu, quod superest infesto fulmine morti, 

Si mereor, demitte, tuaque hic obrue dextra." 

Vix hsec ediderat, quum effusis imbribus atra 

Tempestas sine more furit, tonitruque tremiscunt 

Ardua terrarum et campi ; rnjt sethere toto . 695 

Turbidus imber aqua densisque nigerrimus austris ; 

Implenturque super puppes ; semiusta madescunt 

Robora ; restinctus donec, vapor omnis, et omnes, 

Quatuor amissis, servatae a peste carinae. 

At pater iEneas, casu concussus acerbo, 700 

Nunc huc ingentes nunc illuc pectore curas 
Mutabat versans, Siculisne resideret arvis, 
Obhtus fatorum, Italasne capesseret oras. 
Tum senior Nautes, unum Tritonia PaUas 
Quem docuit multaque insignem reddidit arte, 705 

Haec responsa dabat, vel quae portenderet ira 
Magna deum, vel quae fatorum posceret ordo; 
Isque his JEneam solatus vocibus infit ; 



.ENEIDOS LIB. V. 

N Nate dea, quo fata trahunfc retrahuntque, sequamur : 
Quidquid erit, superanda omnis fortuna ferendo est. 710 
Est tibi Dardanius divinse stirpis Acestes : 
Hunc cape consiliis socium et conjunge volentem ; 
Huic trade, amissis superant qui navibus, et quos 
Pertaesurn magni incepti rerumque tuarum est ; 
Longsevosque senes ac fessas sequore matres, 715 

Et quidquid tecum invalidum metuensque pericli est, 
Delige, et his habeant terris,sine,moenia fessi: 
Urbext appellabunt permisso nomine Acestam." 

Talibus incensus dictis senioris amici, 
Tum vero in curas animum diducitur omnes ; 720 

Et Nox atra polum bigis subvecta tenebat. 
Visa dehiiic ccelo facies delapsa parentis 4eritZ^xxc 
Anchisse subito tales effundere voces : 
" Nate, mihi vita quondam, dum vita manebat, 
Care magis, nate, Iliacis exercite fatis, 72d 

Imperio Jovis huc venio, qui classibus ignem 
Depulit, et ccelo tandem miseratus ab alto est. 
Consiliis paj;e, quse nunc pulcherrima Nautes frV^ 
Dat senior : lectos juvenes, fortissima corda, 
Defer in Italiam. Gens dura atque aspera cultu 730 

Debellanda tibi Latio est. Ditis tamen ante 
Infernas accede domos, et Averna per alta 
Congressus pete, nate, meos. Non me impia namque 
Tartara habent tristesque umbrse ; sed amigna piorumV*w*M 
Concilia Elysiumque colo. Huc casta Sibylla 735 

Nigrarum multo pecu^ium te sanguine ducet. 
Tum genus omne tuum et quae dentur mcenia disces. 
Jamque vale : torquet medios Nox humida cursus, 
Et me S33vus equis Oricns afflavit anhelis." 
Dixerat : et tenues fugit, ceu fumus, in auras. ^J^ 740 
iEneas, " Quo deinde ruis P^quo proripis ?" inquit, n^A, 
" Quem fugis ? aut quis te nostris complexibus arcet ?" 
Haec memorans cinerem et sopitos suscitat ignes, 
Pergameumque Larem et cajiae penetralia Vestae 
Farre pio et plena supplex veneratur acerra. 7 15 

Extemplo socios primumque arcessit Accsten, 
Et Jovis imperium et cari praeccpta parentis 
Edocet, et qua3 nunc animo sententia constet. 
Haud mora consiliis, nec jussa recusat Acestes. 



P. VIEGILII MAE0NI3 

Transecribiuit urbimatres, populumque volcntem 750 

Dcponunt, animos nil magnae laudis egentes. 

Ipsi transtra novant, flammisque ambesa reponunt 

liobora navigiis ; aptant remosque rudentesquej 

Exigui numero, sed bcllo vivida virtus. 

Interca JEne.is urbem designat aratro 755 

Sortiturque domos ; hoc Ilium et hrec loca Trojam 

Es.-e jubet. Gaudet regno Trojanus Acestes, 

Indicitquc forum ct patribus dat jura vocatis. 

Tum vicina astris Erycino in vertice sedes 

Fundatur Veneri Idaliae, tumuloque sacerdos 760 

Ac lucus late sacer additur Anchiseo. 

Jamque dies epulata novcm gcns omnis, et aris 

Factus honos ; placidi straverunt asquora vcnti, 

Crebcr et aspirans rursus vocat Auster in altum. $-> c 

Exoritur procurva ingens per litora fletus ; 765 

Complexi inter se noctemque diemque morantur. Js**J* <rif t 

Ipsse jam matres, ipsi, quibus aspera quondam 

Visa maris facies et non tolerabile uumen, 

Ire volunt omnemque fugae perferre laborem. 

Quos bonus vEneas dictis solatur amicis, 770 

Et consanguineo lacrimans commendat Acesta?. 

Tres Eryci vitulos et Tempestatibus agnam 

Csedere deinde jubet, solvique ex ordine funem. 

Ipse, caput tonsa? foliis evinctus olivse, 

Stans procul in prora pateram tenet, extaque salsos 775 

Porricit in fluctus ac vina liquentia fundit. 

Prosequitur surgens a puppi ventus euntes. 

Certatim socii feriunt mare, et aequora verrunt. 

At Venus interea Nepthnum exercita curis 
Alloquitur, talesque etfundit pectore questus : 780 

" Junonis gravis ira nec exsaturabile pectus 
Cogunt me, Neptune, preces descendere in omnes ; 
Quam nec longa dies pietas nec mitigat ulla, 
"N T ec Jovis imperio fatisque inffcacta quiescit. &* 
Non media de gente Phrygum exedisse nefandis 785 

Urbem odiis satis est, nec pocnam traxe per omnem ; 
Relliquias. Trojaj cineres atque ossa perenitse ^U^W^ 
Insequitur. Causas tanti sciat illa furoris. 
Ipse mihi nuper Libycis tu testis in undis, 
Quam molem subito excierit. Maria omnia ccelo 790 



JENEIDOS LIB. V. 

Miscuit, ^Eoliis nequidquam freta procellis, 

In regnis hoc ausa tuis. 

Per scelus ecce etiam Trojanis matribus actis 

Exussit fcede puppes, et classe subegit 

Amissa socios ignota? linquere terree. 795 

Quod superest. oro, liceat dare tuta per undas 

Vela tibi! liceat Laurentem attingere Thybrim, 

Si concessa peto, si clant ea mcenia Parcse." 

Tum Saturnius hoec domitor maris edidit alti : 
" Fas omne est, Cytherea, meis te iidere regnis, 800 

Unde genus ducis. Merui quoque ; saepe furores 
Compressi et rabiem tantam coelique marisque. '^H*' 
Nec minor in terris (Xanthumr Simoentaque testor) 
iEneae mihi cura tui. Quum Troia Achilles 
Exanimata sequens impingeret agmina muris, 805 

Millia multa daret leto, gemerentque repleti 
Amnes, nec reperire viam atque evolvere posset 
In mare se Xanthus, Pelidse tunc ego forti 
Congressum iEnean nec dis nec viribus aequis 
Nube cava rapui, cuperem quum vertere ab imo 810 

Structa meis manibus perjune mcenia Trojse.4 
Nunc quoque mens eadem perstat mihi : pelle timorem. 
Tutus, quos optas, portus accedet Averni. 
Unus erit tantum, amissum quem gurgite quseret ; 
Unum pro multis dabitur caput.'^_ 815 

His ubi laeta deae permulsit pectora dictis, 
Jungit equos auro genitor, spumantiaque addit 
Frena feris, manibusque omnes effundit habenas : 
Caeruleo per summa levis volat sequora curru. 
Subsidunt undae, tumidumque sub axe tonanti 820 

Sternitur aequor aquis ; fugiunt vasto aethere nimbi. 
Tum variae comitum facies, — immania cete, 
Et senior Grlauci chorus Inousque Palaemon, 
Tritonesque citi Phorcique exercitus omnis : 
Laeva tenet Thetis et Melite Panopeaque virgo, 825 

Nessee Spioque Thaliaque Cymodoceque. 

His patris iEneae suspensam blanda v kissim 
Gaudia pertentant mentem ; jubet ocius omnes 
Attolli malos, intendi brachia velis. 

Una omnes fecere pcdem, pariterque sinistros, 830 

Nunc dextros solvere sinus ; una ardua torquent 



T. YIEGILII MAEONIS 

Cornua detorquentque : ferunt sua flamina classem. 

Princeps ante omnes densum Palinurus agebat 

Agmen : ad hunc alii cursum contendere jussi. 

Jamque fere mediain cceli nox humida metam 831 

Contigerat : placida laxarant membra quiete 

Sub remis fti£i per dura sedilia nautae ; 

Quum levis setherhs delapsus Somnus ab astris 

Aera dimovit tene^xpsum et dispulit umbras, 

Te, Palinure, petens, tibi somnia tristia portans 840 

Insonti : puppique deus consedit in alta, 

Phorbanti similis, funditque has ore loquelas : 

" Iaside Palinure, ferunt ipsa sequora classem ; 

■ ZEquat a? spirant aurse ; datur hora quieti : 

Pone caput, fessosque oculos furare labori ; 845 

Ipse ego pauiisper pro te tua munera inibo." 

Cui vix attollens Palinurus lumina fatur : 

" Mene salis placidi vultum fluctusque quietos 

Ignorare jubes ? mene huic confidere monstro ? 

iEnean credam quid_e»im fallacibus austris, 850 

Et cceli toties deceptus fraude sereni ?" 

Talia dicta dabat, clavumque aifixus et hserens 

Nusquam amittebat, oculosque sub astra tenebat. 

Ecce deus ramum Lethseo rore madentem 

Vique soporatum Stygia super utraque quassat 855 

Tempora, cunetantique natantia lumina solvit. 

Vix primos i napin a quies laxaverat artus : 

Et super incumbens, cum puppis parte revulsa 

Cumque gubernaclo, liquidas prqjecit in undas 

Praecipitem, ac socios nequidquam saipe vocantem. 860 

Ipse volans tenues se sustulit ales ad auras. 

Currit iter tutum non secius sequore classis, 

Promissisque patris Xeptuni interrita fertur. 

Jamque adeo scopulos Sirenum advecta subibat, 

Difficiles quondam multorumque ossibus albos ; 805 

Tum rauca assiduo longe sale saxa sonabant : 

Quum pater amisso fluitantem errare magistro 

Sensit, et ipse ratem nocturnis rexit in undis, 

Multa gemens, casuque animum concussus amici. 

" O nimium ccelo et pelago confise sereno, 870 

Nudus in ignota, Palinure, jacebis arena !" 






P. VIKGILII MAKONIS 
^NEIDOS 

LIBER SEXTUS. 



Sic fatur lacrimans, classique immittit habenas, 
Et tandem Euboicis Cumarum allabitur oris. 
*)bvertunt pelago proras ; tum dente tenaci 
Ancora fundabat naves, et litora curvse 
Praetexunt puppes. Juvenum manus emicat ardens 5 

-Litus in Hesperium ; quserit pars semina flammse 
Abstrusa in venis silicis ; pars densa ferajrum 
Tecta rapit, silvas, inventaque flumina monstrat. 
At pius iEneas arces, quibus altus Apollo 
Prsesidet, horrendseque procul secreta Sibyllse, 10 

Antrum immane, petit, magnam cui mentem animumqite 
Delius inspirat vates aperitque futura. J 
Jam subeunt Trrvlse lucos atque aurea tecta. 

Dsedalus, ut fama est, fugiens Minoiu regna, 
Praepetibus pennis ausus se credere ccelo. ] 

Insuetum per iter geliclas enavit ad Arctos, 
Chalcidicaque levis tandem super adstitit arce. 
Redditus his primum terris tibi, Phcebe, sacravit 
Remigium alarum, posuitque immania templa. 
In foribus letum Androgei : tum pendere pcenas 20 

Cecropidae jussi, miserum ! septena quotannis r 

Corpora natorum ; stat ductis sortibus urna. >m/i^ - J u J 
Contra elata mari respondet Gnosia tellus : 
Hic crudelis amor tauri suppostaque furto 
Pasiphae, mixtumque genus prolesque biformis 25 

Minotaurus inest, Veneris monumenta nefandae ; 
llic labor ille domus et inextricabilis error : 



P. VTBCirri ^TABONIfl 

Magnum reginse sed enim miseratus amorem 

Daedalus ipse dolos tecti ambagesque resolvit, 

Ccsca regens filo vestigia. Tu quoque magnam 30 

Partem opere in tanto, sineret dolor, Icare, haberes. 

Bis conatus erat casus effingere in auro ; 

Bis patrise cecidere manus. Quin protenus omnia 

Perlegerent oculis, ni jam prremissus Achates 

AiForet atque una Phcebi Trivireque sacerdos, 35 

Deiphobe Glauci, fatur quas talia regi : 

u Non hoc ista sibi tempus spectacula poscit ; 

Nunc grege de intacto septem mactare juvencos 

Praestiterit, totidem lectas de more bidentes." 

Talibus affata iEnean — nec sacra morantur 40 

Jussa viri — Teucros vocat alta in templa sacerdos. 
Excisum Euboicae latus ingens rupis in antrum, 
Quo lati ducunt aditus centum, ostia centum ; 
Unde ruunt totidem voces, responsa Sibylla?. 
Ventum erat ad limen, quum virgo, " Poscere fata 45 

Tempus," ait : " deus, ecce deus !" Cui talia fanti 
Ante fores subito non vnltus, non color unus, 
Non comta? mansere comse ; sed pectus anhelum, 
Et rabie fera corda tument ; majorque videri, 
Nec mortale sonans, affiata est numine quando 50 

Jam propiore dei. " Cessas in vota precesque, 
Tros," ait, c: iEnea? cessas ? neque enim ante dehiscent 
Attonitse magna ora domus." Et talia fata 
Conticuit. Gelidus Teucris per dura cucurrit 
Ossa tremor, funditque preces rex pectore ab imo : 55 

" Phoebe, graves TroJEe semper miserate labores, 
Dardana qui Paridis direxti tela manusque 
Corpus in iEacidse ; magnas obeuntia terras 
Tot maria intravi, duce te, penitusque repostas 
Massylum gentes praBtentaque Syrtibus arva ; 60* 

Jam tandem Italise fugientis prendimus oras. 
Hac Trojana tenus fuerit fortuna secuta. 
Vos quoque Pergamese jam fas est parcere genti, 
Dique deaeque omnes, quibus obstitit Ilium et ingens 
Gloria Dardauiee. Tuque, o sanctissima vates, G5 

Prsescia venturi.da — non indebita posco 
Regna meisfatis — Latio considere Teucros 



^NEIDOS LIB. VI. 

Errantesque deos agitataque numina Trojse. 
Tum Phcebo et Trivia3 solido de marmore templum 
Instituam festosque dies de nomine Phoebi. 70 

Te quoque magna mancnt regnis penctralia nostris ; 
Hic*ego namque tuas sortes arcanaque fata, ■-,,<^ 
Dicta mese genti, ponam, lectosque sacrabo, 
Alma, viros. Foliis tantum ne carmina manda, 
Ne turbata volent rapidis ludibria ventis : 75 

Ipsa canas, oro." Finem dedit ore loquendi. _ 
At Phcebi nondum patiens immanis in antro 
Bacchatur vates, magnum si pectore possit 
Excussisse deum : tanto magis ille f atiga t 5^^- 
Os rabidum, fera corda domans, fingitq ue premendo . — ' 80 
Ostia jamque domus patuere ingentia centum 
Sponte sua, vatisque ferunt responsa per auras : 
" O tandem magnis pelagi defuncte periclis ! — 
Sed terra? graviora manent— in regna Lavini 
Dardanidse venient ; mitte hanc de pectore curam ; 85 

Sed non ej; venisse volent. Bella, horrida bella, 
Et Thybrim multo spumantem sanguine cerno. 
Non Simois- tibi nec Xanthus, nec Dorica castra 
Defuerint : alius Latio jam partus Achilles, 
Natus et ipse dea : nec Teucnsaddita Juno 90 

Usquam aberit ; quum tu supplex in rebus egenis 
Quas gentes Italum aUt quas non oraveris urbes ! 
Causa mali tanti conjux iterum h ospita Teucris "V J 
Externique iterum thalami. 

Tu ne cede malis ; sed contra audentior ito, 95 

Quam tua te fortuna sinet. Via prima salutis, 
Quod minime reris, Graia pandetur ab urbe." 

Talibus ex adyto dictis Cumaea Sibylla 
Horrenda= canit ambages antroque remugit 
Obscuris vera involvens : ea frena furenti 100 

Concutit, et stimulos sub pectore vertit Apollo. _ur 

Ut primum cessit furor et rabida ora quierunt, 
Incipit JEneas heros : " Non ujla laborum, 
O virgo, nova mi facies inopinave surgit : 
Omnia prgecepi atque animo mecum ante peregi. 105 

Unum oro — quando hic inferni janua regis 
Dicitur et tenebrosa palus r Acheronte refuso — 



P. VTRGILII MABONIS 

Ire ad cpnspectum cari genitoris et ora 

Contingat : doceas iter et sacra ostia pandas. 

Ulum ego per flammas et mille sequentia tela 110 

Eripui his humeris, medioque ex hoste recepi ; 

Ule meum comitatus iter maria omnia mecum 

Atque omnes pelagique minas coelique ferebat 

Inyjihdus, vires ultra sortemque senectae. 

Quin, ut te supplex peterem et tua limina adirem, 115 

Idem orans mandata dabat. Naticpepatrisque, 

AJjna, precor, miserere ; — potes namque onmia,nec te 

Nequidquam lucis Hecate prsefecit Avernis ; — 

Si potuit manes arcessere conjugis Orpheus, 

Threicia fretus cithara fidibusque canoris, 120 

Si fratrem Pollux alterna morte redemit, 

Itque reditque viam toties. Quid Thesea magnum, 

Quid memorem Alciden ? Et mi genus ab Jove summo." 

Tahbus orabat dictis, arasque tenebat ; 
Quum sic orsa loqui vates : " Sate sanguine divum 125 
Tros Anchisiada, facihs descensus Avemo ; 
Noctes atque dies patet atri janua Ditis ; 
Sed revocare gradum superasque evadere ad auras, 
Hoc opus, hic labor est. Pauci, quos aequus amavit 
Jupiter, aut ardens evexit ad aethera virtus, 130 

Dis geniti potuere. Tenent media omnia silvae, 
Cocytusque sinu labens circumvenit atro. 
Quod si tantus amor menti, si tanta cupido est, 
"Bis Stygios innare lacus, bis nigra videre 
Tartara, et insano juvat indulgere labori, ^ 135 

Accipe, quae peragenda prius. Latet ai-bore^opaca 
Aureus et fohis et lento vimine ramus, 
Junoni infemae dictus sacer : liunc tegit omnis 
Lucus et obscuris claudunt convallibus urnbrse. 
»Sed non ante datur telluris operta subire, 140 

Auricomos quam qui decerpserit arbore fetus. 
Hoc sibi pulehra suum ferri Proserpina munus 
Instituit. Primo avulso non deficit alter 
Aureus, et simili frondescit virga metallo. ' 
Ergo alte vestiga oculis, et rite repertum 145 

Carpe manu : namque ipse volens facihsque sequetur, 
Si te fata vocant : ahter, non viribus ulhs . ^ 



ANEIDOS LIB. VI. 

Vincere, rec duro poteris convellere ferro. 

Praeterea jacet exanimum tibi corpus amici — 

Heuneseis! — totamque incestat funere classem, 150 

Dum consulta petis nostroque in limine pendes. 

Sedibus hunc rejjsf^ante suis, et conde sepulcro. 

Duc nigras pecudes ; ea prima piacula sunto. 

Sic demum lucos Stygis, regna invia vivis 

Aspicies." Dixit, pressoque obmutuit oce^. ' 155 

iEneas msesto defixus lumina vultu 
Ingreditur, linquens antrum, csecosque volutat 
Eventus animo secum. Cui fidus Achates 
It comes, et paribus curis vestigia figit. 
Multa inter sese vario sermone serebant, K 160 

Quem socium exanimem vates, quod corpus humandum 
Diceret. Atque illi Misenum in litore sicco, 
Ut venere, vident indigna morte peremtum, — 
Misenum iEoliden, quo non prsestantior alter 
iEre cie_re_ viros, Martemque accendere cantu. 165 

Hectoris hic magni fuerat comes ; Hectora circum 
Et lituo pugnas insignis obibat et hasta. 
Postquam illum vita victor spoliavit Achilles, 
Dardanio iEnese sese lortissimus heros 
Addiderat socium, non inferiora secutus. 170 

Sed tum, forte cava dum personat sequora concha, 
Demens, et cantu vocat in certamina divos, 
^Emulu3 exceptum Triton, si credere dignum est, 
Inter saxa virum spumosa immerserat unda. 
LYgo omnes magno circum clamore fremebant, 175 

P reecipu e pius iEneas. Tum jussa Sibyllce, 
Haud mora ; festinant flentes, aramque sepulcri 
Congerere arboribus cceloque educere certant. 
Itur in antiquam silvam, stabula alta ferarum : 
Procumbunt picese ; sonat icta securibus ilex ; 1 80 

Fraxine r-que trabes cuneis et fissile robur 
Scinditur ; advolvunt ingentes montibus ornos. 
Ncc non ^neas opera inter talia primus 
Hortatur socios, paribusque accingitur armis. 
Atque haec ipse suo tristi cum corde volutat, 1S5 

Aspectans silvam immensam, et sic forte precatur : 
" Si nunc se nobis ille aureus arbore ramus 



P. TIRGILII MAItCmS 

Ostendat nemore in tanto ! quando omnia vere 
Heu nimium de te vates, Misene, loeuta est." 
Vix ea fatus erat, geminse quum forte columbae 190 

Ipsa sub ora viri coelo venere volantes, 
Et viridi sedere solo. Tum maximus heros 
Maternas agnoscit aves, laetusque precatur : 
" Este duces, o, si qua via est, cursumque per auras 
Dirigite in lucos, ubi pinguem dives opacat 19;/ 

Pamus humum. Tuque,o, dubiis ne defice rebus, 
I)iva parens." Sic eflatus vestigia pressit, 
Observans quae signa ferant, quo tendere pergant. 
Pascentes n)ae tantum prodire volando, 
Quantum acie possent oculi servare sequentum. -, . % \ . 200 
Inde ubi venere ad fauces graveoTentis Averni, 
Tollunt se celeres, liquidumque per aera lapsae 
Sedibus optatis geminae super arbore sidunt, 
Discolor unde auri per ramos aura refulsit. 
Quale solet silvis brumali frigore viscum 205 

Eronde virere nova, quod non sua seminat arbos, 
Et croceo letu teretes circumdare truncos : 
Talis erat species auri fr onden tis opaca 
Ilice ; sic leni crepitabat bractea vento. 
Corripit iEneas extemplo, avidusque refringit 210 

Cunctantem, et vatis portat sub tecta Sibyllae. 
Nec minus interea Misenum in litore Teucri 
Flebant, et cineri ingrato suprema ferebant. 
Principio pinguem tsedis et robore secto 
Ingentem struxere pyram, cui frondibus atris 215 

Intexunt latera, et ferales ante cupressos 
Constituunt, decorantque super fulgentibus armis. 
Pars calidos latices et ahena undantia flammis 
Expediunt, coi*pusque lavant frigentis et unguunt : 
Fit gemitus. Tum membra torp defleta reponunt, 220 
Purpureasque super vestes, velamina nota, 
Conjiciunt : pars ingenti subiere feretro, 
Triste ministerium, et subjectam more parentum 
Aversi tenuere facem. Congesta cremantur 
Thurea dona, dapes, fuso crateres olivo. 225 

Postquam collapsi cineres et flamma quievit, 
Relliquias vino et bibulam lavere favillam, 



JENEIDOS LIB. TI. 

Ossaque lecta cado texit Corynseus alieno. 

Iclem ter socios pura circumtulit unda, 

Spargens rore levi et ramo felicis olivae, 230 

Liis^iaxitque viros, dixitque novissima verba. 

At pius JEneas ingenti mole sepulcrum 

I mponit , suaque arma viro, remumque tubamquc, 

Monte sub aerio ; qui nuiic Misenus ab illo 

Dicitur, seternumque tenet per scecula nomen^. 235 

His actis propere exsequitur pra?cepta Sibyllae. 
Spelunca alta fuit vastoque immanis hiatu, 
Scrupca, tuta lacu nigro nemorumque tenebris, 
Quam super haud ullse poterant impune volantes 
Tendere iter pennis : talis sese halitus atris 24:0 

Faucibus effundens supera ad convexa ferebat : 
[Unde locum Graii dixerunt nomine Aornon.j 
Quatuor hic primum nigrantes terga juvencos 
Constituit, frontique invergit vina sacerdos, 
Et summas carpens media inter cornua saetas, 245 

Ignibus imponit sacris, libamina prima, 
Voce vocans Hecaten Cceloque Ereboque potentem : 
Supponunt alii cultros, tepidumque cruorem 
Suscipiunt pateris. Ipse atri velleris agnam 
iEneas matri Eumenidum magnseque sorori 250 

Ense ferit, sterilemque tibi, Proserpina, vaccam ; 
Tum Stygio regi nocturnas inchoat aras, 
Et solida imponit taurorum viscera flammis, 
Pingue super oleum infundens ardentibus extis. 
Ecce autem primi sub lumina solis et ortus 255 

Sub pedibus mugire solum et juga ccepta moveri 
Silvarum, visaeque canes ululare per umbram, 
Adve.itante dea. " Procul o, procul este, profani," 
Conclamat vates, " totoque absistite luco ; 
Tuque invade viam, vaginaque eripe ferrum : • 2G0 

Nunc animis opus, ^Snea, nunc pectore firmo/'- 
Tantum effata, furens antro se immisit aperto : 
llle ducem haud timidis vadentem passibus sequat. 

Di, quibus imperium est animarum, Umbra^que silen J :es, 
Et Chaos, et Phlegethon, loca nocte tacentia late, 265 

Sit mihi fas audita loqui ; sit numine vestro 
Panjlere res alta terra et caligine~mersas. 



P. YIEQILIl MAKGKIS 

Ibant obscuri sola sub nocte per umbram, 
Perque domos Ditis vacuas et inania regna. 
Quale perincertam lunam sub luce m align a 270 

Est iter in silvis : ubi coelum condidit umbra 
Jupiter, et rebus nox abstulit atra colorem. 
Vestibulum ante ipsum primisque in faucibus Orci 
^^rsj^ Lu^ctus et ultti^es posuere cubilia Curae ; 

Pallentesque babitant Morbi, tristisque Senectus, 275 

Et Metus, et malesuada Fames, ac turpis Egestas,— 
Terribiles visu formae, — Letumque, Labosque ; 
Tum consanguineus Leti Sopor, et mala mentis 
Gaudia, mortiferumque adverso in limine Bellum, 
Ferreique Eumenidum tbalami, et Discordia demens, 280 
Vipereum crinem vittis innexa cruentis. 

In medio ramos annosaque bracbia pandit S 
Ulmus opaca, ingens, quam sedem Somnia vulgo 
Vana tenere ferunt, foliisque sub omnibus hsereut. 
Multaque praeterea variarum monstra ferarum, 285 

Centauri in foribus stabulant, Scyllaeque biformes, 
Et centumgeminus Briareus, ac bellua Lernse 
Horrendum stridens, flammisque armata Chimaera, 
Gorgones, Harpyiaeque, et forma tricorporis umbrre. 
Corripit hic subita trepidus formidine ferrum 290 

iEneas, strictamque aciem venientibus offert ; 
Et, ni docta comes tenues sine corpore vitas 
Admoneat volitare cava sub imagine -formse, 
Irruat et frustra ferro divorJieret umbras. 

Hinc via, Tartarei quae fert Acherontis ad undas : 295 
Turbidus hic coeno vastaque voragine gurges 
iEstuat, atque omneni Cocyto eructat arenam. 
Portitor has horrendus aquas et flumina servat 
Terribili squalore Charon, cui plurima mento 
CanitiCs inculta jacet, stant lumina flamma, 300 

Sordidus ex humeris nodo dependet amictus. 
Ipse ratem conto subigit velisque ministrat, 
Et ferruginea subvectat corpora cymba, 
Jam senior sed cruda deo viridisque senectu s. _ 
Huc omnis turba ad ripas effusa ruebat, 305 

Matres atque viri defunctaque corpora vita 
Magnanimum heroum, pueri innupt«que puell», 



JENEIDOS LIB. TI. 

Impositique rogis juvenes ante ora parentum : 

Quam multa in silvis auctumni frigore primo 

Lapsa cadunt folia, aut ad terram gurgite ab alto 310 

Quam multae glomerantur aves, ubi frigidus annus 

Trans pontum fugat et terris immittit apricis. 

Stabant orantes primi transmittere cursum, 

Tendebantque manus ripaa ulterioris amore ; 

Navita sed tristis nunc hos, nunc accipit lllos, 315 

Ast alios longe submotos arcet arena. 

JSneas, miratus enim motusque tumultu, 

"Dic," ait, "o virgo, quid vult concursus ad amnern ? 

Quidve petunt animae ? vel quo discrimine ripas 

Hae linquunt, illae remis vada livida verrunt r" 320 

Olli sic breviter fata est longaeva sacerdos : 

M Anchisa generate, deum certissima proles, 

Cocyti stagna alta vides Stygiamque paludem, 

Di cujus jurare timent et fallere numen. 

Hsec omnis, quam cernis, inops inhumataque turba est ; 325 

Portitor ille Charon ; hi, quos vehit unda, sepulti. 

Nec ripas datur horrendas et rauca fluenta 

Transportare prius, quam sedibus ossa quierunt. 

Centum errant annos volitantque hasc litora circum : 

Tum demum admissi stagna exoptata revisunt." 330 

Constitit Anchisa satus et vestigia pressit, 

Multa putans, sortemque animo miseratus iniquam. 

Cernit ibi meestos et mortis honore carentes 

Leucaspim et Lyciae ductorem classis Orontem, 

Quos simul a Troja ventosa per aequora vectos 335 

Obruit auster, aqua involvens navemque virosque. 

Ecce gubernator sese Palinurus agebat, 
Qui Libyco nuper cursu, dum sidera servat, 
Exciderat puppi mediis effusus in undis. 
Hunc ubi vix multa maestum cognovit in umbra, 34U 

Sic prior alloquitur : " Quis te, Palinure, deomm 
Eripuit nobis, medioque sub aequore mersit ? 
Dic age. Namque mihi, fallax haud ante repertus, 
Hoc uno responso animum delusit Apollo, 
Qui fore te ponto incolumem, finesque canebat 345 

Venturum Ausonios. I2n haec promissa fides est ?" 
Ille autem : " Neque te Phcebi eortina fefellit, 



P. YIRGILII MAEONIS 

Dux Anchisiada, nec me deus aequore mersit. 

Namque gubernaclum multa vi forte revulsum, 

Cui datus haerebam custos cnrsusque regebam, 350 

Praecipitans traxi mecum. Maria aspera juro, 

Non ullum pro me tantum cepisse timorem, 

Quam tua ne, spoliata armis, excussa magistro, 

Deficeret tantis navis surgentibus undis. 

Tres notus hibernas immensa per asquora noctes S55 

Vexit me violentus aqua ; vix lumine quarto 

Prospexi Italiam summa sublimis ab unda. 

Paulktimadnabumterra) : jam tuta tcnebam, 

Ni gcns crudelis madida cum vcste gravatum 

Prensantemque uncis manibus capita aspera montis 380 

Ferro invasisset, praedamque ignara putasset. 

Nunc me fluctus habet, versantque in litore venti. 

Quod te per cceli jucundum lumen et auras, 

Per genitorem oro, per spes surgentis luli, 

Eripe me his, invicte, malis ; aut tu mihi terram 3'o5 

Injiee, namque potes, portusque require Velinos ; 

Aut tu, si qua via est, si quam tibi diva creatrix 

Ostendit, — neque enim, credo, sine numine divum 

Flumina tanta paras Stygiamque innare paludem — 

Da dextram misero, et tecum me tolle per undas, 370 

Sedibus ut saltem placidis in morte quiescam." 

Taiia fatus erat, ccepit quum talia vates : 

" Unde hoec, o Palinure, tibi tam dira cupido ? 

Tu Stygias inhumatus aquas amnemque severum 

Eumenidum aspicies, ripamve injussus adibis ? 375 

Desine fata deum flecti sperare precando. 

Sed cape dicta memor, duri solatia casus. 

Nam tua finitimi, longe lateque per urbes 

Prodigiis acti ccelestibus, ossa piabunt, 

Et statuent tumulum, et tumulo solemnia rmttent, 3S0 

iEternumque locus Palinuri nomen habebit." 

His dictis cura? emotoe, pulsusque parumper 

Corde dolor tristi ; gaudet cognomine terra.^. 

Ergo iter inceptum peragunt fluvioque propinquant : 
Navita quos jam inde ut Stygia prospexit ab unda 385 

Per tacitum nemus ire pedemque advertere ripae, 
Sic prior aggreditur dictis, atque increpat ultro : 



-SNEIDOS LIB. TI. 

" Quisquis es, armatus qui nostra ad flumina tcndis, 

Fare age, quid venias ; jam istinc, et comprime gressum. 

Umbrarum hic locus est, Somni Noctisque sopora? ; 390 

Corpora viva nefas Stygia vectare carina. 

Ncc vero Alciden me sum laetatus euntcm 

Accepisse lacu, nec Thesea Pirithoumque, • 

Dis quanquam geniti atque invicti viribus essent. 

Tartareum ille manu custodem in vincla petivit, 30u 

Ipsius a solio regis, traxitque trementem : 

lli dominam Ditis thalamo deducere adorti." 

Quae contra breviter fata est Amphrysia vates : 

" Nullae hic insidiae tales ; absiste moveri ; 

Nec vim tela ferunt : licet ingens janitor antro 400 

yEternum latrans exsangues terreat umbras ; 

Casta licet patrui servet Proserpina limen. 

Troius iEneas, pietate insignis et armis, 

Ad genitorem imas Erebi descendit ad umbras. 

Si te nulla movet tantae pietatis imago, 405 

At ramum hunc (aperit ramum, qui veste latebat) 

Agnoscas." Tumida ex ira tum corda residunt. 

Nec plura his. Ille admirans venerabile donum 

Fatalis virgse longo post tempore visum, 

Cseruleam advertit puppim, ripseque propinquat. 410 

Inde alias animas, quaj per juga longa sedebant, 

Deturbat, laxatque foros : simul accipit alveo 

Ingentem ^Enean. Gemuit sub pondere cymba 

Sutilis, et multam accepit rimosa paludem. 

Tandem trans fluvium incolumis vatemque virumque 415 

Informi limo glaucaque exponit in ulva. 

Cerberus haec ingens latratu regna trifauci 
Personat, adverso recubans immanis in antro. 
Cui vates, horrere videns jam colla colubris, 
Melle soporatam et medicatis frugibus offam 420 

Objicit. Ille fame rabida tria guttura pandens 
Corripit objectam, atque immania terga resolvit 
Fusus humi, totoque ingens extenditur antro. 
Occupat iEneas aditum custode sepulto, 
Evaditque celer ripam irremeabilis undae. 425 

Continuo auditae voces, vagitus et ingens 
Infantumque anim* flentes, in limine primo, 

v 



P. VIEGILII MABONIS 



Quos dulcis vitaa exsortes et ab ubere raptos 

Abstulit atra dies et funere mersit acerbo. 

Hos juxta falso damnati crimine mortis. 430 

Nec vero hae sine sorte datae, sine judice, sedes ; 

Qusesitor Minos urnam movet ; ille silentum 

Conciliumque vocat vitasque et crimina discit. 

Proxima deinde tenent msesti loca, qui sibi letum 
Insontes peperere manu, lucemque perosi 435 

Projecere animas. Quam vellent aethere in alto 
Nunc et pauperiem et duros perferre labores ! 
Fas obstat, tristique palus inamabilis unda 
Alligat, et novies Styx interfusa coercet. 
Nec procul hinc partem fusi monstrantur in omnem 440 
Lugentes campi ; sic illos nomine dicunt. 
Hic, quos durus amor crudeli tabe peredit, 
Secreti celant calles et myrtea circum 
Silva tegit ; curae non ipsa in morte relinquunt. 
His Phaedram Procinque locis, msestamque Eriphylen 445 
Crudelis nati monstrantem vulnera,cernit, 
Evadnenque et Pasiphaen ; his Laodamia 
It comes,et juvenis quondam, nunc femina, Caenens, 
Rursus et in veterem fato revoluta figuram. 

Inter quas Phcenissa recens a vulnere Dido 450 

Errabat silva in magna ; quam Troius heros 
Ut primum juxta stetit agnovitque per umbram 
Obscuram, qualem primo qui surgere mense 
Aut videt aut vidisse putat per nubila lunam, 
Demisit lacrimas, dulcique affatus amore est : 455 

"Infelix Dido, verus mihi nuntius ergo 
Venerat, exstinctam ferroque extrema secutam ? 
Funeris heu tibi causa fui ? Per sidera juro, 
Per superos, et si qua fides tellure sub ima est, 
Invitus, regina, tuo de litore cessi. 460 

Sed me jussa deum, quae nunc has ire per umbras, 
Per loca senta situ cogunt noctemque profundam, 
Imperiis egere suis ; nec credere quivi 
Hunc tantum tibi me discessu ferre dolorem. 
Siste gradum, teque aspectu ne subtrahe nostro. 465 

Quem fugis ? extremum fato, quod te alloquor, hoc est." 
Talibus iEneas ardentem efc torva tuentem 



iENEIDOS LIB. VI. 

Lenibat dictis animum, lacrimasque ciebat. 

Illa solo fixos oculos aversa tenebat ; 

Nec magis incepto vultum sermone movetur, 470 

Quam si dura silex aut stet Marpesia cautes. 

Tandem corripuit sese, atque inimica refugit 

In nemus umbriferum, conjux ubi pristinus illi 

Respondet curis, aequatque Sychaeus amorem. 

Nec minus ^Eneas, casu percussus iniquo, 475 

Prosequitur lacrimans longe et miseratur euntem. 

Inde datum molitur iter. Jamque arva tenebant 
Ultima, quse bello clari secreta frequentant. 
Hic illi occurrit Tydeus, hic inclytus armis 
Parthenopseus, et Adrasti pallentis imago. 480 

Hic multum fleti «d superos" belloque caduci 
Dardanidae : quos ille omnes longo ordine cernens 
Ingemuit, Glaucumque Medontaque Thersilocbumque, 
Tres Antenoridas, Cererique sacrum Polyphceten, 
Idaeurnque, etiam ciutus, etiam arma tenentem. 485 

Circumstant aninise dextra lsevaque frequentes. 
Nec vidisse semel satis esfc ; juvat usque morari, 
Et conferre gradum, et veniendi discere causas. 
At Danaum proceres Agamemnoniseque phalanges ; 
Ut videre virum fulgentiaque arma per umbras, 490 

Ingenti trepidare metu : pars vertere terga, 
Ceji quondam petiere rates ; pars tollere vocem 
Exiguam : inceptus clamor frustratur hiantes. 

Atque hic Priamiden laniatum corpore toto 
Delphobum videt, et lacerum crudeliter ora. • 495 

Ora rnanusque ambas, populataque tempora raptis 
Auribus, et truncas inhonesto vulnere nares. 
Vix adeo agnovTt pavitantem et dira tegentem 
Supplicia, et notis compellat vocibus ultro : 
" Deiphobe armipotens, genus alto a sanguine Teucri, 500 
Quis tam crudeles optavit sumere pcenas ? 
Cui tantum de te Hcuit ? Mihi fama suprema 
Nocte tulit fessum vasta te caede Pelasgum 
Procubuisse super confusa? stragis acervum. 
Tunc egomet tumulum Rhceteo in litore inanem 505 

Constitui, et magna manes ter voce vocavi. 
Nomen et arma locum servant : te, amice, nequivi 



P. TIRGILII MAItO> T J3 

Conspicere et patria decedens ponere terra." 

Ad quae Priamides : " Nihil o tibi amice relictum ; 

Omnia Deiphobo solvisti et funeris umbris. 510 

Sed me fata mea et scelus exitiale Lacaena? 

His mersere malis : illa hsec monumenta reliquit. 

Namque, ut supremam falsa inter gaudia noctcm 

Egerimus, nosti; et nimium meminisse neccsse cst. 

Quum fatalis equus saltu super ardua venit 515 

Pergama et armatum peditem gravis attulit alvo : 

Illa chorum simulans cvantes orgia circum 

Ducebat Phrygias ; flammam media ipsa tenebat 

Ingentem, et summa Danaos ex arce vocabat. 

Tum me confectum curis somnoque gravaturn 520 

Infelix habuit thalamus, pressitque jacentem 

Dulcis et alta quies placidaeque simillima morti. 

Egregia interea conjux arma omnia tectis 

Amovet, et fidum capiti subduxerat ensem ; 

Intra tecta vocat Meneiaum, et limina pandit, 525 

Scilicet id magnum sperans fore mimus amanti, 

Et famam exstingui vetefum sic posse malorum. 

Quid moror ? iiTumpunt thalamo ; comes additus una 

Hortator scelerum iEolides. Di, talia Graiis 

Instaurate, pio si pcEnas ore reposco. 530 

Sed te qui vivurn casus, age fare vicissim, 

Attulerint. Pelagine venis erroribus actus, 

An monitu divum ? an quse te fortuna fatigat, 

Ut tristes sine sole domos, loca turbida, adires r" 

Hac vice sermonum roseis Aurora quadrigis 535 

Jam medium astherio cursu trajecerat axem ; 

Et fors omne datum traherent per talia tempus : 

Sed comes admonuit, breviterque affiita Sibylla est : 

'•Nox ruit, ^Enea; nos rlendo ducimus horas. 

tlic locus est, partes ubi se via findit in ambas : 5±0 

Dextera quas Ditis magni sub nicinia tcndit, 

Hac iter Flysium nobis : at lteva malorum 

Exercet pcenas, et ad impia Tartara mittit." 

Deiphobus contra : " Xe sasvi, magna sacerdos ; 

Discedam, explebo numerum, reddai*que tenebris. 545 

I decus, i, nostrum ; mehoribus utere fatis." 

Tantum efiatus, et in verbo vestigia torsit, 



■fiKEIDOS LIB. VI. 

Respicit jEneas subito, et sub rupe siuistra 
Mcenia lata videt, triplici circumdata muro, 
Quas rapidus flammis ambit torrentibus amnis 550 

Tartareus Phlegethon, torquetque sonantia saxa. 
Porta adversa, ingens, solicloque adamante columna?, 
Vis ut nulla virum, non ipsi exscindere ferro 
Ccelicolse valeant. Stat ferrea turris ad auras ; 
Tisiplioneque sedens, palla succincta cruenta. 555 

Yestibulum exsomnis servat noctesque diesque, 
Hinc exaudin gemitus, et sseva sonare 
Verbera ; tum stridor ferri tractasque catenae. 
Constitit ^Eneas, strepituque exterritus haesit. 
" Quae scelerum facies ? o virgo, effare : quibusve 5G0 

Urgentur pcenis ? quis tantus plangor ad auras ?" 
Tum vates sic orsa loqui : " Dux inclyte Teucrum, 
Nulli fas casto sceleratum insistere limen ; 
Sed me quum lucis Hecate prsefecit Avernis, 
Ipsa deum pcenas docuit, perque omnia duxit. 565 

Gnosius hgec Rhadamanthus habet durissima regna, 
Castigatque auditque dolos, subigitque fateri, 
Quae quis apud superos, furto lsetatus inani, 
Distulit in seram commissa piacula mortem. 
Continuo sontes ultrix accincta flagello 570 

Tisiphone quatit insultans, torvosque sinistra 
Intentans angues vocat agmina sajva sororum. 
Tum demum horrisono striden£es"cardine sacr* 
Panduntur portce. Cernis, custodia qualis 
Vestibulo sedeat ? facies qua3 limina servet ? 575 

Quinquaginta atris immanis hiatibus Hydra 
Ssevior intus habet sedem. Tum Tartarus ipse 
Bis patet in prreccps tantum tenditque sub umbras, 
Quantus ad aetherium cceli suspectus Olympum. 
Hic genus antiquum Terrse, Titania pubes, 580 

Fulmine dejecti fundo volvuntur in imo. 
Hic et Aloidas geminos, immania vidi 
Corpora, qui manibus magnum rescindere ccelum 
Aggressi, superisque Jovem detrudere regnis. 
Vidi et crudeles dantem Salmonea pcenas, 5S5 

Dum flammas Jovis et sonitus imitatur Olympi. 
Quatuor hic invectus equis et lampada quassans 



P. VIBGILII MARONIS 

Per Graium populos mediseque per Elidis urbem 

Ibat ovans, divumque sibi poscebat honorem, 

Demens ! qui nimbos et non ,imitabile fubnen 690 

Mre et cornipedum pulsu simularet equorum. 

At pater omnipotcns densa inter nubila telum 

Contorsit, non ille faces nec fumea tsedis 

Lumina, prsecipitemque immani turbine adegit. ' 

!Nec non et Tityon, Terrae onmiparentis alumnum, 595 

Cernere erat, per tota novem cui jugera corpus 

Porrigitur, rostroque immanis vultur obunco 

Immortale jecur tondens fecundaque pcenis 

Viscera rimaturque epulis habitatque sub alto 

Pectore ; nec fibris requies datur ulla renatis. 600 

Quid memorem Lapithas, Ixiona Pirithoumque ? 

Quos super atra silex jam jam hypsura cadentique 

Imminet assimilis. Lucent genialibus altis 

Aurea fulcra toris, epulaeque ante ora paratae 

Hegifico luxu ; Furiaram maxima juxta 605 

Accubat, et manibus prohibet contingere mensas, 

Exsurgitque facem attollens, atque intonat ore. 

Hic, quibus invisi fratres, dum vita manebat, 

Pulsatusve parens, et fraus innexa clienti ; 

Aut qui divitiis soli incubuere repertis, 610 

Nec partem posuere suis, quse maxima turba est ; 

Quique ob adulterium csesi ; quique arma secuti 

Impia, nec veriti dominorum fallere dextras, — 

Inclusi pcenam exspectant. Ne quaere doceri, 

Quam poenam, aut qua^ forma vii-os fortunave mersit. 615 

Saxum ingens volvunt alii, radiisve rotarum 

Districti pendent ; sedet aeternumque sedebit 

Infelix Theseus ; Phlegjasque miserrimus omnes 

Admonet, et magna testatur voce per umbras : 

' Discite justitiam moniti, et non temnere divos/ 620 

Vendidit hic auro patriam, dominumque potentem 

Imposuit - fixit leges pretio atque refixit : 

Hic thalamum invasit natae vetitosque hymenaeos : 

Ausi omnes immane nefas, ausoque potiti. 

Non, mihi si linguae centum sint oraque centum, 625 

Ferrea vox, omnes scelerum comprendere formas, 

Omnia pcenarum percurrere nomina possim." 



JJNEID09 LIB. VI. 

Haec ubi dicta dedit Phoebi longseva sacerdos : 
" Sed jam age, carpe viam et susceptum perfice munus ; 
Acceleremus," ait: " Cyclopum educta caminis 630 

Moenia conspicio atque adversb fornice portas, 
Haec ubi nos proecepta jubent deponere dona." 
Dixerat, et pariter gressi per opaca viarum 
Corripiunt spatium medium, foribusque propinquant. 
Occupat iEneas aditum, corpusque recenti 635 

Spargit aqua, ramumque adverso in limine figit. 

His demum exactis, perfecto munere divae, 
Devenere locos laetos et amoena vireta 
Fortunatoram nemorum sedesque beatas. 
Largior hic campos sether et lumine vestit 640 

Purpureo, solemque suum,"sua sidera norunt. 
Pars in gramineis exercent membra palaestris, 
Contendunt ludo et fulva luctantur arena ; 
Pars pedibus plaudunt choreas et carmina dicunt. 
Nec non Threicius longa cum veste sacerdos 645 

Obloquitur numeris septem discrimina vocum, 
Jamque eadem digitis, jam pectine pulsat ebumo. 
Hic genus antiquum Teucri, pulcherrima proles, 
Magnanimi heroes, nati melioribus annis, 
Ilusque Assaracusque et Trojae Dardanus auctor. 650 

Arma procul currusque virum miratur inanes. 
Stant terra defixae hastae, passimque soluti 
Per campos pascuntur equi. Quae gratia curruum 
Armorumque fuit vivis, quse cura nitentes 
Pascere equos, eadem sequitur tellure repostos. 655 

Conspicit ecce alios dextra laevaque per herbam 
Vescentes laetumque choro Paaana canentes, 
Inter odoratum lauri nemus, unde superne 
Plurimus Eridani per silvam volvitur amnis. 
Hic manus ob patriam pugnando vulnera passi, 660 

Quique sacerdotes casti, dum vita manebat, 
Quique pii vates et Phcebo digna locuti, 
Inventas aut qui vitam excoluere per artes, 
Quique sui memores alios fecere merendo : 
Omnibus his nivea cinguntur tempora vitta. 665 

Quos circumfusos sic est aifata Sibylla, — 
Musaeum ante omnes ; medium nam plurima turba 



T. YIKGILTI MAItO>~l3 

Huno habet, atque hirmeris exstantem suspicit altis : — 

" Dicite, felices anima?, tuque, optime vates, 

Quse regio Anchisen, quis habet locus ? illius ergo G70 

Venimus et magnos Erebi tranavimus amnes." 

Atque huic responsum paucis ita redclidit heros : 

" Nulli certa domus : lucis habitamus opacis, 

Kiparumque toros et prata recentia rivis 

Incolimus. * Sed vos, si fert ita ccrde voluntas, 675 

Hoe superate jugum : et facili jam tramite sistam." 

Dixit, et ante tulit gressum, camposque nitentes 

Desuper ostentat ; dehinc summa cacumina linquunt. 

At pater Anehises penitus convalle virenti 
Tnclusas animas superumque ad lumen ituras 6S0 

Lustrabat studio recolens, omnemque suorum 
Forte recensebat numerum carosque nepotes, 
Fataque fortunasque virum moresque manusque. 
Isque ubi tendentem adversum per gramina vidit 
iEnean, alacris palmas utrasque tetendit, 685 

Effusasque genis lacrimse, et vox excidit ore : 
" Venisti tandem, tuaque spectata parenti 
Vicit iter duruni pietas ? datur ora tueri, 
Nate, tua, et notas audire et reddere voces ? 
Sic equidem ducebain animo rebarque futurum, 690 

Tempora dinumerans, nec me mea cura fefellit. 
Quas ego te terras et quanta per sequora vectum 
Accipio ! quantis jactatum, nate, periclis ! 
Quam metui, ne quid Libyoe tibi regna nocerent!" 
Ille autem : " Tua me, genitor, tua tristis imago, 695 

Seepius occurrens, hsec limina tendere adegit. 
Stant sale Tyrrheno classes. Da jungere dextram, 
Da, genitor, teque amplexu ne subtrahe nostro." 
Sic memorans largo fletu simul ora rigabat. 
Ter conatus ibi collo dare brachia circum, 700 

Ter frustra eomprensa manus effugit imago, 
Par levibus ventis volucrique similhma somno. 

Interea videt ^neas in valle reducta 
Seclusum nemus et virgulta sonantia silvis, 
Letheeumque, domos placidas qui pramatat, amnem. 705 
Hunc circum immuneraB gentes populique volabant : 
Ac velut in pratis ubi apes aestate serena 



^ETDOS LTIJ. Vt. 

Floribus insidunt variis, et candida circum 

Lilia funduntur ; strepit omnis murmure campus. 

Horrescit visu subito, causasque requirit 710 

Insciu s JEncas, quae sint ea flumina porxo, 

Quive viri tanto complerint agmine ripas. 

Tum pater Anchises : " Animse, quibus altera fato 

Corpora debentur, Lethsei ad fluminis undam 

Securos latices et longa oblivia potant. 715 

Has equidem memorare tibi atque ostendere coram, 

Ja mpri dem hanc prolem cupio enumerare meorum, 

Quo magis Italia mecum leetere reperta. 

pater, anne aliquas ad ccelum hinc ire putandum est 

Sublimes animas, iterumque ad tarda reverti 720 

Corpora ? quse lucis miseris tam dira cupido ? 

Dicam equidem, nec te suspensum, nate, tenebo," 

Suscipit Anchises, atque orcline singula pandit. 

" Principio ccelum ac terras camposque liquentes 
Lucentemque globum Lunse Titaniaque astra 725 

Spiritus intus alit, totamque infusa per artus 
Mens agitat molem et magno se corpore miscet. 
Inde hominum pecudumque genus vitseque volantum 
Et quae marmoreo fert moiistra sub sequore pontus. 
Igneus est ollis vigor et ccelestis origo 7B0 

Seminibus; quantum non noxia corpora tardant 
Terrenique hebetant artus moribundaque membra. 
Hinc metuunt cupiuntque, dolent gaudentque ; neque 
Despiciunt clausaTtenebris et carcere cseco. [auras 

Quin et supremo quum lumine vita reliquit, 735 

Non tamen omne malum miseris nec funditus omnes 
Corporeae excedunt pestes, penitusque necesse est 
Multa jji concreta modis inolescere miris. 
Ergo exercentur pcenis, veterumque malorum 
Supplicia expendunt. Aliae panduntur inanes 7-10 

Suspensse ad ventos ; aliis sub gurgite vasto 
Infectum eluitur scelus, aut exuritur igni. 
Q uisque suos patimur manes ; exinde per amplum 
Mittimur Elysium, et pauci laeta arva tenemus, 
Donec longa dies, perfecto temporis orbe, 745 

Concretam exemit labem, purumque relinquit 
jfttherium sensum atque aurai simplicis ignem. 



P, VIEGILII MAB.ONIB 

Has omnes, ubi mille rotam volvere per annos, 
Lethaeum ad fluvium deus evocat agmine magno, 
Scihcet immemores supera ut convexa revisant 750 

Rursus, et incipiant in corpora velle reverti." 
Dixerat Anchises ; natumque unaque Sibyllam 
Conventus trahit in medios turbamque sonantem : 
Et tumulum capit, unde omnes longo ordine possit 
Adversos legere, et venientum discere vultus. 755 

" Nunc age, Dardaniam prolem quae deinde sequatur 
Gloria, qui maneant Itala de gente nepotes, 
Illustres animas nostrumque in nomen ituras, 
Expediam dictis, et te tua fata docebo. 
Ille, vides, pura juvenis qui nititur hasta, 760 

Proxima sorte tenet lucis loca, primus ad auras 
iEtherias Italo commixtus sanguine surget 
Silyius, Albanum nomen, tua postuma proles, 
Quem tibi longsevo serum Lavinia conjux 
Educet silvis regem regumque parentem : 765 

Unde genus Longa nostrum dominabitur Alba. 
Proximus ille Procas, Trojanae gloria gentis, 
Et Capys, et Nurnitor, et qui te nomine reddet 
Silvius iEneas, pariter pietate vel armis 
Egregius, si unquam regnandam acceperit Albam. 770 

Qui juvenes ! quantas ostentant, aspice, vires ! 
Atqne umbrata gerunt civili tempora quercu! 
Hi tibi Nomentum et Gabios urbemque Fidenam, 
Hi Collatinas imponent montibus arces, 
[Laude pudicitise celebres, addentque superbos] 775 

Pometios Castrumque Inui Bolamque Coramque. 
Haec tum nomina erunt, nunc sunt sine nomine terrae. 
Quin st avo comitem sese Mavortius addet 
Bomulus, Assaraci quem sanguinis Iha mater 
Educet. Viden' ut gemin99 stant vertice cristae, 780 

Et pater ipse suo superum jam signat honore ? 
En hujus, nate, auspiciis illa inclyta Roma 
Imperium terris, animos sequabit Olympo, 
Septemque una sibi muro circumdabit arces, 
Felix prole virum : quahs Berecyntia mater 785 

Invehitur curru Phrygias turrita per urbes, 
Lseta deum partu, centum complexa nepotes, 



.ENEIDOS LTB. VT. 

Omnes coelicolas, omnes supera alta tenentes. 

Huc geminas nunc flejste acies, hanc aspice gentem 

Romanosque tuos. Hic Caesar, et omnis Iuli 790 

Progenies, magnum cceli ventura sub axem. 

Hic vir, hic est, tibi quem promitti saepius audis, 

Augustus Caesar, Divi genus : aurea condet 

Saecula qui rursus Latio, regnata per arva 

Saturno quondam, super et Garamantas et Indos 795 

Proferet imperium : jacet extra sidera tellus^ 

Extra anni Solisque vias, ubi ccelifer Atlas 

Axem humero torquet stellis ardentibus aptum. 

Hujus in adventum jam nunc et Caspia regna 

Responsis horrent divum et Maeotia tellus, 800 

Et septemgemini turbant trepida ostia Nili. 

Nec vero Alcides tantum telluris obivit, 

Fixerit aeripidem cervam licet, aut Erymanthi 

Pacarit nernora, et Lernam tremefecerit arcu : 

Nec,qui pampineis victor juga flectit habenis, 805 

Liber, agens celso Nysae de vertice tigres. 

Et dubitamus adhuc virtutem extendere Factis ? 

Aut metus Ausonia prohibet consistere terra ? 

Quis procul ille autem ramis insignis olivae 

Sacra ferens ? Nosco crines incanaque menta 810 

Regis Romani, primam qui legibus urbem 

Fundabit, Curibus parvis et paupere terra 

Missus in imperium magnum. Cui deinde subibit, 

Otia qui rumpet patrise residesque movebit 

Tullus in arma viros et jam desueta triumphis 815 

Agmina. Quem juxta sequitur jactantior Ancus, 

Nunc quoque jam nimium gaudens popularibus auris. 

Vis et Tarquinios reges animamque superbam 

Ultoris Bruti, fascesque videre receptos ? 

Consulis imperium hic primus ssevasque secures 820 

Accipiet, natosque pater nova bella moventes 

Ad pcenam pulchra pro libertate vocabit, 

Infelix ! Utcumque ferent ea facta minores, 

Vincet amor patrise laudumque immensa cupido. 

Quin Decios Drusosque procul saeyumque securi 825 

Aspice Torquatum et referentem s%na Camillum. 

Illaa autem, paribus quas fulgere cerros in armis, 






P. VIHGILII llAEOXlS 

Concordes animse nunc et dum nocte premuntur, 

Heu quantum inter se bellum, si lumina vitse 

Attigerint, quantas acies stragemque ciebunt ! 830 

Aggeribus socer Alpinis atque arce Monceci 

Descendens, gener adversis iustructus Eois. 

Ne, pueri, ne tanta animis assueseite bella, 

Neu patrise validas in viscera vertite vires : 

Tuque prior, tu parce, genus qui ducis Olympo ; 835 

Projice tela manu, sanguis meus. 

Ille triumphata Capitolia ad alta Corintho 

Victor aget cuiTum, csesis insignis Achivis. 

Eruet ille Argos Agamemnoniasque Mycenas, 

Ipsumque JEaciden, genus armipotentis Achilli, 840 

Ultus avos Trojse, templa et temerata Minervae. 

Quis te, magne Cato, tacitum, aut te, Cosse, relinquat ? 

Quis Gracchi genus, aut geminos, duo fulmina belli, 

Scipiadas, cladem Libya?, parvoque potentem 

Fabricium ? vel te sulco, Serrane, serentem ? 845 

Quo fessum rapitis, Fabii ? tu Maximus ille es, 

Unus qui nobis cunctando restituis rem. 

Excudent alii spirantia molhus sera, 

Credo equidem, vivos ducent de marmore vultus ; 

Orabunt causas melius, ccelique meatus 850 

Describent radio I et surgentia sidera dicent : 

Tu regere imperio populos, Eomane, memento ; 

Hse tibi erunt artes. pacisque imponere morem, 

Parcere subjectis, et debellare superbos." 

Sic pater Anchises, atque hsec mirantibus addit ; 855 
" Aspice, ut insignis spohis Marcellus opimis 
Ingreditur, victorque viros supereminet omnes ! 
Hic rem Romanam, magno tm:bante tumultu, 
Sistet, eques sternet Pcenos Gallumque rebellem, 
Tertiaque arma patri suspendet capta Quirino. 860 

Atque hic iEneas — una namque ire videbat 
Egregium forma juvenem et fulgentibus armis, 
Sed frons laeta parum, et dejecto lumina vultu : — 
" Quis, pater, ille virum qui sic comitatur euntem ? 
Filius, anne ahquis magna de stirpe nepotum ? 8G5 

Qui strepitus circa comitum ! quantum instar in ipso est ! 
Sed Nox atra caput tristi circumvolat umbra." 



JENEIDOS LIB. VI. 

Tum pater Anchises, lacrimis ingressus obortis : 
" nate,ingentem luctum ne qusere tuorum ; 
Ostendent terris liunc tantum fata, ncque ultra 873 

Esse sinent. Nimiirai vobis Eomana propago 
Visa potens, Superi, propria haec si dona fuisscnt. 
Quantos ille virum magnam Mavortis ad urbem 
' Campus aget gemitus ! vel qua3, Tiberine, videbis 
Funera, quum tumulum prseterlabere recentem ! 875 

Nee puer Iliaca quisquam de gente Latinos 
In tantum spe tollet avos ; nec Romula quondam 
Ullo se tantam tellus jactabit alumno. 
Heu pietas, heu prisca fidcs, invictaque bello 
Dextera! non illi se quisquam impune tulisset 8S0 

Obvius armato, seu quum pedes iret in hostem, 
Seu spumantis equi foderet calcaribus armos. 
Heu miserande pucr ! si qua fata aspera rumpas, 
Tu Marcellus eris. Manibus date liiia plenis : 
Purpureos sparagam flores, animamque nepotis 885 

His saltem accumulem donis, et fungar inani 
Munere." Sic tota passim regione vagantur 
Aeris in campis latis, atque omnia lustrant. 
Quce postquam Anchises natum per singula duxit, 
Incenditque animum famce venientis amore, 890 

Exin bella viro memorat quce deinde gerenda, 
Laurentesque docet populos, urbemque Latini, 
Et quo quemque modo fugiatque feratque laborem. 

Sunt geminaB Somni portae, quarum altera fertur 
Cornea, qua veris facilis datur exitus umbris ; 895 

Altera candenti perfecta nitens elephanto, 
Sed falsa ad coelum mittunt insomniaManes. 
His ubi tum natum Anchises unaque Sibyllam 
Prosequitur dictis, portaque emittit eburna, 
Ille viam secat ad naves sociosque revisit ; 900 

Tum se ad Caietse recto fert limite portum. 
Ancora de prora jacitur ; stant litore puppe3. 




NOTES ON THE ^ENEID. 



The great Epic Poem of the Romans, the JExeid, derives its name from the hero iEueas, 
whose wars in Italy, previous to his successM settlement there, with a colony of 
Trojans, it reeords and celebrates. iEneas, the vaJiant icarrior and pious teorshipper of 
the gods, is a personification of the Roman people, and therefore the characteristics of 
the nation in the two peculiarities just mentioned, the poet takcs all pains to bring out 
and exalt. In particular, he loses no opportunity of complhnenting the Julian family, 
through its legeudary founder, and especially his patron and emperor, Augustus. In the 
g-eneral idea and plan of the work, as well as in iudividual descriptions, sentiments, and 
phrases, our author is largely indebted to the Grceks — to Homer, to Apollonius Rhodius, 
und other Alexandriues ; «unong the Latins. Naevius and Ennius are the principal ob- 
jects of his imitation. 



BOOK FIRST. 

ARGUMEST 

After statlng the subject ofthepoem generally (1-7), and accounting for the resent- 
nient of Juno to the Trojan race (8-33), the poet introduces his hero, vEneas, the son of 
Anchises and Venus, in the seventh year of his wanderinirs after the destruction of Troy, 
when he had just started from Sicily, and was making for the Italian iiiainland: atem- 
pest is sent forth against him by iEolus, at the instigation of Juno, and drives his shat- 
tered ships on the coast of Africa (34-158). He lands, slays seven stags of immense size, 
gfvea oue carcase to each of the seveu ships now remahung to hhn, and exhorts bi* 



D. 1. 



NOTES ox the ,eneid. 



B. I j. 



fellow exiles to patience and hopc (159-207). The banquet of the ships' crews followe 
(308-222). Venus plcads the cause of her son, iEneas, and of the Trojans, before 
Jupiter, and lays all thc blame of their misfortunes on Juno. The king of the gods being 
moved by the appeal, discloses the dccrees of tlie Fates, and consoles his daughter by 
the assurance of future prosperity and unbounded empire to the Trojans in their descend 
ants, the Koman people (223-304). Satisucd with the declaration of Jupiter, Venus de- 
BCends to carth. and in the guise of a huntress, presents herself toiEneas, announces that 
the Bbipa wbicb he had Bupposed lost were safe in port, and shows the city of Carthage 
in progress of building by the Phoenician Dido (305-409). ^Eneas, under cover of a cloud, 
cnters Carthage in company with his faithful attendant, Achates, and there discovers his 
companions from the missing ships. An explanation and disclosure take place, and all 
arc kindly received by Dido (410-456). The book concludes (C57-756) with the devicc oi 
\'enus in substituting Cnpid for Ascanius, the son of -Eneas, aud thereby inflaming Qucec 
Dido with a passionate love for her guest, upon whose evcry word she hangs, and whom 
sfie invites to give a full recital of the cvents connectcd with the downfall of Troy, and 
liis :iwn wanderings. 

The four verses from IUe ego—io horrentia 
Martil are printedby Heyne, Forbiger, and 
otliers, m a different type, since their genu- 
incness is doubtful. Burmann, Feerlkamp, 
Heiusius, and ahost of other commentators. 
condemn them as "unworthy of the genius 
of VirgU, and inconsistcnt with the dignity 
of epic ppetiy," and assign them to some 
unknown grammarian. They are found, 
howcver, in several MSS. of the highest 
authority, and are supported by the sanction 
of Servius and Donatus; besides, theyare by 
no mcans devoid of terseness and elegance, 
nor do they dishonour the taste or the talent 
of Virgil. Wagner, therefore, in elaborate 
annotation, defends them. He does not 
suppose them to have formed originally the 
beginnmg ofthe iEnckl, bnt to have been 
nrerixed, as an inscription. to a few copies 
of the first book, which the poet circulated 
among private friends, as a sample of the 
whole. For, as he was now reluctantly 
abandoning those kinds of poetry on whicb 
his fame had been raised, and was turning 
to a species new to him, the reception of 
which might be very doubtfiU, he wonld 
naturaUy be anxious to procurc friendly 
cnticism, so as to amend his work before 
poblication. We arenottosuppose,howevcr, 
that he intended the lincs as an introduction 
to be put forth to the gencral pubUc, though 
Servius and Donatus allege that they were 
expunged by Tucca and Varius, to whom, 
nfter VirgiTs death, the revision of the 
JSneid, preparatory to publication, was en- 
trusted Wagner'8 opinion is adopted by 
Forbigei, jtossran, etc. 

Translate paraphrasticaUy thus — "Iam 
ue who formerly tuned (modidatiis sum) a 
lay on my sknder oat-reed (viz., the 
Eclogues), and having abandoned pastorat 
poetry (egressus silris), took -ap a kindred 
Bubject, and by my preccpts (in the Georgics) 
compeUed the fields to satisfy the wishes of 
the new-settler. however avaricious he was. 
(This poem of mhie was) a work acceptable 
io husbandmen ; butnow" Cano horrentia 
armn Mards, etc, 

S 



Spenscr, in his introduclion to the Faery 
Queen, has borrowed from VirgU — 

Lo! I the man whosc muse whUomc did 

maske 
As Time her taught, in lowly shephcrd'3 

weeds, 
Am now enfors't — a farreunfittertaske — 
For trumpets sterne to change mine oatcn 

reeds, 
And sing of knights' and ladies' gentle 

deeds. 

Jlk ego—So Ovid Fast. ui. 505, IUa ego 
sum, cui tu solitus promittere coelum. Ego 
may be subject to sum, understood, or to 
cano. 

Avena is the emblem of Buconc poetry, 
or of that which haa not an elevated sub- 
joct. It is opposed to tuba, which is some- 
timcs used to represent heroic poetry. 

Silcis, i.e., pastorals, since there are pas- 
ture grounds hi the woods ; so the Bucolic 
muse is caUed Silvestris. 

Vicina scil. silvis a>-va: the poet wishes tn 
indicatc by the word the close connection 
in subjc-ct betwecn the BucoUcs and tlic 
Georgics. Gossrau. 

Ut parerent. Some have denied that nl 
with thc subjunctive after cogere is a lcgi- 
a aistruction ; but compare Cic. in 
CatU. iv. 3, Senatus P. Lcntuhun ut se ab- 
dicaret praetura coegit. The fields (arca) 
are saicl (parere colonis) in the same way 
that the husbandmen are said iu Geo. L 91», 
imperare arvis. 

Observe the contrast in sound between 
the two parts of the Une gratum opus agri- 
cjlis; and at nunc horrentia Martis. 

1. In imitation of Homer in the IUad and 
Odyssey, VirgU states the argument of the 
J3neid in a very few lines ; the sum of it is 
the arrival of JEneas in Italy, and the re- 
ception of a settlement there according 
i to the league made with Latinus, xil 187 
isqq. 

| Arma, virumque, i.e., warsandthefatesof 
I tliat man. Burmann and Wagner (the for- 
l mer of whorn, as has been said, rejects the 



B. I. 2. 



NOTES ON TilE j;NELL>. 



B. I. 3, 4. 



first four lines) consider this a Hendiadys 
for "the fates of that warlike nian." But 
It is better, even should we entirely disallow 
the suspected verses, to keep the two words 
separate and distinct, each haviug its pecu- 
liar importance in the introduction, since 
the Roraau poet endeavoured to combine 
the subject of war (arnw) and the personal 
adventures of one of its chiefs (virum) in 
the same book, though his great exemplar 
had devoted a whole poem to each indi- 
vidually. 

Primus=Pnmo, olim, according to Heyne 
And others. But Forb. prefers the usual 
6ignification, on the prround that iu tliis 
place, where eveiy w r ord is put down with 
its full weight and importance, Virgil would 
not likely dc-part from the primary and pro- 
per meaning of the terms. II c urges far- 
ther. that the adj. in its most literal sense, 
is thoroughly correct, for though Antenor 
from Troy settled among lhe Veneti at the 
north extremity of the Adriatic gulf prior 
to the arrival of .aSneas, yet tliat district 
could not be taken into account, since Italia 
Antiqua did not reach so far, beingbounded 
on the north by the Rubicon. 

2. The order is profugus ab oris Trojae 
venit fato, etc, Italiam for t» Italiam. 
Translate: " Who being an exile from his 
country, was the first that came, and that 
too by the ordinance of heaven, from the 
coasts of Troy to Italy, evento theLavinian 
shores." The profugus excites our commis- 
eration, and thefato shows that our hero's 
exile is not the consequence of misdeeds or 
of a dueased ambition, but tbat the finger 
of heaven directed events. We frequently 
find, m both poets and prose writers, the 
names. not only of towns and small islands, 
but also of countries and regions construed 
without the prep., when motion towards is 
signified. The writers of the Augustan age, 
however, are guilty of the omission only in 
the cass of islands and maritime countries, 
the approach to which is by sea. Even in 
common nouns, and in other cases than the 
Acc (iii. 162) thc same peculiarity is occa- 
sionally found Cf. JEn. L 201, 307. See 
Zumpt, Lat. Gr. § 398 sqq., with notes. 
Madvig, Lat. Gr. § 232, and notes. 

Laviniague littora — this is epexegetical 
(explanatory and restrictive) of Italiara. 
See below, 5G9. By epexegesis is meant the 
subjoiuing of a limited and restrictednolion 
to a more general one, so that the latter is 
more closely defined by the forraer. Thus 
que means "even." He came to Italy (the 
general name), even 'to the Lavinian shores 
(the restrlcting limitation). To this fignre 
roay be rcfcrred the very common and vrell 
known onc, called Hendiadys, as wheu we 
Aeet tlie phrase, Imposuit molem et montes 
.<:], below), the lattcr, montes, explains 
e formcr Jnolem), i: dicating, 



as it does, of what the htults is made up. 
So in the phrase pateris et auro, the auro 
restricts pateris to the material gold. 
The conjunction after Lavinia is omittcd 
by some MSS., but this would make an ob- 
jectionable construction, a part put in appo- 
sition to tlie whole. 

Obscrve the synizesis in La-vl-nya- 
que. Xynizesis, or Synaeresis is the rim- 
ning into one syllable in pronunciation 
two vowels which properly constitute two 
separate syllables. It is very common iu 
the poets before Virgil, — more rare in Virgil 
himself, — and still more rare in those poeH 
who followed him ; thus alveo, ferrei, prc- 
canlia, taeniis, etc. etc, for othenvise many 
words could not have been admitted into 
hexameter verse. See note 131, below. 
Some books read Lavina, but see note on 
line 270. The district where ^Eueas after- 
wards fomided Lavinium, is called Lavinia 
littora by anticipation (prolepsis). This is 
a- species of anachronism in which Virgil 
often indulges. Laurentum was called 
Lavinium (after Lavinius, a brother of La- 
tinus) in the first instance, previous to the 
adoption of the former name, but it again 
received the name Lavinium from Lavinia, 
the daughter of Latinus, and wife of iEneas 

3. IUe is here merely ornative, to render 
the expression more lively and forcible. It 
is equal to oyt . Thus Forb., but see note 153, 
below. Est is therefore not to be supplied 
with jactatus and passus. Cf. iEn. v. 457, 
ix. 479. 

Alto — the poets usually, and prose writers 
frequently, omit mare with this adj., see 
ii. 203. 

4. Superum for superorum. Gossrau un- 
derstands the phrase vi sup. as the Geni- 
tivus Ohjectivus, equivalent to the Greek 
Bix tuv 6iuv, meaning against the will of 
the majority of the deities. Butthis inter- 
pretation is entirely unsuited to the context, 
and is unsupported by authority. It is tho 
wratn of Juno that is referrcd to, the plur 
superum being used for the sing., as often. 
(See^n. iii. 488,) to denote the cause, as vi 
sup. does the instrumentality, and thc fol 
lowing claase being added by epexegesis. The 
plur., however, may have been employcd 
to signify the agents of Juno, viz., JEolus, 
Juturna, etc, and the Fates of the gods, 
whose decrees drove iEueas from Thrace. 
Crete, and other places. 

Memorem, "ever-mindful," — this is by 
hypallage for memoris, agreeing with Juno- 
nis, for Juno " nursed her wrath to keep it 
warm." Such an exchange of the adj. ifl 
not admitted unless in those caseo iu which 
it can be with propriety apphed to both 
substantives. It is better, perhaps, to 
consider ira as personifUnL 



I. 5-8. 



SOTES ON THE ^XEID 



D. I. 9-19. 



5. Multa quoque et~- "having, moreover, 
endured mueh in war too ;" l« $s ««'. 

Dum conderet — the subj. here with 
dum expresses tcish and . inclinat 
Geo. iv. 457. Urbem seil. Lavinium. 

6. Deos, Le., the Penates, or household 
gods, whether of a family or of the State: 
aee Smith's Dict. of Biog. and MythoL 
Mention of this could not havebeen omittcd, 
consistently with the character of the 
"pious" (see below, note 10) jEneas, since 
ft State was not deemed rightly constituted 
without the public establishment of religious 
rites. Latio, Le., in Latium. 

Unde — ex qua re. The meaning is this : 
By which circumstances it was brought 
about, (lst) that the Aborigines, being put 
on an equal footing with the Trojans, were 
incorporated with them, and comprehended 
under the name " Latins ;" (2d) that As- 
canius founded Alba (and the Alban senate, 
Le., nobles, or the ancient Albans;) and (3d) 
that from his posterity arose the principal 
founders of Eome. 

7. Rome was founded, according to the 
common computation, 753 b.c. The day 
was 21st April, the festival of the PalUia. 

8. Musa.le., Calliope, daughterof Jupiter 
and Mnemosyne (Memory.) The allegory 
by whieh tlie Greeks represented Memory 
as the mother of the Muses, is so plain as to 
require no particular explanation. Tasso 
has imitated this invocation, in the begin- 
ning of the " Jerusalem Delivered." 

Quo numine laeso. On the interpretation 
of these words the greatest diversity of 
cpinion prevails. They are thus explained : 
lst, Quo is separated from numine, is con- 
sidered equal to qua re, and connected in 
meaning as an abl. of cause, not only with 
laeso, but also with imp ulerit. It wouid then 
mean, " Detail to rae, Muse, the causes, — in 
what particular her divinity was injured, or 
what grudge the Queen of the Deities thence 
conceived, which led her to compel," etc. 
Heyne, Lang, and others. But passing over 
the awkwardness and insipidity of this (so- 
ealled) abL absoL, we may feel assured, 
that had the meaning of the poet been such 
he wonld have written qui or qua, to avoid 
all ambiguity. 2d, Schirach understands 
the words to "refer to a deity different from 
Juno altogether. This opinion, which we 
Are surprised to find adopted by some recent 
commentators, may at once be dismissed on 
the consideration that the deity offended is 
mentioned by the poet in the immediate 
sequeL 3d, What part of Juno's deity (for 
her power was exereised in many different 
occupations) was-outra<red? Burm. and 
Heumann. 4th. Nvaten i* held to mean 
v.sh. intrntion. The translation would 
therefore run thus : " What wish and pur- 
pose of the goddess was frustrated ?" etc. 



She had intended her favourite Carthage t« 
be the mistress of the world, but she weli 
knew that the destiny of JEne&B and hia 
posterity would interfere with her cherished 
scheme, and tberefore she endeavoured to 
crush him who was to be the founder of the 
rival dynasty. The dolens refers to the 
grudge against Paris and Ganymede. This 
is the view of the passage taken by Scr- 
vius, Graser, Wagner, Jahn, Gossrau, For- 
biger, Ladewig, and others ; and, all things 
considered, seems most deserving of appro- 
bation. 

9. Vohere— the infin. after impulerit is » 
poetic Graecism for ut with subjunctive. Tho 
metaphor in volvere is taken from the re- 
volution of seasons and years [or, perhaps, 
from the rolling of a stone, Sisyphus-like], 
and suggests the exhausting of a " round 
of misfortunes." 

10. Pietas means natural affection, more 
particularly that from a child to a parent ; 
and is thus applied to the veneration and 
grateful worship we pay to God. 

11. Irae — nouns denoting an affection ot 
the mind are frequently found in the plur., 
expressmg a greater intensity, or a greater 
frequency and variety of the feeling expe- 
rienced — So odia, gaudia, etc 

12. Antiqua &n&fuit are both used in re- 
ference, not to the time of ^Eneas, but to 
that of Virgil, in which old Carthage had 
not yet been restored. The city (according 
to the legend) had been built by Dido from 
Tyre (see below, line 338 sqq.), about 100 
years before the foundation of Rome, i.e., 
about 853 b.c. Its destruction in 146 b.c. 
by P. Corn. Scipio ^Emilianus Africanus 
Minor, surnamed Numantinus, put an end 
to the Pimic wars, which had lasted with 
comparatively little interruption for 117 
years. 

The reasons for Juno's enmity are 
given in the sequeL lst, Her apprehension 
for Carthage (21, 22). 2d, The grudge still 
kept up since the Trojan war. 3d, The 
judgment of Paris yet rankling in her bo- 
som. 4th, The preference of the Trojan 
Ganymede to her own daughter Hebe, in 
the office of cup-bearer. 5th, Her hatred to 
the whole Trojan race, caused by the ac- 
cumulation of the circumstances just 
noted. (Lines23 to 29.) 

13. Contra — " over against," "opposite 
to," Le., directly across the sea from Italy. 
Observe the prep. following its case. 

Que after Tiberina is expletive. See 
27, and note 2. Longe, "at a great dis- 
tance." The position of longe between 77- 
bcrina and ostia gives the adverb the ap- 
pearance of an adj. or particip =Ionge-dis- 
tantia, Adverbs appear to be often used in 
this way, since the verb sum makes no pres. 
particip. 



B. L 14-19. 



NOTES ON TIIK .1 



B. I. 20-28. 



14. Pcevlkamp condemns lines 13 and 14 
U8 spurious, on the ground that the descrip- 
tion of Carthage given in them must refer 
to the time of the Punic wars, and not to 
the period of Dido's sovereignty. But Rau 
defends the verses, and justifiestheepithets 
in them, on the plea that Virgil views Car- 
thage as, even in tlie time of ^Enoas, a 
treasure house of Tyrian wealth, and as ne- 
cessarily warlike, from its contests with the 
surrounding tribes (iv. 39 sqq.) which Dido 
had rendered hostile to her. 

Asperrima — The following note on this 
word from Heyxe is worthy of attention : 
— " Virtus bellica a poetis per iram expn- 
mitur ejusque attributa, Ex-asperatur 
autem is qui offenditur et ad iram provoca- 
tur. Itaque asper, Tp»X vs ' modo iratus, 
vehemens, ferus, ferox, scevus : modo fortis, 
bellicosus ; modo ardens, acer, concitatus, 
flagrans tit hoc loco." Divbs, &c. : — " Abun- 
dant in her resources, and very fierce in the 
pursuits of war," Le., very dangerous to 
her enemies, on account of her military 
anlour. 

15. Quamunam magis, etc — "•Which iu 
an especial degree." Unus is often joined 
with the superl. degree, asjustissimus unus, 
ii. 426, but seldom as here with the compar. 
Cf. Hor. Epod. xii. 4, namque sagacius unus 



16. Samo posth. "Samos being less 
prized in her esteem." The hiatus between 
Samo and Hic is excused on the ground that 
there is a break in the sense, or as we may 
say a punctuation mark [it is found with 
commas, or even where no comma or other 
mark exists], that' the o is in arsis, and, 
farther, that it is a Greek termination. See, 
by all means, Forbiger\s learned note on 
Eol. ii. 53. Coluisse — the gods were sup- 
posed to tfwell particularly in those places, 
which they took under their especial pro- 
tection. 

17. fflc currus fuif. This idea is taken 
from the custom of warriors, who, on their 
return from battle, put aside their chariots in 
sheds. The gods are represented as doing 
so likewise: see Hom. II. viii. 441, and v. 
72(». In BMigiring a chariot to Juno at 
Carthage, Virgil is more poetic tlian cor- 
rect, for there she was represented as sit- 
tfng on a lion. The penult of iilius is here 
shortened by VirgiL. as it is almost always 
in alterius, but almostmever in solius and 
never in alius. See Ecl. i. 7, and Geo. L 49. 

18. For fovet, some read favet, but the 
formoris much preferable, since itexpresses 
$tr<ru(t eeal, whereas favet signlfies littlo 
more than tendit, going before The object 
1 Is hoc reghum esse. 

' //). "even at that early period." 
. vid. 

19. rrvyeniem, ctc, i.c, tlic Roman na- 



tion which was destincd to carry arms into 
Africa. Gossrau understands vroffenietn to 
mean the destroyer of Carthage, Scipio 
JSpiittantu, since thc Almiliun gent was 
said to havc been derived from yEmilius, 
son of Ascanius. 

Sedentm, «>-*.« yap- This is an ellip- 
tical phrase, sed suggesting a dreail, and 
enim the reason of it. The sentiment may 
be completed tlius, " But sbe fouiul ihaA 
she voould not be able to accomplish this, (br 
she had heard," ctc. 

20. T>/rias. See note line 12. Olim, " in 
distant tiine," cither past or future, but 
here future, " in time coming." Varteret for 
everteret. 

21. Hinc^hinc ortum, ex hac progenib. 
Populum late regem, for late regnantem, 

Substantives, more especially verbals in tor 
and tri.r, are joined in apposition to other 
substs. instead of adjs., see below, 273. 
On tlie early population of Latium, and the 
dcsceu t of tlie Romans from Trojan ances- 
tors, conault Niebubr, and Arnold, Rom 
Hist., and Donaldson, Varronianus. 

22. Excidio, for ad excidium. l.ibyae, i..c, 
Carthage, the whole put for a pftrt. 

Voh-tre. Forb. thinks tlie metaphor takcn 
f>*om the successive rolls of the wave origi- 
nated by a river, 

23. On the difference between antiquus 
and vetus, see Dijderl. Lat. Syn., sub. voc. 
antiquus. Veteris here means "long con- 
tinued," "long protracted." 

24. Prima, Heyne and "Wunderlich i)i- 
terpret by "prius," byt this makes a tau- 
tology with veteris. Translate, therefore, 
"She as the principal instigator" or auxi- 
liarj'. "She with especial vehemenco, "— 
priticeps ante omnes. 

. 25. In this and the three following lines, 
the poet hurried on in his fervour, aud 
heedless of the syntax, breaks the proper 
grammatical construction of the sentence, 
(anacolouthon, see 237, below,) which is 
contmued from metuens and rnemor to ac- 
censa, this last summing up the wholc, and 
carrjmig on the sentiment as at first begun. 
Some critics look upon the luies as an in. 
tentional parentliesis. A similar syntax U 
found at JBn. v. 706-8. 

26. Repostum, syncopated for reposltum. 

27. Juilicium Paridis — tbfi decision by 
which Paris awarded the palm of beauty to 
Venus, in opposition to Juno and Minerva. 
See Smith's Class. Dict. Que has he.re. as 
very frequently, an expletive sense ; see 2, 
above. 

28. Genus invisum— "hated," on account 
of Dardanus its founder, who was the son of 
Japitex and Electra [not Jcwo], the daugfc- 
ttrnfAtlas. 

Rapti is to be joined with Ganymedis 
and from a peculiar use of the verb, w n ch 



B. 1. 29-34. 



NOTES ON TliE JiNEID. 



B. I. 35-41. 



it is unnecessary to mcntion, lnis espedal 
bitteraess herc 

29. Ilis is the abl. of cause, aud super--= 
insuper. Others make super goveni his, 
but Forb. alleges that Virgil never scparates 
a prep. from its case exeept when it (the 
prep.) is joined to the adj. or the genitive 
modifying the goveraed subst. 

oO. Achilli. This is the reading of the best 
MSS., instead of AchiUis. The form is tlius 
accounted for by Wagncr: — " Greek nouns 
in lvs ended in the Doric dialect in ns, as, 
Tvdzvs — Tv dr,s : hence arose a gen. in ov 
rither of the First, or of the JEolic Third, 
Declension, and hence again was made the 
Latin gcn. termination in i, a fact which 
is confirmed by Plutarch's use of the form, 
Marcell, 20, OvXifyv, tovtzo-tiv 'Oovtrtrza: . 
Accordingly, in such nouns as AchiUes, 
Ulixes, the proper termination of the gen. 
is i. and that of the accus. en ; but, on thc 
contrary, those which have eus in the nom., 
and which have no variety of termination 
in es (as Nereus, Tereus, Idomeneus, etc), 
make thc gen. in ei, and the accus. in ea. 
Virgil, however. avoided the forms Achillei, 
Achillea (from AchiUeus), Ulixei, — ea, whicli 
Horacc and othcrs frequently used." See 
En. iL 275 and 476. 

Troas — the Greek &c<i.=Tpu>u:. 

Atque is uscd here by way of epexegesis 
(see note 2, above). to siugle out Achilles 
as the man who, of all the Greeks meutioned 
in the 7iiasi>, was the most distinguished 
individual. Cf. J3n. iv. 45. 

3L Multos annos, viz., seven; see argu- 
ment to Bk. iii. Observe the use of que 
ponnecting as the new subject of the follow- 
ing clause that which had been the object 
of the preceding onc 

32. Acti fatis, Lc, by their own fixed 
destiny, which, though retarded in its ftd- 
filment by the machiuations of Juno, yet 
urged them on till it should be accomplished. 
Fatis does not, therefore, as has been sup- 
posed, signify the adverse fates imposed by 
Juno. Maria omnia, Le., all parts of the 
Mediterranean. 

33. Tantae molis — " of so great difficulty 
ivas it." Molis is constautly used by Taci- 
tus and others hi this sense. Condere is 
used in reference to the establishing a family 
i>r nation, — the contrary phrase is evertere, 
'or which see iiL 1. 

34. Here we are at once hurried into the 
action of the poem by the relation of an in- 
cident which took place intheseventh year 
of the wandeiings of ^Eneas. The events 
from the sack of Troy till the time men- 
tioned are recorded in Bk. iii., which is in- 
troduced as an episode. See the precept 
laid down by Horace on this point, Ars. 
Poet. 148 sqq. Sicula— calledalso Trmacria, 
and Triquetra, from its thrcc proinontories— 



Pclurus, Pachynus, and Lilubaeum. Telius is 
used by the poets n* equal to lerra, and so 
apphed even to islandg, as Uia tellus, Le., 
Naxos, Ov. Met. iii. 597. 

35. Vela dabant, sciL, rentis. Sal is oftcu 
used for mare, see below, 173, iii. 3S5. 

Aere, i.e., aerata navL Ruebant "wcre 
ploughing" (Heyne), ■werc upturaing," 
"tossing," (Schirach, Forb., etc.) The 
heads of ships often terminatcd iu thrcc 
prqjections, covered with brass, as shown in 
the followuig cut. 




36. Aetemum vulnus, i. q. saeri dolores, 
25 : see also note 12. Cf. Hom. Od. v. 282, 
sqq. 

37. Haec secuin (loquitur) — " thus solilo- 
quizes." 

Mene desistere. — An accus. with the infin 
stands frequently without a governing vcrb 
in order to express surprise and complaint 
that a thing happens or may happen, mostly 
with the interrogative ne. Madvig. Lat. 
Gr. § 399. See also Zumpt, § 609, and 
Schmitz, § 3S2. 

3S. Regnn, Le., ducem, so Ascanius is 
called regius puer below, 677. On Teucer, 
see 2En. iii. 108 sqq. and notes. 

39. Fatis. Jahn puts a note of interro- 
gation after this word, bufr the scntence is 
ironical merely: "I am forbidden of the 
fates, forsooth "" ! 

40. This refers to the story told in Eurip. 
Troad. 77-S6, that Pallas set fire to the 
ships of the Greeks (Locrians) by hghtning, 
and impaled Ajax 0'ileus on the promon- 
tory Caphareus in Euboea. Thc crime of 
Ajax was his having violated Cassandra, 
the eldest daughter of Priam, before the 
very shrine in the temple of Athene. Cf. 
Hom. Od. iii. 135 sqq., and iv. 499 sqq. 

Pallasne for nonne — ne, though by nature 
a negative particle, is frequently placed iu- 
stead of nonne when an affirmative answer 
Ls expected, especially if it be attached to 
the principal word. Ipsos scil. Argivos, as 
opposed to the fket (classem). So Homer 
uses avrcv;, IL xiv. 47; Cf., also Geo. UL 
3S7. 

41. Noxa siguifies both a crime and the 
punishment which it entails, and furias the 
mad frenzy which instigates to an act ol 
guilt. 



B. L 42-51. 



NOTES ON TIIE jENEID. 



B. I. 62-?3 



Oitei, Le., filii, undcrstood, as often. But 
instead of OQida we have Ajax Oileus. 

42. Ipsa — ■•.~be i.i person," without re- 
quiring to call in the hclp of any other 
power. Jaculata — this vcrb is usually cm- 
ployed in reference to the tliunderbolt, as 
v.-efl exprcssing, by the sound, the vehe- 
mence of the action. 

42-45. Kau, in Schedtasm., proncunccs 
Uiese four verses to be intcrpolations by a 
rocent hand. Hc thinks tlieir "Tragkut 
Utmor " foreign to the passage. 

43. Disjecit rafef— see below, 123 and 

•44. Exspirantemfiammas,le., "breatbing 
forth the Kghtning fircs many and frequent" 
— such ia the force of the Vlur. Jlammas. 

4-3. Infixit — some books have inflixit. But 
the best MSS. cxhibit the common reading, 
and, besides, the former vcrb is most appli- 
cablc to the phrase acuto scopulo. 

46. Ast — this ancient fonn of the particle 
suits well the dignity oi' the passage. Cf. 
Hand, Tursell, L p. 417. Divom, poeticform 
for dicum. Incedo — "walk majestically." 

47. Soror et conjunx. See Smith's Class. 
Dict., under Juno. 

Tot annos — acc. of duration oftime. The 
abL would signify an interval. Bella gero 
• — wage a lengthened war, in contrast to the 
single blow of Athene. 

48. Quisquam is used because Juno im- 
plies by her question that she expects a 
ncgative reply. Junonisnumen— ratherthan 
7/te. By the use of the proper naine instead. 
ofthe personal pronouns much more em- 
phasis and force are given to thc sentence. 
Cf ii. 79, 549, 674. Bella gero— Observe 
the venom in the phrasc, implying that 
though she otight to be looked uponasthc-ir 
superior, yet she is obliged to fight on con- 
tinually as their equal. Tlie whole spccch 
i* admirably constructed. 

49. Adorat — imponet. The differencc of 
tense in these wordfl bas given rise to dis- 
cnarion and emendation, some reading 
adoret — imponat. There is, however, no 
neceaBtty for any changc. The indicative 
f-xpresses wonder or indignation — and here 
signifies that Juno will be astonished should 
men still continue to pay her homage. The 
aubjunctive, on the contrary, wonld expresfl 
doubt, and denote tbat Juno Bcarce beiieved 
that she would be worshipped by any here- 
atter. Praeterea adorat=adorabit: I'rae- 
terea refers to time, "hereafter," " any 
longer." For a gimflar indignant speech of 
Juno, see Ovid Met ii. 518 sqq. 

50. Witbout a hint of the intentions of 
the goddess, we are at once carried on to 
her detisive aets in pursuance of her object. 
Cf. Hom. II. xiv. 233 sqq. 

51. Loca — Obaerve this plur. in opposi- 
lim to a rfngnlar: for a similar construc- 
tion. sec J-'.n. v. .'359 



| 52. Aeoliam — Virgil and Homer spcak of 
only one island, but the group consists of a 
considerable nuniber, 9 or 10, wbicli con- 
stitute the modern Lipari isles N. of Sicily. 
Tht: one referred to in the text ta Bnpposed 
to be Lipara (Lipari), cr Strongyle (Strom- 
boli). Tiie islands were called Aeoliae- 
Aeolides, Hephaestiades, or Vulcaniae — tho 
two latternames expressive of the aneient 
belief that in onc of thcm, Hiera, Vnlcat), 
thefire-god, hadhisforge. Therelation thaj 
subsisted between storms and the outburst- 
ing of fire from the earth led to the fancy that 
the volcanic group of the Lipari, which sup- 
plied the "lighthouse ofthe Mediterranean," 
was the place where storms were gene- 
rated. With VirgiVs description compare 
Hom. Od. x., at the beginning. Aeolus, son 
of HippStes, whose metcorological know- 
ledge exceeded that of the rude inliabitants 
of the islands under his authority, received, 
in later times (though not in Homer), the 
appeHation of "King of the Winds." 

53. O/wmatopoeia, or an adaptation of tha 
sound of the words to the scnse conveyed, 
is often observable in Homer, and has been 
very successfully attempted by Virgil in 
many places. This line, 53, is an exampla 
of it. Every word is selected with care, and 
placed witli remarkable suitableness, so 
that the numbers and rhythm combine with 
the vocables to express the struggling tf 
the winds and tlie roaring of the howling 
blasts. Observe tlie spondees. Many in- 
stances of this artificial versification maybe 
seen in our own poets, more especially 
Dryden and Pope. 

54. Vincula, Le., custodia. Xoli enim de 
compedibus cogitare. Forb. 

55. Oum murmure, Le., ita ut murmuret. 
Oum is used to express thc mode in whieh 
a thing takes place, but the abl. aione also 
denotes this. Montis is govenied by mur- 
mure, and not by claustra. 

'•'( arce. — Thcfle worda are com. 
monly interpreted as mcaning "the higli 
summit of the moimtain," which, in 140, 
is called aula. Dr Henry (Class. Mus. vol. 
vi.) nnderstandfl them t*o mean an exaUed 
thiioxe iritfiin the care itself. This view, 
says Forb.. would render the explanation of 
81 sqq. mnch easier, and wonld be bettei 
suited to 140, but we want examples of 
ilaiiy nsed Dr Henryis of opinion 
that the winds areiit thia passage crnnpared 
to the horses confined within the barriers 
of tbe Circus, andtagerly striving to break 
forth. Very niany wordfl in the passage 
bear out this idea. e.g. trinclis, canere, freturt, 
mollit animot, temperat iras, etc, tbongh it 
must bc confessed tbat objectionfl may be 
nrged against it Dr Henry's remarks are 
wcll worthy ofattention. 

rransL— "Dnlesa he do this, they 
w : ."d assuredly bcnr awaywiththem, inrapid 



B. I. 61-67. 



NOTES OX THE JENEID. 



B. L 68-74 



course, seas andcontinents, andloftyheaven, 
and sweep thein through tlie air." Such is 
the uieaiiiiig at quij>pe (qui), "certainly 
they are powen (which) " The present 
subj is used where we inight have expected 
the imperf.. since W8 can Liiiayine the event 
a» one which may take place, if the pre- 
VL-ntive condition be not fulnlled. This pres. 
niakes the sentence much more animated, 
and, as it were, manifbst to our cyes. 

61. Mokm et montes altos, a Hendunhjs 
•tee ul 148), for molem altorum montium, 
>vX see note 2, above. Hoc metuens dif- 
fers from id metuens in tliis, that the latteris 
said of one who dreads an Lmpeuding evil, 
but is ignorant of the exact tirne of its 
occurrence — the fomier, of one who fears au 
evil as about to take placc wn mediately. Tlie 
pronouns themselves suggest such a dis- 
tmction; Wagner, Qnaestionet Yi/-gilianae, 
xviL 

63. Laxas habenas. This is an example 
of the proleptic use of the adj. ; on which, 
see note iL 736. The phrases premere, and 
dare habenas, are taken from the race- 
course. Translate 60: "But the oumi- 
potent father, guarding against such an 
(immediate) result, coufined them iu gloomy 
caverns. and placed upon them a mass, 
even lofty mountains, and asaigned them a 
govemor, who, acting on au established 
law, might know both when to tighten the 
reins, aud when, at (the) command (of 
Jove), to slacken them, and give free 
course." Premere seems to refer to that 
mode of checking, which is einployed even 
by a modem Auriga, when, to secure 
greater steadiness in his team, he lays his 
whip, or his whip-hand, on the reins, a 
little m.front of his kft hand, and so de- 
presses the rcins as to tighten them up. 
Dare, with an adj. or particip.. forms a cir- 
cumlocutory phrase for the simple verb. iu 
such a way, however, that the tffeci and 
consequeut condition ai - e also signined. So 
vasto dabo, for vastabo. 

65. Aeole—namque. The poets often in- 
termpt the sequeuce of a sentence by the 
hitroduction of a parenthesis after the first 
word, espeeially if that word be a voc. case. 
Excttement o£ feenng is thus bettex c-x- 
pressed. Homer shnilarly mtroduces yift 
giving the reason why. 

66. Dtdit mukei-e—& Greek construction 
for dedit potestatem mukendi ; Darevrit\\ the 
infin. being equal to concedtre, permittere. 
Bee helow, note 313. 

67. Xavigat aeqwr. Intransitive verbs, 
both in Greek and Latin. are frequently fol- 
lowed by an acc. of the object See below, 
594; iii 191. So also such phrases as 
insanire errorem, ire riam or Uer. The 
acc. is usually that of a noun having the 
same stem as the vc-rb, or having at least a 



cognate signifieation. Cf. Cia de Fin. iL 
34. 112. Qllm Xerxes Mare aMbdlatuset. 
tf.rram navigassbt. 8eeltadvigLat.Gr. ^ 

223, obs. 4; Zumpt, §383; iind es]iecialiy 
consult Jelf Gk. Gram. § 548 sqq. 

68. Jlittm in It. port., i.e., seeking a new 
mttlement In Italy, in which to pe-petiuuc 
the kingdom of Troy, and tlie woisbip oi 
those deities which have been orerpowered, 
inasmuch as they did not preservc Troy 
from the destroyer. 

69. Ventis is the dat., not tlie abl., as some 
explain. On the proleptic usc of submersas 
see above, 63. The phrase is equal to obrue 
et submerge. On puppis and Penates, see 
Ramsay's Antiq., and 704, below. 

70. Age diversos, i.e., drive them in differ 
ent directions^ — one to one quarter and ano- 
ther to another. Diversos is used on the 
principle of theconstructioncalled "Synesis," 
or "od mtell^ptum." Diversas might be 
expected, but the poet is thinlung not so 
much of the ships (puppes) as of the voy- 
agers. The adj., therefore, is made to agree 
with the word which icoidd be used did the 
writer give expression in a separate form 
to the idea uppermost in his mind. Con- 
sult Madvig, § 207, obs., Jelf Gk. Gra >. § 
378 sqq., and Latham, " English Languag j," 
p. 397, § 478. 

71. Bis septem — large ntunbers are nsua/.y 
expressed by the poets by multipiicative 
adverbs, for very obvious reasous. See 
272 and 381. 

This passage is founded on Hom. II. xiv 
267 sqq., and is introduced uselessly, as the 
poet himself seenis to have felt; for JEolua 
promises compliance with Juuo's wisbes, 
not in consequence of her proposal of a bride, 
but on far different considerations. 

72. The circumlocution, quae forma puU 
cherrima, for the simple pukherrimani. is 
one frequently adopted by Greek and Latin 
writers. Cf. Soph. Oed." R. 345, and .En. 
xil 388, viam quae proxima poscit. 

73. Conn ubio, etc Themeanmgis this, "1 
'Shall join lier to you in lawful wediock 
(connubio, not conjugio only — see thesa 
words in Ramsay's Antiquities) and raake 
her yours for eveiv' Dico is stronger thau 
do— the latter meaning for a time, the for- 
mer for all time coming. This is implied in 
the well known fonn of the Prator's scn- 
tence, do, dico, addico Proprius meani 
what is to beone's ovrn for ever, and seems 
to be used here to contrast with the short 
period during which Helen was ] 

by Paris. The proposal comes well from 
futio Puonuba. As no right azample is 
found of the sccond syllable of connubium 
being short, Forb., following Heyne aua 
Hermann, prefers to scan the word by 
line 2), thus iuaking three 
syllables, connubjo. 



B. I. 75-81. 



NOTES ON TIIE JENELD. 



B. I. 82-97. 



75. This and the precoding Hne are con- 
demned by Kau as containing a languid aud 
Buperfluous addition. 

Thiel considers pulchra prote as a (so- 
called) abl. absol., and thus interprets: 
"qnae tefaciat parentem, ut pukhra protes 
sit." But the plain meaning of the words 
is the best, — " and shall make you a father 
by the beautiful children she will bear:" 
or " shall bless you with children, and that, 
too, beautiful ones." The ancients thought 
it a most severe dispensation to be disap- 
pointed in the hope of children, as may be 
seen in such places as the present, and in 
the very frequent mention of the misfor- 
tune of a Vopo; hpinXns by the Greeks. 

76. Aeolus avoids all risk of incurring 
blame, by simply promising to do her com- 
mands without approving of them in word. 
The hint of Aeolus in explorare, that Juno 
should examine how far it was right to ask 
him to go in his compliance, is a prepara- 
tion for the indignation of Neptune, 130 sqq., 
at the audacity of the king of the winds. 

77. Capessere, Le., accipere et exsequi. Fas 
est, Le., officium meum est. 

78. Observe the repetition of the pronoun 
to express emotion and emphasis. Cf. Geo. 
i\-. 4G5 sqq. The mythological fancy which 
represented Juno as the personification of 
the lower air will account for the idea that 
the sovereignty of the wmds was at her dis- 
posaL 

79. ConcUias, etc. "Thou hast granted 
to me whatever sovereiguty I possess ; thou 
hast procured for me my sceptre, and hast 
secured me the favour of Jupiter ; thou hast 
gained for me a seat at the table of the 
gods, and hast made me Lord over storm- 
clouds and tempests." The Presents, con- 
cilias and das, are not to be taken as if used 
for Perfects, but as expressing that the bene- 
fits formerly conferred by Juno's kindness 
are still continued by her indulgence. and are 
cherished with gratitude. In concilias go- 
veniing sceptra and Jovem, we have an 
►pproximation to, but not a distinct example 
ef, the figure Zeugma; for an explanation 
of which, see note iL 258, and consult Mad- 
vig, Zumpt, Jelf, and Latham, by Index. 

Das accumbere — see above, note 66. 

Epidis — see Grammar or Dict. for dif- 
ference of meaning in sing. and plur. of this 
word. 

81. Conversa cuspide, etc. — * With in- 
verted spear (wlikh the deities used as a 
sceptre) he forced (a.part of) the hollow 
mountain into its side," Le., drove a hole 
in it from his throne on the outside and 
eummit where he sat; or, "struck the hol- 
low mountain on the side." Those who, 
with Dr Henry (see above, 56), suppose his 
throne in the inside, will render it, "He 
etruck the hollovy mountiun on the gide (of 



the cave) with his inverted spear, i.&, hl« 
spear, wliich he lield fn his hand as a scep- 
tre, leaning with one cnd <>n the grouud, 
being changed froin ttie vertioal to tlu 
horizontal position.' TJiis latter explana 
tion is most consistent frtth 140. Di 
Henry argues, that IfAeolua wasseatedoa 
the summit of the mountain, he niust have 
struck it on the top, not on the side. and 
then the winds would have rushed heaven- 
wards, instead of along the surface of the 
earth. Tliis is, perhaps, rather much of a 
refinement, though we confess that Dr H.'s 
other arguments are to us conclusive. Wo 
should have liked to insert them but for their 
length. See them in Class. Mus., vol. vL 
p. 35. 

82. Ac=ac statim. Conjunctions are fre- 
quently thus used when one event is repre- 
sented as following immediately on another. 
Agmen, Le., agimen, or ayo^ivov, froin 
ago. 

83. Observe the very frequent occurrenca 
of the lotter r (the litera canina) and also ot 
t in this line, rendering the circumstance 
more vividly horrible. This aUiteration is 
occasionally used with great advantage. 
See Geo. L 389, in which s is prevalent. 

84. Incubuere means to descend upon with 
xceujht, and to remain for a considerable 
time: " To brood upon." 

85. Ruunt, which in 83 is intransitive, ia 
here transitive, and used for eruunt, "up- 
turn." Creber procellis, Le., crebris procellis: 
or, Africus being personified, this hypallage 
is unnecessary. This and the following 
line are noted as instances of onomatopoeia. 
See above, 53. 

Cf. with this description ,Milton Par, 
Keg. iv. 

Nor slept i;he winds 
Withintheir stony caves, but rushed abroad 
From the four hinges oftheworld, andfell 
On the vexed wilderness. 

86. Africus, the S.W., which in the MedU 
terranean is a very " gusty" wind. 

87. The harsh sound of r occurrlng in 
every word of the Une greatly helps out tho 
idea meant to be conveyecL See above, 83. 

90. Poli, Le., Ccelum. Cf. Burns' Tam o 
Shanter ; 

The lightnings flash from pole to pole, 
Near and more near the thimders roIL 

92. Solvuntur frigore, "are relaxed (un- 
hinged, rendered powerless) by chilling 
terror." 

&:J. Duplicgs, not simply " botb " but 
" clasped,"" folded." 

• 96. Oppetere (mortem) — means not merely 
to die, but bravely to meet death in the face. 
Poets and late prose writers frequentiy use 
the word without mors attached. 

97 Tydirts — Diomede, son of Tydena, 



B. I. 90.109. 



NOTES OX THE /ENF.ID. 



B. I. 110-12G. 



with whom ^Er.eas had engagod in singlc 
combat, aud from whose attack hc had been 
rcscucd by Venus. Oonsu" Smith's Class. 
J)icr., uiulcr "Diomedc." 

Mene occundnre — see ahovc, note 37. 

99. jSacides, i.c, Achilles, grandson of 
<£acus. Saevus=fortis : tlic applicatiou of 
this tenn to Hector by his fiaend Mneaa 
showsthatit cannot=crucWts, bnt that it 
rather Bnggests tlie idca of great might, 
tnergy, andsuccets In battle. 

Jacit, "liesin death." the prcsent being 
Ofled, as thc scenc is still fresh in memory. 

100. Sarpedon, son of Jupiter and Lao- 
damia, was king of the Lycians, and an 
ally of Troy. Hc was slain by Patroclus. 

10'2. Jactanti — " ejaculating " — there is 
no idea of boasting. ProceI!a—a squall— 
stridem Aquilone, i.c., sent with vehemcncc, 
and with a howling noise, by the north 
wind — ab Aquilone incitata. 

103. FerU vektm adversd — "ablastcomes 
howling on the wings of the north wind, 
and strikes thc sail fu.ll in front." 

104. Prora avertit, i.e., avertitur — "The 
prowturns away," the helm having failcd 
to keep theship'*s bows to the wind;— the 
blast being right a-head, the oars are 
smashed by the huge breakers raised on 
both sldes of the vessel in the direction cf 
the wind. Some MSS. rcad proram evertit 
(sciL, procella), but the verb dat would be 
very awkwardly joined to procella as its nom. 

105. Praeruptus, etc — " A broken-crested 
mountain of water follows upon them in a 
(one-piled) mass." So we talk of waves 
"running mountains high." It is the 
tenth wave which is meant — this the 
Romans considered much Iarger than the 
intervening ones. The Greeks feared every 
third wave, for its size, iceight, and danger. 

106. Hi—his. Hcyne refcrs these two 
words to persons m*the sam-e vessel— the 
former referring to those on the right and 
tlevated benches, and the latter to those 
on the left and depressed seats. But the 
following lines. Tres abreptas — unam (113), 
ctc, show tbat different ships are spoken of. 

Dehiscens — " gaping to its utmost depth " 
— such is the force oide. 

107. Aestusfurit — "the surge boils madly 
on the sands," i.e., at the bottom of the sea, 
not on the shorc. 

108. Torquet well expresses the combined 
effect of boisterous wind and eddying wave- 
current. yotus is put for the wind, gene- 
rally, since the »Outh conld not bave driven 
them in the diiection mentioned, saihug, as 
they werc from Sicily to Africa. 

109. Aras, L c, the Fnsulae Aegimuri, 
about 30 miles north of Garthage, said (by 
Servius) to be called Arae, as ha\ing been 
the spot where a treaty was made with 
Eorae, after the end of thc first Punic war. 
But Hevne objects, and savs that Servius 

10 " 



was thinking of thc Acgates insulae, oft 
Sicily. 

lli). Dorsum, callcd othcrwise taeniae, or 
pulrinus — and by ns a &EBP. Summo 
mari, i.c, rising close to the surface, bnt 
still concealed. The island Acgimurus, how- 
cver, is said to be loftu. 

111. Brevia et syrtes — this is supposed by 
Scrvius to be a Hendiadys for bretn 
tium. Theone, however, Urnthar ea-plana- 
tonj of the other— tlic conj. et is frequcntly 
an explicatire. Brevia et syrtes hcre mcans 
shaUow places in the shifting iands, and not 
the si/rtes, mnjor and minor, of Africa, men- 
tioned by Sallust. 

114. A rei-tice, etc A wave rises high 
and descends perpendicularly upon the stern 
of the ship. Thc poop is thus lowered to 
the edge of the water, and the pilot washed 
overboard. See Hom. Od. v. 313. 

The imitations of Homcr are 80 numorous 
here and elsewhere, as to reuder it quite 
impossible to refer to even a tithe of them. 

Magister, i. c, gubernator — "thc pilot." 
He is callcd Leucaspis in ^En. vi. 334. 

116. Ter is uot to be taken litcrally, but 
as meaning "sevcral times." 

117. This hue is admirably worded to 
heightcn the awfulness of the scenc VoraC 
— "engulphs." 

118. Rari — "here and therc" Observe 
the gender of rari, considered in refcrenco 
to the syntax of the foUowing line, and note 
particularly the slow spondaic measure fol- 
lowing the rapid dactylic verse, each well 
answering the thougiit contained in the 
Unes rcspectively. 

1J0. The names of Ilioneus and Abas are 
mentioned by Homer, but they are repre- 
sented by him as losing their lives. On the 
genitive Dionei, - 

121. Orandaevus. Virgilisthefirstwriter 
known to have used this word. 

123. Imbrem. Virgil and succeeding poets 
occasionally use imber for the water of the 
se:\, in imitation of Ennins and Lucretius. 

Rimis fatiscunt, i.c, solvuntur ut ri/nas 
agant — " Are cleft open into chinks." 

125. Emissam(esse) sciL byAeolus. Some 
codices read immissam, scil. navibus Trojanis, 
but the former is much more suitable, since 
the audacity of Acolus is of more concern 
to Neptune than the destxuction of the 
ships. 

12G. Stagna for mare generally, though 
referring more particularly to the still waters 
at a considerable depth below the surface, 
where the surface motion does not reach. 
Refusa — "tossed upward." Translate — 
"Meanwhile Neptnne perceived, with great 
alarm, that the deep is being lashed into 
commotion with a loud roaring noisc that 
a storm had bcen scnt forth, and that tho 
still watcrs of thc sea had becn uphcaved 
from their lowest depths." Vadis imis is 



B. L 197-15./. 



NOTES ON TflE JEXTRTD. 



B. L 148-150. 



used here likc a sedibus imis in 84, abovc. 
Observe the difference of tense between 
miseeri and emissam (esse.) 

127. ProspiciensaUo — " looking forth from 
the sea to a great distance." Pladdum— 
"tranquil," as became thc digmty of a 
doity, evon whilst hc was GRAVITEB C&m- 
motus at thc Insolence of Aeolus. Some 
wiah to makc the adj. active — "his tranqui- 
lising hcad." He waa at least bonign to- 
wardatbe Trojans generally, butheisnot 
yet supposcd to know the cause of commo- 
tion. 

128. Disjectamclassem—oppressos Troas— 
see note on 70, above. 

129. Coeli ruind, a strong cxpression to 
indicate the violence uf rain and wind. Ruina 
ts used by Cicero also as an abstract noun. 

13L 7toowtads are put to represent all 
those which had been engaged in the wreck 
of tlie Trojans. Observe that clehinc is to 
ue scanned as one syll. as in 25G, below. 
See 2, above, note on Synizesis. In this 
rnanncr deinde, deinceps, deorsum arc pro- 
nounced as two sylls. — vehementer, vehe- 
menti, prohibeat, etc. as three. Cf. Ecl. 
viL7. 

132. Fiducia (which is commonly taken 
In a good sense), is herc put for confidentia, 
used in a bad sense. 

135. Quos ego — This sudden break off, 
Aaving the reinainder to be irnagined, is 
ealled aposiopesis: it is common in the comic 
writers. For other examples, see ii. 100; 
and v. 195. 

136. Non simili, i.e., by no means so 
Ienient as mere reproof. 

139. Sorte, "by lot," as the empire of 
Saturn was divided among his three sons, 
Jupiter, Neptune, and riuto. Cf. Ilom. II. 

-v. 187; Hcsiod, Theo£ 

140. Vestras shows that niore of the winds 
than Eurus are addressed. Many examples 
of tliis ehange of nitmbcr are quoted by 
Forb., in all of which onc individuai is 
«ingled out to be a reprcsentative of the 
rthers. See JEn. ix. 257 and 525. 

144. Cymothoe — o::e of the daughters of 
JFereus and Doris. Adnixus refera to both 
tlio individuals mentioncd, but agrees with 
tbe subflt nearest to it, viz., Triton. Triton 
was son of Neptune and Amphitrite, and 
gave namo to tho particular kind of dcities 
called aftor nim. 

145. Scopulo, i.c, the sunkcn rock on 
whioh Notus had hurled them. There 
ought not to ho a full stop aftcr this word, 
as it is to bc undcrstood after levat follow- 
ing. 

140. Aperit Syrtes—le., makes channels 
in the sand, or brings back deep water to 
thosc placcs whonco it had been driven by 
the winrL 

147. Perldbitnr levibus rotis — "Skims 
«ver ta bls fleet chariot" The verb used 



is applicd to express quick motion since il 
Buggests a smooth glidtag movement over a 
Burface presenttag few obstacles. Thc lina 
is another instance of onomatopoHa. 

148. The comparison of a sodition to tha 
tumult of the sea-wavos is froquont wlth 
the poots — thc passago is imuated from 
Ilom. IL ii. 144-140. Here, howevcr, the 
coimnotion of the deep and its settlomont 
are compared to a scdition. 

Ac introduccs comparisons with considor- 
able emphasis, to call attention to what foi- 
lows. but it always has reference to the pre- 
ceding statemcnt which is to be illustrated 
by some strong siniile, and not to the com- 
parison itself. 

Magno 2)opido mcans "a numcrous popu- 
lation," "a crowded assemblv of citizcns. M 
Cf. Hor. Serm.i. 6, 4; andSat. i. 6, 79. Tho 
Boman people is before the eye of the poet 
ta his comparison, and the epithet magno is 
therefore not idly inserted, but means to 
glorify the merits of the one man, whose ap- 
pearance is able to queU thc people^s tu- 
mults. 

149. Saevit animis. The low rabble rage 
violently with passion. — Populo and vulgus 
are collectives, and therefore animis is plur. 
The expression is similar to stupere animo, 
pendere animo, and such like. 

151. Gravem — "venorable," "a man of 
weight;" pietate, on account of his reve- 
rence for the gods, and the purity of his life 
consistent with his professions, et meritis and 
his acts of kindness and benevolence to his 
country and countrymen. Cicero is sup- 
posed to be hinted at. 

152. Adstant is more than stant — it means, 
"and there they stand rivetted." 

153. Ille is thus used with especial em- 
phasis and force, when what waa bofore the 
object becomcs suddenly the subject of the 
succeeding ciause, and is to be brougbt 
prominently into notice. 

15G. Curru secundo, Le., his chariot 
smoothlyrunning, and lightly following thu 
flytag steeds. Heyne, Wagn., Thicl, and 
others, take curru as the contractod dat, 
for currui, dcpending on dat lora; but 
Forb. and Jahn consider it *he abl., and 
connect it with vdlans, suppiying equis to 
be govcnicd by dat lora. 

157. Defessi — de in compos. with adjs. and 
verba tacreases the force of the simple 
words. Sce above, dehiscens, 106. 

Aeneadae, Le., not the dcsccndants, but 
thc companiona and followcrs of iEneas. 

159. Sorvius rcmarks that the place re- 
prescnted here by the poet is fashior*d after 
his own poctic fancy, the skotcn betag 
based, howevcr, on the harbour of Cartha- 
gona in Spata ; but Shaw (Travels, p. 200) 
ailcgcs that he discovercd a spot bctweea 
the Capes now callcd Bon and Zibel (near 
the ancient city Aquilaria, Caes. BelL Civ. 



B. L 161-lGC. 



NOTE9 ON THE ^ENEID. 



B. L l«*-i77. 



ii. 23), answering very nearly to the haven 
described by Virgil in this passage. There 
ls an indentation in the coast line, and in 
front, in the bay thus made, there is an 
tsland which serves as a breakwater, allowmg 
but the last and weakest ripples of the wave 
from the open 6ea to travel harmlesaly round 
tta extremities to the natural harbour formed 
is-ithin. Cf. Caes. B. C. iii. 112, and Lucan 
il 610 sqq. 

161. Reductos sinus is supposed by some 
to mean "a retired and deep bay;" but 
Forb., with niore reason, refers it to the 
gradual decrease of the wave after being 
broken as it retires in successive ripples of 
tinuous form. The poet is here indebted to 
Homer Od. xiil 97, and ix. 116. 

1G2, 3. Hinc atque hinc. He now speaks 
of the mainland, two promontories of which, 
with huge rocks and peaks, form natural 
ootmdaries to the harbour. Gemini, though 
properly used of tliings which are conjoined 
in some way so as to funn " a couple," " a 
pair," is here, as at ii. 203, equal to duo. 
Afinari is a verb constantly emploj-ed to 
express great altitude. Cf. also 2E.ii. ii. 240 
and iv. SS. 

1G4. Scena (cxjjvjj), so calledfrom crx,icc,, 
— a Bhadow, means primarily an arbour, 
i.e., an apartment formed, either by nature 
or art, of the branches and leaves of trees. 
lu a stcondary sense it is applied to the 
theatre, as spectacles were exhibitcd in 
very early times under such a covering, or 
a hut was introduced to represent the 
dwelling of the principal character of the 
play. Thirdiy, it meant the painting on 
canvas of the hut of former times, and thug 
came to signify any view. 

165. Nemm (vi.uof), j 3 "part of a wood 
<silva) more beautiful than the rest, with 
pastures (yopri) adjoining. Silva is the 
extensive and untrimmed range of forest. 
Lucus — a group of trees haviug some idea of 
sacredness attached thereto." See DbderL 
Lat. Syn. Atrunl signifies the gloom caused 
beneath by the dense foliage excluding the 
Bun's rays. Horrenti — "causing dread " from 
its very gloom. See 310, below. 

166. Fronte sub adversa, Le., in the recess 
of the bay, and in the precipitous eliff facing 
the voyagers as they enter. there is a cave 
containing a spring of delicious water, and 
seats of living, i.e., natural — native stone — 
not artificially formed, but made by nature. 
This passage has given much trouble 
to commentators, and great diversity of 
opinion prevails in the interpretation of its 
several parts. The following paraphrastic 
translation will, it is hoped, give some idea 
of the poefs conception : — " The spot (ichere 
the Trojans landed) is in a sequestered (longo, 
Le., distant and little frequented) retreat. 
An island forms a harbour fcy means of its 

L2 



projecting sides, against which every ' 
(coming) from tne deep is broken, and (thtr*- 
after) is-parted-and-so-retreats (Scindit 
with in and the acc.) into the recesses of 
the bay, [reductos sinus may also be inter- 
preted as in note on 161]. On either side 
(of this bay, and on the continent) huge 
rocks, and twin-like cliffs rise towering to- 
wards heaven, sheltered by whose summits 
the seas are undisturbed, (i.e. so as to be 
safe for ships,) and still to a great distance 
around. Moreover, there is, (on the receding 
hilk) abore, a back-ground view (scena) 
of li^ht-flashing forests, [the varying height 
of the trees, and the motion of the leaves 
by the wind, causing an ever-changing 
variation of hght and shade], and a dark 
grove overhangs, with an awe-inspiring 
gloom. Beneath the brow (of the cliffs- 
sub fronte) — and facing those persons en« 
tering aud saiiing up the bay, there is a 
grotto, formed by pendant rocks, within 
wliich is a spring of sweet water, and seata 
of natural stone^ — the home of the Nymphs." 
Cf. Hom. Od. xh. 318, and ix. 136. 

169. Ancora unco morsu. Virgil speaks 
of the iron anchors of his own day, for the 
Homeric sailors used stones with holes in 
them, but see 4G9, note. Unco is applied to 
morsu, though properly belonging, (as it is 
said), to the anchor. But if the anchor be 
crooked, so must its catch. 




170. Septemnavibus — onecarrying^neas, 
three levered from the rocks by Trtton, and 
three extricatcd from the sands by Neptune. 
The whole fleet, 20 sail hi alL was finally 
recovered, with c-ne exception, viz., tho 
ship of Orontes. 

173. Tabentes, Le., madidas unda marina. 
" Poetae enim," says Forbiger, '• tabcin pro- 
prie ponunt de humore corrupto; mox de 
gtiocunque, imprimis sordido." 

175, C. Wagner suspects that the plan of 
kindling a lignt here indicated is the same 
as that used by the shepherds to the pre- 
sent day, who, after receiving the spark in 
light aud porous pith, envelop it in dry 
stubble, and kindle this into a flame by a 
quick vibratory motion. Translate — " And 
first Achates strikes forth a spark by a flint 
stone, and caught the fire in leaves, and 
supplied dry nutriment around, and hastiiy 
fanned (raptim suscitavit=rapuit, Forb.) 
the blazc in thefueL" 

177. Cererem, Le., frumentum. Soabove 
in 34, we have TeUus, the deity, for (erra, 



B. L 178-193. 



NOTES ON THE 7ENELD. 



B. I. 194-HW. 



the element: thus also we have Vulcanus 
for ignis, Liber for Vinum, Mars for bellum, 
Venus for amor, etc. etc. Cerealia arma, 
i.e., instruments for griuding and baking. 
Arimi la Dot contmed to warlike weapona, 
but means implemenU generally, for any 
purpose whatsoever. 

178. Fessi rerum—a. Greek construction, 
on the prhiciple of the li antecedent notion 
expresscd by the gen." See Jelf Gk. Gram 
Dn the gen., vol. ii. 

Receptas, i.e., "presen r ed." "recovered," 
as good as got back froni the sea where they 
seemed at one time to be. 

179. Frangere saxo. Many uncivOized 
tiations of modern times tkus crash their 
grain by be&ting it with stones. Cf. Geo. 
i. 267. 

181. Pelago is the dat. case, as alto, 12G, 
above; for as we have already seen, the poets 
often use the dat. to express the place or 
point to which a thing is directed. Si, 
" wbether or no he can see any one (of his 
jost companions as) Antheus," etc, The 
proper names, Anthea, Capyn, etc, are in 
apposition to quem. Gossrau, however, ob- 
jects to this, and compares the use ofquem to 
ein (an, one) in Germau. Pelagus means the 
deep sea always, as opposed to that near to 
the land. Oceanus is the " great waste of 
waters" surrounding the earth. Mare, the 
sea as opposed to the land and sky. Pontus, 
the sea in reference to perpendkular dimen- 
sion. Aequor and Marmor refer to the sur- 
face merely in its level and glassy aspect. 

182. Biremes is put for ships geuerally; 
these same vessels are called triremes in 
yEn. v. 119. See Kamsay's Antiq. Roin. p. 
402 sqq. 

184. Cervos. — Some naturalists of former 
times alleged tnat there were no stags 
iu Africa; but Shau; in his "Travels" (other 
authorities omitted), says that animals of 
this class are found there. At aU events, 
we are not to bind down the poet to be a 
mere recorder of veritable facts of natural 
history. 

185. Armentafromaro, Q^a&Aaramenta, as 
jumenla, quasi jugumenta. The word is 
property applied to oxen, but also to flocks 
of animals of other kinds; soseals are called 

■/ armenta in Geo. iv. 395. 

189. Ferentes, Le., habentes — capita alta 
tornibus, Le., capila altis cornibus. 

190. Vuhjns, well opposed to ductores. 
19L Miscet agens, "plying the ernwd 

with his weapons, he drives thein in con- 
fusion into," etc. 

193. For fundat and aequet some books 
read fundit — aequat ; but tlie subjunctive is 
better, since the poet wishes to express 
the desire of J&neas not to deaist till he 
should have slain seven stags, and thus pro- 
vided one carcasc for each ship, rather than 
hia actual feats. Ilumi is the correct reading, 



and not humo, for Virgil uses the former 
(the ancient Dat.) to signify in terra, or i», 
ad terram, while the latter means a terra 
or e terra. For examples of its use, see 
Gossran >n loc 

194. Partitur in omnes, Lc, inter omtes. 

1 !)•">. Deinde is in an unusual position. 
Bonut, i.c, liberalis, benignvs, u gen< 
"lHiuntilul." Quae cadis onerdrat is an 
hypaUage for quibus cados onerarat. Thii 
wine had been provided by Acestes of Ae- 
gesta, a towu in Sicily, not far from Dre- 
panum. See below, 558, 570 ; also iii. 707 

196. Trinacrio — See note on 34. 

198. Ante matorum, twv vrfiv kcckuv. 
So in Sall. Jug. 70, 5, multo ante labore fa~ 
tigati, on which, see Kritz ad loc This 
figure, by which adverbs are so joined to 
adjectives and substantives as to make one 
compound word, and one simple idea, is 
called huphen (v<p' ivog), but is foreign to 
the idiom of the Latin language, and is 
seldom used. Others take ante for antea, 
and join it with ignari sumus; this is 
Gossrau's opinion. 

200. On the references in this and the 
followmig line, see notes on iii 555-675. 
Rabiem, properly the madness of dogs — on 
the appropriateness of wluch term, see iii. 
428, where Scylla is represented as BUT- 
rounded by these animals. 

201. Accestis, by Syncope, for accessistis. 
So in iv. 606, extinxem, for extinxisstm. 
This abbreviation is a particularly favourite 
one with Lucretius. On the constructiou 
of a verb of approaching with a simple 
accus. without a prep. a cf. below, 307, and 
see note above, 2. 

202. Moestum — "sadness-causing," iu an 
active sense. But Gossrau explains differ- 
ently. He says, " Abstract notions, which 
can only be discerned when maiufested iu 
concrete objects, rightly assume adjectives 
which are suited to the coucretes to whicli 
they are attributed." Thus moestus is pro- 
perly applied to timidus (used as a concrete 
subst., a " coward"), and may therefore be 
tranaferred to timor — the corresponding ab- 
strart subst. 

203. Haec means our present difficulties 
and discouragements. Forsan is a poetic 
word very rarely used by prose writera 
(who adopt forsitan), and not at ali by 
Cicero. 

204. Per tot discrimina — "through so 
many dangerous conjunctures." 

207. Durate, scil. vos, or animum veslrum. 
Or it may be taken as intransitive. 

208. Aeger — "sick at heart," — an epithet 
primarily applicd to the body, but trans- 
fi-rred to the miud, as Saucius, vulneratus, 
etc 

209. Altum— " decp grief," Lc. exccseiv» 
— that which ii deepty seated in the bosom. 

18 



B. I. 211-225. 



NOTFS ON inE /F.XF.ID. 



B. I. 227-242. 



211. Viscera — vhaterer is beneath the hide, 
Le.. tho flesh. 

£-12. Pars—secant. Yirgil rarely employs 
this kind of Stmesis (sec note on 70, above), 
fn which a collective is madc eubject of a 
plur. verb. The preceding illi BUggesta the 
pluralitu. 

Trementia—" still quiccring "— well ex- 
presses tlie haste of thcir hunger: Forb. \ 
But Gossrau thinks this beastly haste more 
becoming to Polyphemtia than our herocs. | 
and takes the word simply as a gencral 
vjiithet of rccently-killed flesb. 

213. Aena — the eauldrons, not for boiling 
fiesh (which waa roasted, as the preceding 
shows), bnt for warming waterfbrwashing ] 
previous to the meal. The poet, however, I 
may again bc confounding the custom of his 
ewn and of ancient times, but see 469, notc. 

215. Impkri governa the gen. after the 
Greek modeL In Cicero. Livy, and other 
prose writers, it ts followed by a gen. It ia 
liere in a middle sense, "fill themselves." 

Ferinae scil. carnis — "veaiaon." See note 
on ii. 

216. The readers of Homer will readily 
call to mind one of his favourite formulae. 
See Od. : 

Mensae remotae. Not only the rcmaining 
viands. but even thc table itsebf was re- 
moved after a meal. Sce Ramsay's Antiq., 
"Meala." In the present instance, tlie 
mensae were likely caies. Wagner considers 
'.aensae to mean "thc remains of the feast." 

217. Longo sermone — not tedious, but 
varied by the multiplied surmises and re- 
greta ahout their lost friends. Requirunt — 
i.e.. express their longing desire for, and 
Borrow at tho loss of. 

JlS. Dubii seu—sive,—a. poetic form for 
vtrum — an. 

JU». Extrema pati is nsed of such persons 
as are periahing from the effect of a severe 
infliction, and thence of all who meet with 
a violent death. Xec exawiirc is a mild 
way of Bnggesting the probability of their 
heing already dead — there ia a reference to 
the coneiamatio part of the fnneral Bervice. 
See Bamsay'a Antiq. 

220. OrontL On this form of the gen. see 
n 30, above. 

221. Secum — "apart. to himself," so as 
not to aadden and dispirit his companions. 

223. This paasage ia fonned by an imi- 
tation of several pieces firom llomer. See 
Od. v. 5, and 11. viii. 71. 

224. Yelirolum — thc epithet is applied 
also to ships; it here means ••sail-tloating," 
or "•aying," Le., the sea on which sails rly 
nnd ships tioat. Witfa tiie poets. birds and 
ghips are reciprocaUu metaphorical. 

225. Sic^sic temere, Burmann. Sic=> 
"■ut erat," Heyne. Torb. and "Wacrn., 
howtver, treat it as on imitation of the 

14 



not uncommon Greek mode of ir.serting a 
particle after a particip. to reneic, as it were, 
and rccommence thc sentiment cxpressed 
by the particip. 

"227. Talet, i.e., such as Libya and the. 
Trojana sutrtrcsted. 

228. Tristior, Le., nibtrittu — "somewhaf 
sorrowful." On this usc of thc compai 
iee Madvig and Zumpt. Oct/Ios, depending 
on tlic pass. particip. suffiua. Tlie I.atin 
poets, and sonie prose writera fond of poeti- 
cal expressions, often oae an accus. instead 
of the " abl. of limiting circumstance," as in 
the phrasc ciaudus allero pede. ThL« hap- 
pens nanaUy after passive verbs, and more 
especiauy after perf participlea, to denote 
tbe part of a whole to wbich tlie statement 
is limited; thus — nuhe candentes humeros 
amictus: miles fractus membra labore. It 
is callcd "Thc xVcccsativk of Rbfkuekcb 
on Li.mitatiox;" or, froin its great frc- 
quency in Greck, the Aceusativtu Graecus. 
But it i-= also used even after neuter verba 
and adjectives, as tremit artus, Geo. iii. 84; 
o.« humerosque deo similis, 589, below. Sea 
also note on ii. 210. 

'iil. Qiiibus— relatives, whether pronouns 
or conjanctions, are equal to a demonstra- 
tive, and a covjunction, so that quibus—vi 
iis. Transl. thus: " What have the Tro- 
jans been abl to do that the whole globe U 
shut against them." The indic clauditur 
aftcr ut in such a sentence is not to be found 
fault witli, since Yenus speaks of the thing 
as afact accomplished. 

234. folvenmnu, scil. se. Transitiveverl;.- 
often omit the reflexive pron., and thus be- 
coine neuter or middlc verbs; iheir present 
particip. is often used as passwe or reflexwe 
So accingrre. ii. 235; Avertere, 1"4. abovt , 
Yertere. Geo. ii. 33, etc. etc. 

235. Ob haiiam, ••All. too, about a bit 
of a settlement in Italy," as we should say 
in converBational style. 

'_':J7. Pvllicitits, es, c>r eras, according to 
tlie common interpretation, with a full Btop 
after pollicittts. But He\-ne Jahu. Wagner, 
Forb., and Ladewig place a comma aftei 
pollicitus, and look upon the clause as an 
anacolovthon (i.e.. a dcparture, in the close 
of a sentence. from tbe syntax with whicii 
it commenced ; see note 25, above,) caused 
by tbe grief and excitement of the speaker. 
Thus the right construction wotdd be carried 
ont if the poet bad written pollicitum to 
agree -with te. 

238. Iloc—uith this (promise). Solabar 
occasrtm — this verb is applied properly to 
the mind, then to the grief of the mind. and 
thirdly, as here, to the causes of the grief. 

ttis—fata rependent. Oonrp. Shak- 
spere — "Weighour sorrow witli oiu- com- 
fort." 

241. Qttemftnem. Virgil ofton uses faria 
a> fi in. See ii. ->-A ; iii. 145. 

Hl. Antenor See 248, and c£ Li^-y L 1 



B. L 2U-M0. 



NOJ BS ON TllE .EtfLIl». 



B.I, 251-282. 



S44. Fnntem Ttmavi, Lc., Thnavus. Thisis 
the name of a stream rising not far iroin tho 
sea, and emptying itself into thc gulph 
of Tergcste (Trieste). It is Baid to issue from 
caveras amid the rocks in the territory of 
tiie Carm, and to have nlne difforent sburcea, 
which soon form one very conaiderable 
stream, called magnus In Ecl. ^ iti. 0'. The 
rise of Buch a river ^vill patnrally be very 
rapkl, and, in conscquence, it often inun- 
datea tne surrounding country. The whole 
length of the river does not exceed one ruile, 
and tims the poet makes Anfenor pass its 
fountain-head, though he merely sailcd by 
its disembogue. The name Timao is stiil 
applicd to some springa which rise near S. 
Ciovannidi Carso, and the castle of Duino, 
and form a river. Antenor sailcd up the 
Adriatic ou the Dlyrian side, as being less 
dangerons than the Italian, crossed the gulf 
ot Tergeste, sailed past the Timavus, and 
settled in Liburnia. Penetrare means to 
pass on throngh ar.d eome to the extremity 
of~its application to regna in the scnse of 
" to reach," is a kiud of zeugma. 

'24$. Proruptum — as prorumpere is some- 
times found in a trausitive sense, its past 
part. may be used almost as a pres. part. 
&ct.=prorumpens se. 

247. Hic tamen ille — "Here, howeyer, 
that raan," viz., Antenor, to whom you gave 
no promise, "has founded the city of Pata- 
vium." The city will be remembered as 
the birth-place of Livy. It is now called 
Padua. 

248. Dedit nomen. He called them Yeneti, 
a corruption of Heneti, a large body of 
wliom followed him from Paphlagonia. 

Fixit arma, i.e., he enjoyed undisturbed 
peace. This phrase is taken from the prac- 
tice of soldiers, who, when freed from lnili- 
tary service for life, missi militia, conse- 
crated their armour to some dcity, and 
suspended it in his temple. 

249. Compostus pace. Heync, Gossrau, 
Henry, and others, consider these words as 
descriptive of the last days of the life of 
Antenor, but Wagn., Forb., and Jahn, refer 
thcm to his death. See Forb. in loc. Tliis 
latter interpretation seems to be supported 
by bettcr arguments than its rival. The 
two preceding lines sufficiently describe the 
temporal welfare of the prince, to crown 
wliich a peaceful death— the very mark 
and pineh of happiness — supervened. The 
advcrb nunc, moreover, denotes a transition 
from one state to another ; and, above all, 
componere, pace, and quiescere, are so much 
uords of death as to decide us on the point 

260. Nos — Venus artfully enforces her 
appeal, by making herself one ofthe Trojans. 
Heyne. Weickert considers it rather as an 
imitation of forensic practices at Rome, the 
patron taking the ills of his chent as his 



25L Infandum \t Lnsertcd as an interjtc- 

tion=\.ndignum. Cf. Ge<>. i. 47!'. 

Unius — very skilfully introdnced, ajid 
said with bitter irony. Prodiwur — "we 
are abandoned" by you. 

2j:J. In sceptra reponis— rcinstate us in 
that sovercigu powcr whlch we lield in 
Troy. 

234. Olli — antique form for illi. 

255. Obscrve the zeugma (sec ii. 258, and 
note) in serenat ; also in ponet, 284 

256. Oscula libavit, "tmchccl lightly tho 
lips." Cf. Phaedr. iv. 237, where the fly U 
niade to say " matronarum delibo oscula." 
Oscula is a diiuin. oios. Natae is dat. casc, 
and is used for greater clearncss, although 
olli has so receutly preceded. 

2-37. Metu — contracted dat. for metut. 
The meaning is " Cease to fear," " Ab- 
stain from fear." See bclow, ii. 534, Non 
iamen abstinuit, nec voci iraegue pepercit, 
which passage readily shows how tlus se- 
condary signitication of parco arises from 
the primarj' one. 

Cytherea—Yemxs is so called, because it 
was on the island of Cythera (Cerigo) she 
first trod when she emerged from the sea- 
foam. 

258. Fala immota — this clause is a direct 
answer to Quae te sententia vertit in 237. 

Cernes urbem et moenia promissa, ie., cer- 
nes promissa moenia urbis Lavini, an in- 
stance of Hendiadys. See 2, above, and 
EcL ii. 8. Lavini is the gen. from Lavi- 
nium, not Lavinum. Virgil, and most of 
the poets of the Augustan age, make thc 
gen. of words in ium, and iui ui i, and not 
in ii. See 270. 

259. Ad sidera /eres— iEneas was after- 
wards worshipped as Jupiter Indiyes. See 
Livy i. 2. 

2<i0. Magnanimum,\.c,fortem, animosum. 

Neque is here used in preference to wec, 
since it denies more mildly and genthj tuan 
the harsher form, a peculiarity best suited to 
the address of Jupiter. 

261. Hic, Le., ^Eneas, in opposition to 
Aseanius, of whom he speaks, 267. 

Tibi is what is called thc Dativus Ethicus. 
and depends on geret bellum. "The datives, 
mihi, nobis (sometimes tibi, vobis), are put 
with expressions of surprise and reprehen- 
sion, with demands or with questions aboui 
a person, in order to denote a certain de« 
gree of sympathy." Madvig, § 248. " The 
dative of personal pronoims is very often 
used where it is superrluous, as far as tho 
meaning is concerned, but it always conveys 
the expression of a lively feeling, and is 
therefore termed Dativus Ethicus" (Ji6tx.ii) 
Zumpt, §408. 

Remordet, Le., iterum iterumque mordet. 

262. Volvens— " imfolding," " unravel* 
ling." Movebo— " will bring forth to ligbt ■ 



B. I. 263-2:5. 



NOTES ON THE ^NEID. 



B. I. 278-286. 



263. ItaJid, for trt Italia. Contundet— 
M wfll crush." Populos feroees, Le., the 
Rutuli and EtruscL 

264 A zeugma oecurs in ponet: mores 
^leges, as at vi 853. See note above, 79, 
and iL 258. 

265. ^Encas is to reign for three years, 
Ascanius for thirty, the Alban kings for 
three hundred, but to the empire of Roine no 
limit is fixed. 

266. Terna hiberna, sciL tempora, Le,, tres 
iiemes. 

Rutulis subactis is the dat. case, not tho 
so-called abl. absol. 

2i6l. At indicates transition either of cir- 
eumstance, or person, or time. See 261. 

liilo — we may say either nomen mihi cst 
Iulus, or ?■>. ?n. cst luli. or n. m. cst lulo as 
here, but the dat. is preferable, Iulus is 
usually pronounced in t>co syllabies, but 
here in three. The son of JEneas was first 
called Euryleon — in the flight from Troy he 
received the name of Ascanius; but hewas 
never called lulus except by the Roman 
poets in compliment to the Ca?sars, who 
belonged to the gens Iulia, and who traced 
their origin to Ascanius. 

268. A line very tumecessary, since Venus 
is the person addressed Had Yirg-il «ived 
to revise his work, he would doubtless have 
amended it. 

•269. Jfagnos— ran epithet derived from the 
nature of the year, -which embraces the du- 
ration of many months. Yohendis — a fut. 
part pass. for a pres., as at ix. 7, volvenda 
Jies, Le., se rolvens. 

270. Eegnum, etc, The sentence from 
Triainta to Albam may mean — lst, That 
Ascanius was to reign* thirty years in alL 
and during that time found Alba; or 2d, 
That he would reigu thirty years iu Lavi- 
vium, and at the end of that period found 
Alba, and transfer his govermnent thither. 
Forbiger prefers the latter as better accord- 
Ing with YirgiTs viewa expressed elsewhere, 
e.g., viiL 42. 47, 48. Laviniis contracted for 
Lavinii, and comes not from Lavinum, but 
Lavinium, as the adj. Laviniensis shows. 

-71. Multa vi, Le.. magnis ojyibus, magno 
ftominum rerumque apparatu. 

■2:2. Jam is said of that whieh has not 
yet (ai the time of the prophecy) taken 
place, but which will certainly take place 
in due course. Ter centum — see note 71, 
nbove. 

273. Regina sacerdos — the priestess (of 
Yesta) of royal descent — is au expression 
siniilar to mulier ancilla in SalL Jug. 12, 
and femina vidua, a "widow uoman" in 
Kepos. 

874 Ilia. i.e., Rhea Silvia, daughter of 
Numitor, callednia, from herTrojan origin. 
The legend of Romulus and Remus is too i 
well known to require particular annotation. 
275. Laetus tegmine—HejTie and Thlel | 



explain laetus as equal to utens, ornatus; but 
Forb. interprets it — "wearing habituallya 
wolf s skin, in grateful and joyous recolleo- 
tion of the fostering care of that animal." 

278. Rerum metas, i.e., terminos imperii 
"the bounds of the empire. 

279. Juno, Jupiter, and Minerva, were 
the guardians of the Roman State. 

280. Fatigat— " disquiets with alarm," 
metu being used in an active sense. 

282. Rerum dominos—" the mastcrs of 
the world." The remainder of the line— 
gentemque togatam—may refer to thc pros- 
perity of the nation in the arts of pe 
the former phrase does to its success in war. 
The following cut represents a favourite 
mode of wearing the Toga. 




283. Sic placitum—thus it is decreed. On 
the lustrum, consult Ramsa3 T 's Antiq. 

284. Assaracus was one of the sons oi 
Tros, Hus being the other. Yom the for- 
mer ^Eneas was descended. 

2*o. By Phthia, the country of Achilles, 
Myceuae, the city of Agamemnon, and Argos, 
the government of Diomede, the poet repre- 
sents the whole of Greece as subject to the 
Roman sway. In Homeric times. Argos 
was of so great consequence among its 
sister states, as to be put sometimes for the 
entire Greek nation. Refer in History of 
Rome to the wars of the Romaus against 
Philip, King of Macedonia, under T. Q. 
Flaminius, from b.c. 200, and against Per- 
seus, under -Smilius Paulus, b.c. 171. 

286. The historical references, e.g^ spolH* 



B. L 287-294 



NOTES ON TflE .ENEID 



B. I. 295-31* 



srientis onmium, show that Augustus is 
here meant, and not Julius C;csar. Pukhrd 
means simply " dlstinguisned," " noble." 
The epithet Trqjanu» is added, because 
Augustus was received by adoption into the 
Julia yens. 

1 he empire extendcd, under Augus- 
tus, from the Atlantic to the Gauges, and 
from the Rhine to the wastes of the Libyan 
desert. 

289. The expedition referred to in Orientis 
is that undertaken in 30 B.c. to Egypt, etc. 
The first books of the ^Eneid could not 
make reference to the Paithian expedition, 
which was not eutered upon till ten years 
later, b.c. 20. 

290. Secura, "freed from anxiety." In 
our translation of the Bible, the word secure 
is nsed in this same sense. See Judges 
xvhi. 10. 

29L Reference is made in this line to the 
shutting of the temple of Janus, b.c. 29, and 
the existenee of peace over the whole Roman 
world. . 

292. Cana — " hoary," "ancient," i. e., 
Virtue stem as was that of the ancients. 
Or "clothed in white." See Hor. Od. i. 35, 
22, Albo Fides velata panno. 

On Vesta, eonsult Smith's Class. Dict. 
Fuks, Vesta. and Quirinus form the subject of 
iabunL Quirinus cum firatre may be meant 
to indicate Augustus and Agrippa, or to 
signify iri a general way the cessation of 
civil war, aud the consequent harmony 
among brothers. 

294. Belli portae—thn gates of the temple 
of Janus. Niebuhr explaius this custom by 
supposing that it originated in early times, 
when the Roman and Sabine cities, Remu- 
ria and Quirium, the nucleus of Rome, 
passed through the gate which conuected 
tbe two, to render assistance to each other 
when necessity required. It was ordered 
by.Numa that the gates should be open in 
war and shut in peace. They had been 
closed in the reign of Numa, and again at 
the conclusion of the First Punic War. 
They are seen closecl in the woodcut below. 




295. Furor is personified and associated 
witli War in hlfl iniprisunnient in the temple 
of Jauus. Virgil is Buppoeed to have re- 
ference, in these two lines, to a picture by 
ApelleS, representing War in a human 
dgnre, with his hands bound -nith cliains 
behind his back, ibllowing the triumphal 
car of Alexander the Great. This picture 
was dedicated by Augustus in the Forum. 

297. Genitum Maid, i.e., Mercury, son oi 
Maia, daughter of Atlas j the place of his 
birth was Mount Cyllene in Arcadia, 

298. Demittit—pattant — arceret. Observo 
the variation of teuse in these verbs — a 
pres. and imperf. subjunctive following an 
historical present. For a discussion of the 
piinciples involved, see Forb. ad loc, and 
Kritz ad SalL Cat 34, 1, and 41, 5. 

299. Nesciafati — not knowing that it waa 
decreed for them to settle in Italy, and that 
therefore there was no likelihood of theil 
endeavouring to fix their abode in her ter* 
ritory. 

300. Remigio al The wings of birds are 
often thus compared to the oars of ships. 
See 224, above. Note the celerity indicated 
by the perf. astitit — " has even now taken 

ion." 

301. The name Poeni indicates the Phce- 
nician origin of the Carthaginiaus. Poenus 
is just #fi/v/| adapted to the analogy of the 
Latin tongue. So from the Greek *«»/*/»$ 
comes Poenicus in Cato and Varro, andfrom 
this the more usual form Punicus. 

305. Volvens. Wtmd. pronounces this= 
qui vo!verat— u after having pondered;" 
but Wagn. takes it=dum rolvebat — "al- 
thougli he pondered " throughout the night. 

30tJ. Exire and the other infins. depend 
on constituit, wm>h is the leading verb of 
rhe sentence. 

308. Hominesne, feraene. Two ne"s are 
often used by the pocts for utrum — an. 

Observe the short final syllable of videt 
lengthened by arsis. See Metrical Index, 
and cf. Note Ecl. iv. 51, vi 44, 53. 

309. Exacta. "The result of their dili- 
gent inquiries." 

310. In convexo nemorum, i.c., in are- 
tired glade surrounded by groves. The 
neut. of adjs. is very frequently used for 
substs., e.g., convexa, 608. Serena, Geo. L 
393. So coerula coeli. 

312. Comitatus, used passively, though 
the participle of a deponent verb. The act 
form comito, is frequent, however. 

313. Bina for duo. Crispans, i.e., •*■ 
brans. Henry (Class. Mus. vol. vi.) allegea 
that no idea of brandishing is oontained in 
the word, and, moreover, that the notion 
ofsuch an action is quitc unsuitcd to the 
present passage. Comparing, therefore, 
our own word — "grasp," he interprets — 
" grasplng tightly in his hand," "bending 

17 



B. I. 814-318. 



NOTES ON 'JiUt AINEID. 



B. I. 310-338. 



his handrounuit." i.c. "ekltchingthespean 

iii his hand." 

314. Cui dopends in syntax on obvia. 

315. Oereru — there is a thieefold zeugma 
here. Translatc: " Ilaving the leatures, 
tcearing the dress, and bearing the armour." 

Ileyne linds fault with the rcpetition of 
Virginis ia this line, bat Wagn. defends it, 
and shows that it is even necessaiy, for 
by it the comparison of Veaua to the Spar- 
ian maiden is confined to thc arma. Wagn.. 
raoreover, puts a comma after arma, and 
thus Spartanae is more decidedly marked 
out as oniy the first specimen of t\vo kinds 
of huntresses, famed for their daring and 
ixploits. The nieaning, then. will run 
thus — "Bearing such armour as is'suited 
for a (huntress) maiden, either a Spartan 
or ftalis virginis) such a virgin as the 
Thracian Ilarpalyce (is when she) urges 
irapetuously her steeds, and outstrips the 
fleet Hebrus in her course." 

317. Harpalyce — a daughter of Harpaly- 
cus, kiug of a Thracian people. She was 
brought up in the woods. and accustomed 
to hirating from infancy. 

Hcbrum — Heyne, Bentley, Burmann, 
and many other distinguished commenta- 
tors, prefer the conjectural reading, Eurum, 
on the ground, that volucer is not a fit epi- 
thet to apply to a river which is elsewhere 
described as lenis smdplacidus, and that, on 
the other haud, the wind is a very common 
and perfectly suitable object witli which 
to compare extraordinaiy speed of foot 

But the reading Hebrum is retained by 
Wagn.. Forb., Ladewig, Gossrau. etc, for 
these reasons :— lst, AU the MSS. exhibit 
it. 2d, A poet :n speaking of the natural 
features of a distaut country must have al- 
lowance made for him. and in this case, 
particularly, Virgil may be excused for at- 
tributing great speed to the most important 
riverofa country, which, in the minds of 
the Kcmaus, was rugged and wild. 3d. 
Thc close imitation of Silius, ii. 73 sqq. — 
" Quales Threiciae Rhodopen Pangieaque 
iustrant Saxosis nemora alta jugis, cursuque 
fatigant Hebrum innupta inanus;" and thc 
testimony of Silius, Stat.Theb. andof Claud., 
that the Hebrus icas a fast flowing streara. 
4th, It is quite natural that Virgil should 
compare the speed of a Thracian nymph to 
the course of a Thracian stream. Heyne in 
his notes on Tibullus, defended the old 
reading there, and is, on that account, ac- 
cused by "Wagner of ii.consistency for pre- 
ferring Eurum in his edition of the poet of 
the iEneid. The Hebrus is now called 
Maritza — it rises in Mt Haemus (Balkan), 
and flows into the iEgean. 

318. Namque — Heyne believes that espe- 
cial reference is made in this and the fol- 
lowing lines to the palaestric exercises of the 
Spartaa womeo; but Wagn. opposes such 



a view: He adds, farther, that thc compari- 
son witli the Spartan femalea is made only 
in thc article cf armour — other particulars 
are commoii to all huntresses. Habdem 
means " vrcll suikd to the person carrying 
the bow, be he strong or be he weak." 

319. Dederat comam diffundere — tlus is a 
Gk. construction for dedit diffundendam. 
See above, 6o\ 

320. " Barc to the knee, aud having her 
aniply-flowing robes gathered up in a knot," 
or "by a girdlc," as Hcyne explains. Sca 
note above, 228. 

321. Juvenes — a terra applied to men up 
to forty-five or fifty years of age. 

324. Prementem — "keenly pursuing." 

325. Orsus, from ordior. Mihi, dat. of 
agent, u by rne." 

327. After a voc, should come, but 
vEneas is ignorant of the naine of the per- 
.son, and therefore omits the word of address. 

328. Sonat hominem. Another example 
of a neuter verb becoming transitive. So 
Saltare Cyclopa. 

329. The double an is not in this place for 
utrum — an, snice the two questions are en- 
tirely distinct. Phoebi soror, ie., Diana. 

330. Felix. "propitious," "causing bappi- 
ness." 

331. Tandem increases the cagernees of 
an interrogation, and corresponds somewhat 
to our "I pray you." 

332. This line is hypermetrical, the gne 
being joined by synapheia (i.e., continuous 
scansion) to the following one. Sce Geo. 
L295. 

335. Note the omission of the verb of 
saying. Tali honore, riz., of d'vine honours. 

337. The Cothurnus or buskin was to pro- 
tect the feet and legs from brambles. See 
Smith's Dict of Antiquities. The following 
cut represents the Cothurnus, or hunting- 
boot, usually attributed to Diana. It is 
not to be confounded with th» boot worn 
by tragic actors. 




33S. Pumca— see above, 301, note. Age» 
nor was an Egyptian, father of Cadmus, 
Phcenix, Cilix, Europa, etc, and therefore 
ancestor of Dido. He founded Sidon, whenc« 
Dido is called Sidouia, 446, etc 



B. I. 339-360. 



HOTES u.n tuk .i:m.ii« 



B. 



353-378. 



339. Fines is often put for a wholc coun- 
try mcluded within ccrtain boundariea. 
Hereitmeans, "the territory forms a part 
of Libya." Obaerve the tynetia (aee note 

a: 'ive, 70) eonstruction, fines—gcnus. Cf. 
S.TL iv. 40, Gactulae urbes genus, etc. For 
other quotationsofsimilar syntax, see Forb. 
nd loc. The phraae in the tc\t=fines habi- 
t&nt Libye*, <j, nm, etc. 

340. Dido—Tyria vrbeprofiecta. Sce above, 
note 33S, aud consult Smitlfs Clasa. Dict 

341. Longa est injuria. "Thc story of 
her injuries is. a long one." 

342. Sequar tumma fastigia, i.e.. 1 shall 
specify tlic most prominent points of her | 
history. 

343.' Sychacus, not Sichaeus. In the qnan- ' 
tity of fbreign names, and more especially , 
those of foreign origin. the Roman poets I 
are very irregular. In 348, and other: 
piaces where Ihe narae occurs, the first ! 
svIL of Sychaeus is short — here, however, it 
ia long. ~Cf. iv. 20. 50:?, 552, etc. So als<J 
Sicaniis, Srcaniis, Slcanus, Sicania, Slcania, 
— Apulus, Apulia. See iiL 3-3, and note | 
tliereon. 

Agri. Huet conjectnred auri inatead, , 
since the wealth of a rich Tyrian would I 
consist rather in specie than in land. This J 
emendation is adopted by Heyne and Peerl- j 
kamp, but Wagn. and Furb. retain agri, j 
the reading of the Codices, as more natural ! 
fcr a Roman poet, whose ideas of wealth i 
were not associated with commerce, tut I 
rather with estates. 

344. Miserae is the gen. not the dat. She i 
ii> called Mimrat by antioipation. in refer- ' 
cnce to her husband's death and her own 
exile. Burmann refers it to the misery yet 
awaiting her in the dcseition of^Eneas, and 
her consequent death. 

345. Intactam, i.e.. not prcvioualy mar- 
riecL Pater, i.c, Belus. 

346. Ominibus primis—not "the moat 
happy auspiecs," but " the tirst taken aus- 
pices," for, as she waa then wedded for the 
first time, the auspices which were ahvays 
consulted previous to the ceremony, were 
in her case sought to but oncc. 

Germanus, Le., Dido's brother, Pygmalion. 

348. Quos inter — a prep. is frequently put 
sfter its case — more especially -\\ith reL 
prons. See above, 32, andGeo. L 161. Quos, 
Le., Sychaeus and Pygmalion. Observe 
thc peculiar phrasc cenit medius interquos. 

349. The heinousness of the deed is mag- 
nified by the fact that it waa committed at 
the altar of a deity — the assassin being a 
priest of Hcrcules. Cf. Scott, Lord of tLe 

.tnto ii., stanza xxiv. and xxviii. 

350. Securus amorum Germanae — "re- 
gardless of the affection of his sister" — not 
caring to do violence to her feelings, and 
jrive rise to the frantic manifestations of 
grief which her loye would prompt. 



353. In somni», during sleep — but insomnis 
(adj.) "awake." Inhumati — the atrocity vt 
the dced is increascd still more by Pygmalion 
withholding funeral rites from Sychaeua, 
and thus compelling hia spirit to wander 
about without pennission to cross the Styx 
aud settlc in the Elysian shades. 

355. CruJtl^s aras— '• those altars (/f 
cruelty," Lc, the place whcre a cruel deecl 
was committed. Sucn an enallage of tlii; 
adj. is common. Similarly in Rome the 
Sceleratus Viau commcmoratcd the rourdei 
of Servius Tullius. 

356. Xudavit. There is & eeugma in this 
word — " lievealed the mcrciless dced at thc 
altar, and expoted liis breast, and discloscd 
all the particulars of the tmknown crime ol 
her tamily.-' 

358. liecludit kllure = effudit e telltn e. 
The apparition points out thc hiJing-place 
of the gold, and thus is said to raise it. The 
abl. is frequently joined to vcrbs compounded 
with i-e. See iv. 545, ajid Geo. L 275. 

360. Parabat— another zeugma. 

361. Crudele odium, Lc. "quale est im- 
maitis animi." Metus accr, •■proprie d( 
animo exasperato," Forb. 

364. Opes Pygmalionis—either, The wcaltb 
.vhich he looked upon as his own, in antici- 
pation. after the death of Sychaeus (Heyne) ; 
or, The wealth which, on tbe death of Sy- 
chacus, he was entitled to in right of inheri- 
tance (Gossrau). Fcrb. and Henry take 
opes to mean not only gold and silver, bnt 
also such thinps as are necessary for the 
greatness of a kingdom: — viz., ships, men, 
arms. 

365. Locos,acc. of placc whither— scenote 
2, abovc Cernis, Lc, cernerc potcs. _ Somo 
cditions read cernes, for a discussion of 
which sce Forb. ad loc. 

367. Byrsa. The Phcenieian name for a 
fortress or citadel was Bosra, which the 
Greeks softened hito B-jptrct, and as this 
latter means a hide, the story was fabricated 
to account for the namc Line 36S is con- 
sidered spurious by some critics. 

369. Thiei rcmarks that this line contains 
the substance of the well known form of 
addrcss used by persons suddenly meeting 
one another— "unde et guo." Tandem 
greatlv increases the force of interrogation. 

372. Pergam. put absolutely for narrare 
pergam. 

374. Componet — somc editions read com- 
ponat. The subj., however, is not at all 
necessary. For a discussion of the ques- 
tion. seeForb. ad loc. 

377. Tempestas fiorte sud — "A storm witb 
its peculiar chances." 

378. Pius sEneas—notus super aethera— 
Virgils taste has beeu found fault with for 
introducing his hero using such phrasea 
about himself ; but it is to be borne in mind 

19 



B.I. 






N0TE8 <>N THE .l.NEID. 



B. I. 390-405. 



thatliis words have regard rather to the 
Trqjan war and the well known misfor- 
tunes of the man, than to any assumed ex- 
cellence of mind or body. He was pius 
(dutiful) to his father, his "country, and the 
gods ; and in regard to these last, he affords i 
a proof in the latter part of the line, See 
Hom. IL xx. 298. 

380. ItaTt etc. "I snek Italy, my 
(true) native country, and the early home 
of my race, that sprung from Jove." Genus 
is here equivaleut to proavorum sedes, and 
the whole passage alludes to an early le- 
gend which made Dardanus, who was the 
Bon of Jupiter and Electra, and the founder 
»f the Trojan line, to have come originally 
from Italy. According to the tradition 
iiere referred to, Dardanus [was sprtmg from 
theTyrrhenian Corythus, or] came first from 
Corythus in Etruria [afterwards Cortjna, 
fouiided by Prince Cory thusj to Samothrace, 
and paased thence into Asia Minor, where 
he settled, and becarne the stem father of 
the Trojan race. The descent of ^Eneas 
from this early monarch was as follows :— 
I. Dardanus (son of Jove) ; II.Erichthonius: 
III. Tros. ; IV. Assaracus; V. Capys; VI. 
Anchises: VII. JBaetm. YVagner reinoves 
the semicolon usually placed after patriam, 
and inserts et before" genus, in which he is 
followed by Forb. and others. The old 
reading (patriam ; gtnus), would introauce 
a very abmpt and clunisy reference to his 
own "individual origm from Jove. Gcnus 
would, in this view, be the nom. b» apposi- 
tion to j£neas. 

381. Bis denis—See above, note 71. ' 
3S3. There is a peculiarity in the adj. i 

conrulsae. The meaning is, "Of these, 
shattered as they have been by the xcaters and 
the tcind, seven with difficulty [or, seven 
ottly] have been saved." Wagn. 

384. Ignotus. Some translate aetively, 
" I myself. not knowing the country," etc, 
Forb., however.prefers it in its usual passive 
^ense. thus: "although I have been cele- 
brated by fame (notus super aethera), yet 
liere in the deserts of Libya I am not recog- 
nised as iEneas." 

385. Nec plura quereniem passa, Le., non 
passa eum queri plura. 

368. Carpis. This verb is constantly used 
by the poets for capere, meaning to take 
what presents itself of its own accord; the 
metaphor is taken from fruits and fiowers 
by the wayside, free to all. Forb. 

G^L». Se perferre ad aliqttem locum seems 
to be a «.Ta^, Xiy'ofx.i*ov, not being found 
elsewhere. Cf., however, iiL 345. Kau 
in Schedias., p. 39, argues that this verse is 
spurious, — lst, because it is absnrd to say, 
to a shipwrecked man on an unknown coast, 
"qtuere limen reginae;" and 2d, on account 
of the recurrence of the phrase perge modo ' 

r 



(see 401) iu so short an address; but both 
objections are trivial. 

390. Relatam — referre is a nautical phrase 
used of those who are forced back by the 
wind to the harbour they had sailed from, 
6r to the coast. 

392. Vani. This adj. means either one 
who promlsea what he cannot perform, or 
one who puts forth a false or groiuidless 
doctrine. Thus it comes to mean as here, 
one vrho is himself deceived, and uho in turn 
deceives others. 

On augurium and auspicium, see Ramsay's 
Antiq. 

393. Bis senos, etc, The twelve swans 
dispersed (turbabat) by the cagle (called 
elsewhere Jovis armigcr, and regia ales) re- 
present the twelve ships of JEneas whieh 
were afterwards recovered, Arith Antheus, 
Sergestus, and Cloanthus, 584. Cf. Hom. 
II. xv. 090 sqq. Tlie ancient interpreters 
find fault with Virgil for introducing the 
swan, which was not a Roman bird of 
augury, but the poet will be excused since 
it was sacred to Vexus. Servius quotes 
the testimony of JEroilius Macer that 
mariners were especially rejoiced at the 
appearance of a swan as augury, because 
these birds cannot be drowned. 

Jahn aUeges that there is this difference 
between augurium and aus-picium, that the 
former is sought for, and is indicated by 
certain birda, and no other, while the latter 
is manifested by any bhd, and is not sought 
for. 

394. Aperto— not clear, but shelterless— 
"affording no defence against the attack of 
an enemy." 

396. The proper sense of this line was 
first explained by "Weichert. The swans, 
on the departure of the eagle— joyful at 
haviug eseaped the danger — again collect 
into a flock. and, flying iu a long line, seek 
a place to ahght. Part of them — the hind- 
most — as yet uncertain where to settle, ex- 
amine theground from their elevated posi- 
tion, to select a halting-place, wlule another 
part — the foremost — have already made 
their choice, and are looking down on the 
spot, as they are just on the point of ahght- 
ing. 

397. Reduces, sciL in auram, their proper 
element. Ludunt, "disport" through joy 
at their dehverance (393). 

398. Polum, i.e., coelum. Anthon adopts 
Burmarm's conjecture — Solum (the grotmd) 

402. The goddess reveals herself" at hcr 
departure, (see iv. 277; v. 65S; ix. 659,) by 
her beautiful neck— (rosea may also mean 
"of fresh and florid colour") — her hair 
perfumed with the ambrosial unguent of 
the gods — her robe, formerly girt up, but 
now fiowing to hcr feet, and, finally, by her 
light, airy, and graceful gait. 

405, The hiatus between dea and ilte is 



B. I. 407-419. 



NOTES ON TIIE yEXEID. 



B. I. 421-432. 



permitted, on account of the completkm of 
thc scnse, and the full punctuation niark. 
See above, note on 16, and on EcL ii. 53. 
SeealsoEcl. ii. 21. 

407. Totie» implies frequent appearances 
cf Venus to her son iEneas, though Virgil 
records only another, and it a real one, ii 
5S9. Quoque is to be joined with crudelis. 
So Milton— 

"Mock us with his blest sight, then 
snatch him hence." — Par. Reg. ii. 55. 

409. Veras voces, Le., that I may speak to 
you as a son to his mother, and not as a 
stranger to a stranger. 

412. This device to conceal the Trojan 
chief is borrowed from Homer, cf. Odyss. 
vii. 14, 39^3, and IL v. 344. The art of 
the poet is conspicuous in this passage : — 
<Eneas is allowed to hear, under cover of 
the cloud, his own praises, and to have 
proof of the aflfection of hia followers ; how 
striking, too, the effect of his sudden emer- 
gence from the heaven-wrapped covering- 
at the words of Dido, 57-3, atqite v.tinam 
rex ipse — ad/oret jEmas. MuUo nebulae 
amictu is the Homeric <?ro/./.r.v '/.'ifx. 

413. ^os-^-the poets seldom use the oblique 
cases of the pron. is as enclitic, but only 
when prominent and emphatic. 

414. Ve and aut are not opposed to ns 
and neu, but serve to add something to 
what has preceded. MoUri is used of opera- 
tions which require great labour and pre- 
paration. 

415. Paphum, a city of Cyprus, famedfor 
its worship of Venus, and giving her the 
name Paphia. 

416. Laeta, "joyful" because she delights 
fn Paphos, say Heyne and Wagner. But 
Wunderlich and Forb. adopt the more na- 
tural interpretation, viz., joyful on account 
of the safety of her son. This is a much 
more solid ground for hcr delight than the 
mere fact that the people of Paphos did her 
bonour; and besides, the phrase ubi tem- 
plum illi, does not assign a cause of her joy, 
but only accounts for her selectiou of Pa- 
phos as her present retreat. 

Sabaeo, from the SabaeL a people of 
Arabia Felix. 

417. Ture— the altar of the Paphian Venus 
was not to be stained with blood — it was a 
placabilis ara. 

418. Corripuere. The use of this verb in 
such a sense is derived, as Gossrau thinks, 
from the idea of th^ two ends of a road 
being reached, and, as it were, made to 
touch each other, by the traveller, at a short 
interval of time. 

419. Jamque is an important word serv- 
ing to call attcntko to things a3 if now 
present. 

Plurimus, "c:i hugc size;" So Gco. iiL 
62, plurirna cerxix. 



421. Magalia, huts— it is a word of Scml- 
i; Magtlr, a "villa;" MoJem, "the 
." scil. "of the buildings." 

422. Sirata viarum for stratas vias; So 
opaca locorum, ardua terrarum. The phrase 
is taken from Lucr. iv. 416. See abovc, 
note on 310, Geo. i. 393. 

423. Imtant may be taken r absolutely, 
" are eager" sciL in their duties. But Wm> 
derhch and Gossrau, since the dat. operi is 
omitted, remove the semicolon after Tijrii, 
and make instant govern ducere and moliri. 
Ducere muros (So l^avvuv tu^os) i. e ., 
the waflfl of tne citadel (Henry, Clas». Mus. 
voL vi.) — those of the town wouid have 
been useless at that stage of the building. 

425. Bulco, Le., a trench dug to receive 
the foundatious, and not a mark made by 
the plough. 

426. The poet, in this passage, assigns to 
theearlyCarthaginiansmannersandcustoms 
of his own thne, but see 469, below. Rau, 
m Schedias., rejects this line, as unconnected 
with the others by any grammatical bond, 
and as unsuited to the context. Wagn., 
however, defends it, as it points out some 
of the various cases which the energeti*'. 
labours of those building a new city won:^» 
doubtless undertake, and also because it i,s 
not at all likely that a Roman would pass 
over unnoticed the aflfairs of law and govern- 
ment. A zeugma is to be noted in legunt, 
they enact (constituunt) laws, and elect (le- 
guntj magistrates and a senate. 

427. Portus — the harbour was called 
Cothon, according to Servius, Strabo, etc. 
Theatri is to be pr^ferred as a reading 
to theatris, for it is not at all likcly that an 
infant colony would be building more than 
one theatre, though, indeed, the plur. does 
not necessarily imply more in this place. 
The description, it has been remarked, is 
more hke that of the proceedings of a Grecian 
than of a Roman colony. Yet a Roman of 
the days of Augustus cannort be supposed 
to separate a theatre from his ideas of a 
citv. Forb. " 

429. The alta of 427 refers to the depth 
of the foundations, as vieiced/rom the heights 
above — the alta of this line, to the altitude 
of the pillars, asviewed/rom below. 

4ol. Exercet. Kritz on Sall. Cat. 1L> 
" avaritia animos hominum exercebat," says, 
" Res exercent homines quum eos ita occu- 
patos habent ut in iis toti sint et quasi defixi 
tcneantur, eoque aut exagitentur, aut^/ati- 
gentur." See Geo. iv. 453. 

Sub sole — not merely in daylight, as op- 
poaed to night. but during the sunshine hours 
of the day. 

432. Liqwntia. Thefirstsyll. isherelong, 
but in v. 238 it is short. So Lucretius (iv 
1252) employa#9Hu/utf with the first syllable 
both short and long in the eame lino. 



B. L 434-447. 



NOTES OS i'HE JENEID. 



11. I. 448-4:8 



434. Agmine facto — "fai a marshalled 
band." The sagacity and instinct of bees 
are brought out in Geo. iv. In their social 
and mhitary arrangements, they are con- 
stantly compared to thc human species; 
here the compaiison is pecuharly happy, 
since they are fond of forming uew settle- 
ments, aiid are remarkably mdustrious in 
labouring to establish their intcrest. 

43(i. Ferrct, i.o. ,rlrride agitur. "Thework 
is briskly carried on, and the fragrant and 
abnndant honey is redoleut of thyme." 

440. Miscet riris — nec cernitur ulli. The 
poet, avoiding common forms of expression, 
adopts Greek idioms. Ulli, the dat. instead 
of the abL with a. 

441. Umbrae. This readhig, as being the 
most difficult, is restored, iustead of umbra, 
by Heinsius, who is followed by Wagn., 
Forb., and almost all modern commen- 
tators except Jahn. Wagner endeav- 
ours to establish a diftereuce between laetus 
and laetans, with the gen. and with the abl. 
With the latter case thcy are said to have 
their common signhication " of joy," but 
with the former, " plenty," or " abundance." 
This distinction, however, is not carried 
out by the poets, or even by Yirgil him- 
self. See Geo. ii. 112. Forb. is of opinion 
that the Roman poets used the construc- 
tions quite indifferently — circumstances 
of sound or metre decidlng the case to be 
employed. 

442.* Primitm — tliis may be an adj. joined 
with signum, or an adverb modifying effo- 
dere: signum, i.e., omen. 

444. Sic (hoc signo) sciL indicarit — "For 
by this token she indicated that the nation 
woidd be renowned in war, and would 
enjoy abundance and security for ages ; " 
— (literally " would be easily supported for 
ages.") 

445. Facilem victu. Heyne interprets — 
" which would have a ready subsisteuee, 
abunc 3 antly supphed by the fertihty of the 
soil." Wagnef understauds it in a wider 
sense to mean "every kind of prosperity," 
implying therefore the great resources* of 
the Carthaginians, aud their great power. 
Victu is the 2d supine. 

447. Donis opidentum et numint dirae — 
rich with gifts and the divinity of the god- 
des. ," Le., the great reputation of the deity 
brought many to her temple to consult her 
oracle and invoke her favour, and by these 
rich presents were offered: Wagn. and Forb. 
WunucrL understands donis to mean vases, 
and all the utensils of worship employed in 
the shrine; and numen to signify a statue of 
the goddess of gold, or some other precious 
materiaL Looking, however, at 15, 16, 17, 
above, we are rathcr inclined to agree with 
Jahn in considering numen as mdicating 

"tUae PKAESENTIASI Ct MAJESTATEM, qttO, 

mSemtibas hcrr-rem injecerit et petentibus 



auxilium tulerit." Cf. 1 Kings viiL 10. 
" The glory of the Lord had filled the house 
of the LotcL" 

448. " The bronze threshold of which 
rosc (was elcvated) on steps" — "the ascent 
to the door threshold, which was of bronze, 
wasbystcps" — "its beams restcd (hixae) 
on pQlars ofbronze" (aere.) The reading 
nixae (found by Servius in mar.y MSS.) fol 
the common furm nexae has been adopted 
by Forb., following Peerlkamp and Henry 
who argue that it is surprising if no mention 
were made of pillars, one of the greatcst 
ornamentfl of temples, and that if Vhgil 
had wished to notice nothing but bronza 
bcams, hc necd not have vaiied the expres- 
sion, aerea limina — nexae aere trabes. They 
urge, farther, in confirmation of their opin- 
ions, a remarkable hnitation by Stat. Iheb. 
viL 33. The common reading, nexae, is thns 
explaincd by Heyne and Wagn. : " Trabes 
nexae, i.e.,pvstes nexi, juncti Uminibus aereis, 
surgebant, (i.e., erantexj aere." What the 
ancients call aes was a combmation of cop- 
per and tin, and ought, therefore, to receive 
the name of " bronze," and not "brass," 
which is made up of copper and zinc. 

Observe the synapheia in que, which is 
joined in scansion to the next line. Cf. 
332. 

450. In hoc luco, i.e., where the temple 
was built. JVbra — "strange," "unantici- 
pated." XTotnu is thus used either in a good 
or a bad sense. 

453. Sub templo- - u in the lower parts of 
the temple." 

454. Reginam opperiens — How did he 
know she was to come that way? it has 
been asked. Forb. answcrs. that he may 
have heard it from the workmen engaged 
in building the city. 

455. Artificum munas. "The style of the 
artists." Operum laborcm — "Their gieat 
labour" in all the varions occupations con- 
nected with buihhng and omament. Others 
interpret, " The tkiborate Jinish of thcir 
work." The following are the principal 
views of this passage :— (1.) (Miratur) Inter 
se — "Comparing them (manus artificum= 
opera) oue with another, he admires them." 
Heyne. (2.) (Manus) inter se — "Tho 
workmen (certantes, vieing) with one an- 
other." Yoss and Servius." (3.) Peerlkamp 
conjectures mirantur, i. e., ^Eneas and 
Achates admire the.objects to one another : 
but a plur. would Ul suit the singulars lustrat 
before, and videt after it, referring to the 
principal persouage. Translate : " He is 
filled with admiration as he compares the 
(various) styles of the workmen with one 
another, and (as he notes) the . elaborate 
finish of the work." 

45S. Ambobus, Le., to the sons of Atreus 
as one party, by his wrath on account <rf 
Briseis and bia consequent withdrawal firom 



B. I. 460-409. 



NOTES OX TIIK K.XKII). 



B. I. 473-W8. 



the battle; and to Priam, as the otherparti/, 
in the death ot' Hector. ln thia view ambo 
Is not objectionablc as being applied to three. 
Arhitlen rather tlian Achillem, fbr the best 
MSS. make the acc case of Greck nouns 
iu es and as cnd in en and an. This linc, it 
is to be observed, contains the tchole argu- 
ment of the Iliad. 

460 Plena ttostrt laboris — "full of the rc- 
ports of our misfortunes and losses." 

461. En is joined witta the nom. hcrc, and 
ativ. 597; v. 639, ar.d elsewhere; but with 
the acc, Ecl. v. 65, wliere see note. Forb. 

Laitdi is liere put for virtus and res gestae, 
which mcrit praise, Hcyne. "Even here 
excellence has its own propcr rcward." 

462. Lacrimae rerum — Tears (Le., pity) 
for (luiman) casualties. Sec ii. 413, and 
also 784, lacrimas dUectae pelle Creusae. 
The Latin genitive is eithcr subjective or 
objective — thus, in the phrase amor dei, it is 
subjective when it mcans the lovc which God 
(as the subject) feels towards man ; it is ob- 

jective when it denotes the love which mail 
directs to God (as the object loved). The 
objective gen. is, therefore, equal to an accus. 
tvith a prcposition. 

463. Tibi — another example of the Dativus 
Fthicus. See 261, above. With a strong 
fceling of Irindness he applies to Achates 
particularly, the consolation that the story 
of their calamities (haeefama) beingknown 
hcre will rcnder the people propitious to 
them. 

464. Inani — "unsubstantial " — so called, 
because representing only the outluie 
shape, withont any sabstantiality of form. 

466. The seven groups represcnted are as 
follows: — 1. The battle of the Trqjans and 
Greeks, with varying fortune, 467-8. 2. 
The death of Rhesus, 469 sqq. 3. Troilus 
iu flight, 474 sqq. 4. The procession of 
Trojan matrons carrying the robe for pre- 
scntation to Minerva, 479 sqq. 5. Priam 
redeeming the body of Hector, 483 sqq. 6. 
The battle by Memnon and his host, 489. 7. 
The battle of the Amazous, 490 sqq. Hcvnc. 

467. The battle refcrred to is that in 
which Patroclu-; was slain (Hbm. II. xvii.), 
after which Achilles came forth oii the fol- 
lowing dav, II. xix.. xxii. 

468. Hac—IIac, for Hac—iUaC. On Rlie- 
sus, see Hom II. x. 433 sqq., 470 sqq. . 

469. Xiveis tentoria veUt. This is an ana- 
chronism similar to that noticed in 169, 
in reference to anchors. The Grecian and 
Trojan "tents" werc rather huts madc with 
ttakes, osiers. and earth. Dr Lersch, in hls 
valuable works named in note 632, below, 
discuseea the two theories with regard to 
Virgil'streatmentofantiqiuties; viz., First: 
' ; T!iat the poct invariably, and on sct pur- 
posc, has, in refercncc to matters of life, 
public or priratc, sacred or profane, pre- 
kcrvcd the ideas and customs of the heroic 



aprc pure andunalloyed:" — Second: "That 
the poet has, on the whole, preserved the 
idcas and customs of the heroic age, bul 
tliat he has occasionally erred in represent- 
ing them. 14 And aftcr urging objections 
againat both schemes, he advanccs a third, 
That all mattcrs relating to life, public or 
private, sacrcd or profane, .iave been 
treated by Virgil in tho ^neid in conso- 
nance with Iloman notions, and that hia 
ideas wcre derivcd partly from the state of 
the city and empire in his own day, and 
partly from the traditions of custoins or 
doctrines which prevailed in tne infancy, or 
dnring gradual growth of the nation. A care- 
ful study of Dr Lersclfs arguments cannot 
fail.wc shouldthink, to convincc the student, 
that this test is the only tenable theory. 
But we must refer the reader to the works 
themsclvcs, as the length of the discussion 
precludes the possibility of our epitomising 
it here. Rhesus was king of Thrace, and 
brother of Hecuba, wife of Priam. 

473. The prophecy was, that if the horses 
of Rhesus should taste the fodder of Troy, 
and drink of the Xanthus (otherwise caUed 
Scamander), Troy woidd be invincible, 
Ulyssea ancl Diomedc, therefore, attacked 
the encampment of Rhesus and his Thra- 
cians, killed the leader and carried off his 
horses. Homer does not mention this pro- 
phecy. 

474. Trollus— voungest son of Priam. See 
II. xxiv. 257. 

475. Impar congressus — " an ' imequal 
match." 

476. Inani, i.e., rectore privato, "deprived 
of its cbarioteer." 

478. Observe the last sylL of puhis length- 
ened by arsis, and see note on 308, above, 
and on Ecl. vi. 53. " The mould is scratched 
with the (p of the) spear turned back- 
wards." 

480. Peplum is a word rarely used by the 
Latin writers, and ahnost limited to denote, 
par excellence, the robe presented to Min- 
erva cvcry fifth year, at the Panathenaic 
festival. 

481. Suppliciter is usually joined with 
tristes, but Hcyne would make it modify 
ferebant. 

Tunsae, in middte scnse—tundentes, etc., 
or tundentes sibipectora. 

A perf. part. pass. is frequently used in 
poetry for a pres. pass., which does not exist. 
Hence it happens that the poets write perf. 
particips. even in those cascs (viz. in depo- 
ncnts) in which nothing compels theni but 
the necessities of the metre. "Wagner. 
Cf. ^En. v. 708, and Geo. L 206. Quibus 
in patriam ventosa per aeguora vectis. 
Consult notc 228, above, on " accus. of 
refercnce or limitation." 

483. Virjril has borrowcd this^incident 
from thc Cyclic poets, for Homer does not 
23 



B. I. 4S4-494. 



NOTES OX THE iEXEID 



B. I. 497-518. 



record it. He (Homer) represents Hector 
as pnrsued three times round Troy previous 
to his death; after which, however, he is 
tied to the chariot of Achilles and dragged 
to the ships. See Hom. IL xxii. 208. 

484. Exanimum. This word seems to 
mean rnore than merely dead. It suggests, 
according to Henry, the idea of; a more 
oomplete deprivation of life than when first 
bouud to the chariot, and of that disfiguring 
offeature by the draggmg, which rcndered 
recognition by the face difiicult. See note 
on ii. 278. 

4S6. Currus — "AchiUes* car, to which 
Hector's body bad been bound." Heyne. 
"Priam's car, which had been brought to 
convey the corpse to Troy." Henry and 
Forb. See IL xxiv. 44 sqq. 

487. Inermis — because he was coming as 
a suppliant, to prostrate bimself at tbe feet 
of the victor. 

4S8. Having dwelt so long on the other 
topics, the poet passes shortly over the part 
which MneaB plays. as is becoming. This 
line refers to a difterent picture from the 
preceding ones. Forb. 

189. Nigri Mem. Memnon came with 
auxiliaries from the country east of the 
Troad, and then under Assyrian sway, 
which, by poetic embeUishment, is extended 
into the" distant parts of Asia, with its 
swarthy hordes. See 751. " Penthesilea, 
in wild" excitement, leads on her bands of 
Amazons, with lunar (crescent - shaped) 
shields." 

490. Penthesilea, daughter of Mars, and 
queen of the Amazons, had come to Troy 
in the last year of the war, but was slain by 
Acbilles, after she had done deeds of extra- 
ordinary valour. The pelta was a small, 
light buckler, varying in shape and outline. 
A favourite form of it is seen in the accom- 
panying cut 




402. Subncctens cingula mammae, more 
elegant than subnectens mammam cingulo. 
"Buckling a golden belt beneath her un- 
eoveredbosom." 

493. Bellatrix is to be connected with 
audet, " heroine as she was." 

494. Aeneae, L e., ab Aenea. For the 
dat after pass. verbs instead of the abL with 
ab, see the Grammars. 

TVagner, Quast Yirg. xxix. 4, takes 
mirandus as equal to a pres. part. pass., and 
interprets " Dum Aeneas haec videt et mira- 
tur." It is simpler, however, to view it in 
its usual meaning — ' ' worthy to be admired 
bv him or all others. Forb. 

: 24 



497. Stipant&—"A nnmerous company of 
the young thronging behind her." The 
act voice has here a particular beauty, as 
implying willingness and delight on the 
part "of the attendants, who, doubtless, wert 
the noblest of the city. Forb. 

498. On this comparison of Dido to 
Diana, see Hoiil Od. ^i. 102 sqq. Qualis= 
quo hahitu — qua forma. The worship of 
Diana floiuished in Laconia, through which, 

-ing Sparta, flowed the Eurotaa 
(now Yasili Potamo) into the Laconic gulf. 
In the island of her natal Delos too, in 
which was Mount Cynthus, the same deity 
was worshipped with peculiar honours. 

499. The first syllable of Diana is here 
lon g. but Yirgil in all other places has it short. 

500. Oreades — a Greekname— "mountain 
nymphs." 

502. Pertentant— U thrill through." The 
attitude of mothers, under similar circum- 
stances, is well described in this line — taci- 
tum lends point to the whole. 

504. Operi regnisque futuris, i.e., the city 
which was her entire kingdom. Instant 
joined here with the dat is construed in 
viil 433, with the acc. 

505. The order is, — Saepta armis subnix- 
aque alte solio resedit foribus divae, medid 
testudine templi. " Surrounded with armed 
men, and supported in a lofty position on 
a throne, she took her seat near the door of 
the temple, beneath the central dome," but 
not in the adytum, or "holy of holies." 
Medius not preceded by in, is used by tho 
Romans for all parts within the exterior 
limits of a place ; but, wben in is used the 
very centre is meant. 

On Impluvium, Testudo, Cavaedium, etc, 
see Ramsay's Antiq. 

507. Jura dabat legesqtte, Le., dispensed 
justice. There is a reference to Roman 
customs here — viz., to holding the Senate 
in temples, and placing tribtmals of justice 
at the doors of temples. But see Lerscli, 
and note on 469, above. 

512. Avexerat is preferable as a reading 
to advexeraU Oras without the prep., se« 
above, 2. 

513. Percussus, as applied to joy, is more 
appropriate than perculsus — the reading o\ 
some editions:— the latter refers to affairs 
of great magnitude, by which the mind is, 
as it were, prostrated. Forb. 

515. Res incognita — "their doubtful pre- 
dicament," Le., the matter being doubtful 
how the strangers should be received. 

517. Quo linquant may mean, lst, where 
tbey have left their fleet, and where it still 
remains; or 2d, where they are about to 
say that they have left their fleet Tho 
latter is preferable. 

518. Cunctis. Tbis is the reading adopted 
by Forb., ThieL, and Gossrau. Jahn and 
"\Vagn. have cuncti. against wbich there are 



B. L 519-533. 



NOTES ON THE /EXKID 



B. I. 534-553. 



evident grounds of objection. For a full 
diseussiou of thc passage, see Forb. in loc. 

519. Orante» xteniam — "begging the fav- 
our " of Dido, and permission to draw up 
their ships on the shore. Clamore, Lc, 
with the shout of hcr attending crowd. 

§30. Maximut, scil. natu, "the eldest," 
and therefore highest in command. Placido 
implies calwness and dignity of address. 

622. The speech is artfully composed 
io touch the benevolent feelings of Dido : — 
" Thou to whom Jupiter has proved so kind 
wilt not fail to assist the wretched Thou 
to whom he has entrusted the dispensing 
of justice to thy subjects, wilt not be unjust 
to foreigners. Thou who hast planted the 
Beeds of civilization in a barbarous land, 
wilt not show thyself inhuman and tuimer- 
ciful." Gossrau. 

528. Dedit condere — see above, 66 and 319. 

Superbas gentes, Le., the Africans. Jiu- 
titid means not only laws, but all ihe insti- 
tutions of civilized life. 

524. Vecti maria — see above, note 67 and 
481. 

525. Infandos ignes — "fires applied (to 
obx ships) contrary to the rights of uations." 
Ileyne. "Fires which I cannot speak of 
wiihout a shudder." Gossrau. 

526. Pio generi, i.e., harmless, unoffend- 
ing. inasmuch as they had made no attempt 
at plunder, or other injury. It may be 
used, however, with reference to the race 
of which the Prus JEneas was chief. 

firopHu adspice — " look more narrowly 
into our affairs," i. e., do notjudgeusby 
our first appearance. 

■~/j7. Populare depends on Venimus in the 
infin. instead of being put in the subj. with 
ut. This is in imitation of the Greek con- 
struction. Verbs of going, coming, and 
sending are frequently thus used. The verb 
populari is used of a place deprived of its 
inhabitants, while populare in the active 
voice means to slay the people as a prelude 
to plunder. Livy, Ovid, and some few more 
usc this verb in the act. voice, but other 
writers of the Augustan age, and those 
which followed them. prefer it as a deponent. 

530. Locus for regio. IJesperia (Le., a 
uestern land) is used by the ancients in re- 
gard both to Italy and Spain (Hor. Od. i. 
86, 4). 

531. Potens armis, etc. " Powerful by 
the bravery of its people, and rich in the 
fertility of its soil." 

Oenotri, called from Ocnotrus, a king 
of Arcadia, who planted a colony in S. Italy 
(in ISruttium). 
Jfinores — " later generations." 

Yirgil follows the old legend, which 
derives Italia, frcm a person ealled Italus. 
Forb. adopts the derivation from the Oscan 
word titlu, vitelu=bos, on account of the 
abundance of oxen in the country. Niebuhr 



shows that it simply mo.ins "the cotmtry 
of the ItalL" Oens is here equivalent to 
terra. 

534 IIic cursus fuit. Hkis thc roading 
ofmostMSS., and is adopted by Wagner, 
Fortw, etc., instfad of the vulgar one huc. 
The demonstrative prou. frcquently per- 
forms tbe part of an adj. of place. 

On deficient lines, generally, in the 
JEueid, see Forbiger in h. loc. 

536. Assurgens. This word properly ap- 
plied to the sea itself is here attributed to 
the constellation whose rising and setting 
was supposed to bring on storms. Sec 
Classical Dict. on Orion. 

Cum, when used in connecting a resuV, 
suggests the idea of very great rapidity in 
the sequence, and also of surprise and wn- 
expectedness. Cf. iii. 301. 

539. Hominum. After this word Heyne 
places a comma, but "Wagn. and Forh a 
note of interrogation, by which quod is 
made the important word, and rendered 
equal to quamferum et inhumanum. 

543. Sperate, Le., metuite. Fandi et ne- 
fandi, Lq., fas et nefas. Observe atque 
coupling things of a contrary kind. 

545. Pietate is commonly made to de- 
pend on justior, which gives a veiy harsh 
meaning. It is better to punctuate after 
alUr, connecting pietate with major, and 
translating, " Nor was any one more dis- 
tinguished for moral virtue (pietas erga deos 
et parentes), or for skill as a leader (bello), 
or for personal prowess (armis):'' a nega- 
tive is to be supplied to justior from what 
follows. 

546. Aura. When Virgil speaks of the 
atmosphere, he almost invariably uses the 
plural — the singular is preferred here 
(Wagn. Quaest. Virg. 9) for the sake of 
sound merely, to prevent three successive 
lines from terminating in the same syl- 
lable. 

547. TJmbris is not the da.t.=occumbere 
morti (ii. 62), but the abl. equal to in 
umbris. Umbris means orcus, and to the 
former word is applied the epithet (crudelis) 
which usually characterises the latter. Cf. 
Hom. Od. xx. 207, and Hor. Od. iL 3 24, 
Victima xil miserantis orei. 

548. A r e — the usual reading is nec, but the 
best recent commentators adopt ne as more 
suited to the context. 

\rvaque is prefcrred by Heyne and 
others to anvaque, since the latter is incon- 
sistent with the peaceful and mild character 
of the rest of the address, and a threat would 
behere out of place; and since, in the second 
place, it suggests that Sicily is- a more dc- 
sirable place for settlcment, and that there- 
fore there is'no chance of their rcmaining 
at Carthage to interfere with Didos iu- 
terests. 
553. Italiam without the prep.— sce 2, 
25 



B. I. 5o4-S73. 



KOTES OX TIIE JENEID. 



R. I. 57C-590. 



abovc. Ob.-crvc the partieip. reccpto agree- i (usnally in the nom. or aceus.) whieh fa 
ing with rege though applying to scciis also. neither subject nor object to any vert, for the 
554. i't=eo consilio u/, is to bo joined purpo.se of drawing particular attention to 



in construction with stringere remos: allow 
us to make the necessary preparations in 
order that we rnay continue our journey to 
Italy. Translate: " Permit us to draw up 
(on"shore) our shattered fleet, to select in 
the forests timbers suitablc to our purpose, 
imd to clean (wood for) oars, in order that," 
rtc. 

55G. Ilabet. i.e.. relinet mortuctm. Spes 
luli- -the hope which we repose in Ascanius 
that hc will found an empire in Italy accord- 
ing to prophecies. 

561. Tlie reply of Dido is conceived with 
grcat art and beauty — the attitude assigned 
and the sentiments utterod cqually display 
thc skill of the poct. Demissa vultum — for 
the syntax of the acc. vultum soe u. 210, and 
ftbove, 22S. 

563. Transl. : — "Hardships and the re- 
eent establishmcnt of my kingdom compel 
riie to take such strict precautions, and to 
protcct my frontiers in their widest extent 
with (anned) guards." 

505. Aeneadum, for Aeneadarum. 

566. Virtutes, virosque. This is not a 
Ilendiadys, but each word has its own es- 
pecial force and significance — "noblequa- 
lities, and distinguished men." 

567. Obtusa — obtundere means to "blunt 
the edge of a thing by striking against it." 
TnsisL "insensiblc" 

568. A mild and genial climate was sup- 
posed to rendor the minds of those living 
under it more mild and merciful — while a 
cold and severe climate was thought to 
produce wild and savage dispositions. 



the idoa expressed by that uoun. This is 
sometiinos called the nominative, or accus. 
absolute, but it may always be referred ftu 
its construction to some word (or thoughtj 
following or going before, either directly 
expressed, or easily taken out of a neigti- 
bouring clause. Such an example as ttiis, 
however. is usually called " Imerse attrac- 
tion," the subst. being put in tho case of the 
relativc following, instead of thc reL adopt- 
ing the ca.-e of the subst. Ihus Terenc* 
says. •■ Eunuchum quem dedisti nobis, quai 
tuibas dedit," — " That slave you gave us, 
what a row he kicked up!" — a form of ex- 
pressioa which is by no means uncommon 
in English. 

57C. AJ/oret and compidsus are to be takon 
in closc connection, as forming onc idea — 
"forcibly driveh here." Certos — "trusty 
messcngers." 

577. Jubeba — a semicolon is commonly 
placed aftor this word, but Wagn. has judi- 
ciously substituted a comma, since tlie next 
line is so closely counected with jubebo lus- 
trare. 

57S. Urbibus— some would read montibus 
— but this is objectionablc, and opposed to 
thc reading of ttie majority of good MSS. 

579. Animum — the plnr. would be the 
more usual form in such a phrase, but see 
line 529. The plur., on the contrary, is 
frequently used in speaking of one person 
only. Arrecti — Kritz ad SalL Cat. L 1, 
draws a distinction betwcen arrigere and 
erigere. The latter is applird to a person 
who, after being dispirited and uttcrly cast 



569. Eesperiam magnam, i.c. potentcm. dowu, again recovera courage and strongth 
Observe the arsis falling succcssively on j — the fonner, to him who is so influenced 
two similar final syllables. This is a fault, by any circumstance, as to be stirred to 
generally speaking* but herc it is considered ' energy" m reference to the aftair. 



a beauty — bringing out morc forcibly, as it 
does, the strength of the adj. See Geo. iii. 
219, Magna' Sila". ^En. iv. 345, Italicini 
magndm, and 251, above, umbrd magnd. 
On the epexegesis by que. see Wagn. Qu 
Virjr. xxxix. 7. and tine 2. above. 



584. Uhus, BCiL Orontos, 113 sqq. 

557. Purgat—so we say " clears off." 

558. Eestitit, "stood torth to view." We 
use " stood forth " not only of the action ot 
one who moves himself forward. but also ot 
the appearance of him who is socn when 



570. Eryx is applied sometimes to an pome obstacle is removed formerly luding 
ancient king of Sicily, but here to a moun- , lum from oiu: eves. 



tain in that island, with a temple of Venus 
who is thence called Erycina. Thc Mt. is 
uow S. Giuliano. Forb. 

571. Tutos, "I shall favour you, so as 
xo dismiss you uninjuved, and I shall help 
you by my resourees." 

572." Pariter, i. c, una, ("on equal 
terms,") or, according to others, simul, ("at 
the same timc") 

573. l'7'bem quam statuo, vestra cst. This 
is what is called "iuversc attraction" — a 
Greek construction. on which consult Mad- 



Clard htce refulsit mcans moretliansimply 
"was distincUy seen" — it implies also a 
divinehj given freshncss and beauty, the sign 
of vigour. 

5S9. Os hume*osque svnihs. For the syu- 
tax of the acc. os and humeros scc notc uii 
228, above, and ii. 210. In this descrip- 
tion of JEneas. the poet has before his mind 
the poctic conception of Apollo, altogethei 
sui-passing in form, but particularly cxle- 
bratod for his hair and shoulders. 

590. Lumen < juventae jntrpweum, i.c, ju- 



vig or Zumpt. Latin and Greok writers venta pukhcrrima. Lumen means that jresh- 



frcquentiv begin a soutence with a noun 
26 



ness and ckarness of compkxion which ar» 



D. f. 591-606. 



XuTES OX TITE .ENEID 



E. 1. 807-621. 



characteristic of tlie " bloom of youth." 
Purpureus is used to signify "brightness" 
and brilliancy, e.g., purpurea nix, and lience 
"beauty dazzling as the light." 

591. Ilonores — thc plur. is very rarely used 
to express beauty, — it Ls always the sing. 
honos. The necessity of the metre or the 
desire for variety of diction may have influ- 
enced Virgil in his preference. Tlic whole 
appearance of ^Eneas was such as to kindle 
in Dido the first sparks of lovc — how effec- 
tual the eye is in producing sucli a result 
need not be noticed. Forb. 

Afflarat — the verb signifies to "hreathe 
ipon," and hence to inspire. to amfer by 
inxpiration — a word particularly appro- 
priate in those kinds of contact which do 
»ot fall imder the notice of our outward 
senses. See iL 649. Obsers-e ttie peculiar 
zeugma in afflarat goveruing eaesariem. 

593. Ttie comparison is this .- — As ivory, 
precious stones, etc, though of no great 
oeauty in themsolves, are rendered effective 
us a whole by being skiJfully grouped, ana 
tet in gold, so iEneas, now that peculiar 
prace and charms were bestowed on each 
part by Venus, stood forth in refulgent 
beauty, displaying a faultless tout ensemble. 

Heyne considers the circumfusa nules to 
ropresent the gold in the comparison. 

Aut, supply quale est decus, ubi, etc. 

Parius lapis, L e., marble from Paros 
\Paro), \\\ the ^Egean. Consolt Text Book 
of Aneient Geog., and see Geo. iiL 34. 

597. Sola — Because no other person orrace 
had in their wanderings commiserated them. 

598. Reliquias Danaum, Le., relictas (non- 
occisos) a Danais. 

599. Exhaustos, "wornout" 

600. Socias—see 573. " Offercst to unite." 

601. Non opis est—a. rare expression for 
'• non est inpotestate nostra," " It is not in 
our power;" we have no resources from 
vvhich to rccompense yon. 

602. Peerlkamp suspects the genuineness 
of this line, on the ground tliat iEiieas did 
itot then know of thc other Trojan colonies. 
But Rau defends the verse by saying, tliat 
^Eneas refers to all the Trojans carricd cap- 
tive into different parts by the Greeks, and 
to those left by himself in Crete (iii. 190;, 
as wellas to tlie Trojan Acestes, froin whom 
they had just parted. 

604. Si quidJustiti» est — " If justice and a 
good conscienee are anywhore held in cs- 
teem,"are '-madfanythingof" (quid), aswe 
eay. Tlie other reading justitiae would 
inc-an, '■ If there is any justice on earth," a 
doubt which would coine ill from /Eneas at 
the time when he had a most di<tinct evi- 
'lence of its excrcise by Dido. Forb. ' 

60.;. Tanti tulerunt—lhU agrees witn the 
ojiinlon of the ancients, that the qualities of 
mind and bodjr aic Jianded down by parents 
to their children. 



607. "With this passage comp. Ecl. i. 60 
sqq., v. 76 sqq.; TibulL^i. 4, 65, aud Hor. 
Epod. xv. 7. • 

608. Convexa montibus, Le., latera et im- 
bitus montium, "So long as tlie ahadovrfl 
shall traverse the mountain sides." Otliere 
understand convexa to mean the valleys. 
See note on 310. 

Polus pascet—r\ot simply "so long as 
stars wander in the heaven;" but it refers 
to tlie Epicurean doctrine that the stars ore 
nourishcd by fiery particles contained In the 
aether itself. See 90. 

610. Quae me cunque terrae, etc. This 
has reference to the invitation of Dido in 
572, and means, "whetherit so happen that 
I accept of your offer [though the dovbt U a 
kind of polite refusal], or settle in distant 
lands, still your lcindness, honos, nomen, and 
laudes, will never be forgotten; itwillnot 
require proximity to keep them fresh in my 
mind." Dr Hemy woidd inierpret it thus: — 
■•Xo matter whither I may be called — no 
matter what becomes of me, touk tame will 
last as long as the world itsclf." 

611. Serestum — this is a different person 
from Sergestus mentioned 510, as is seen 
by xii. 561, where we read Mnesthea, £er- 
gestumqtte rocat, fortemque Serestum. Thia 
line, together with the phrase ahos Teu- 
crorum in 511, and the introduction of Gyas 
hero, though not noticed previously, will 
remove all doubt as to the identity of 
the two heroes. Wonea=* H-to't}a — Greek 
lonic acc. 

614. <'asus=fortuna. Orelocutaest; such 
pleonasms are frequent in classical writers. 
We find tliom also in the New Test., e.g., 
Matt v. 2, -'Heopened his mouth and taught 
them." So Sequi a tergo. 

ijlG. ImmanSms oris — " these savage 
coasta," i.e., these coasts whose people are 
Bavage, 

617. TUe.Eneas — "thatiQnstrions .'Encas." 
See V/agn. Quest. Virg. xxL 6, nw this use 
of ille. 

Dardanio Anchisae. Observe the hiatus 
between these words. The final vowel <>f 
the first is not elided, being in arsi . 
note on 16, above, and on EcL ii. 53. 

615. On Simoeis, and the proper natnes 
generally, consnlt Class. Dict. 

619. Teucrum, i.e., Teucer, sonofTelamon, 
and hrother of the elder Ajax. On his re- 
tum froiii Troyto 9alamis,his fatherwonld 
not receire hiin, and he thon settlod iit 
Cyprus, whioh was given to him by Belns. 

620. By tho assistance of Beltts, king of 
Tyre and Sidon, who had possessions in 
Cyprna, Teucer is said to have defended 
himself against the inhabitants when thoy 
attemptod to prevent hiin from building 
Salamis. See Hor. Od. i. 7, 21. 

621. Josephus sava that the name of the 

27 



B. I. 622-035. 



NOTES OX THE ^ENEID. 



B. I. 636-C48. 



father of Dido, i.c, Elisa, was Mutgen ot 
Matgen: others callhim Mettinus, Mettes, or 
Methres. 

622. Cyprus (hodie, Kebris) has in all 
time beeD celebrated for its fertility and 
wcalth. 

623. We have here an instance of proto- 
zeugma, as it is calied, i.c, a predicate 
(cognitns) common to several subjects (casus, 
nomen, reges), but agrceing in gender and 
number with one only, and that the one 
nearest to it. Another example occurs, 
343. An instance of Mesozeugma is met 
with at ii. 462, where seenote, and oiHypo- 
zeugma at Ecl. i. 59. 

024. Reges Pelasgi—by a poetic embel- 
lishment for "Theleaders of the Greeks." 
These most ancient hihabitants of Greece 
are often put for the nation. Consult 
Grote, Hist. of Greece, voL L 

025. Ipse has particular force: — "Xot 
others only, but even Teucer himself, enemy 
though he was." 

626. Ortum ab stirpe Teucrorum, i.q., 
Trojanorum. The Trojans were called 
Teucri, from the elder Teucer, by whom 
Dardanus was entertained when he had 
passed ovcr from Samothrace to the Troad. 
Teucer, son of Telamon, mentioned here, 
traced his origin to them, since his mother 
was Hesione, daughter of Laomedon, whom 
Telamon had received from his companiou 
Hercules as a gift. As Teucer had been 
exiled by his father, he mentions only his 
mother's side of the house. See iiL 10S. 
Virgil uses stirps as somethnes masc. and 
sometimes fem. — the former when speak- 
ing of trees — the latter when of maukind. 
See xii. 208. 

630. Kon ignara, etc " Taught by thal 
poicer, tchich piities me, I learn to pity them" 
— GoMsm ith. 

632. Templis indicit honorem, If this is 
to be understood of a public thanksgiving 
to the gods, for the safe arrival of JEneas, 
it is to be looked on as another of the 
cases in which the poet departs from the 
customs of antiquity and substitutes those 
of his own time. In the heroic age. as we 
see from Homer, an animal was slain in the 
private house of the host for a sacred feast, 
and to this banquet the newiy - arrived 
guest was admitted. Heyne. On the sub- 
ject of the ancient customs introduced in 
the iEneid, see Lersch, "De morum 
in Tirgilii JEneide habitu," and also his 
"Antiquitates Virgilianae." See also 409, 
note. 

635. Terga suum—Tergum is constantly 
nsed by the poets to signify tl>e whole ani- 
mal, because it Ls the most fleshy. and 
therefore the rnost excellent part of the 



carcase. "With this whole passage, cf. Hom. 
Od. viiL 59 sqq. 

636. Dii— Heyne, Brunck, Jahn, Wapn., 
Ladewig, and a host of others, take thiB 
word as a contracted form of Diei, and in^ 
terpret, — "Bulls, swine, and lambs, tho 
gifts to celebrate the joyousness of the 
day." Forbiger, however, opposes thto 
view on three principal grounds: — lst, 
The unusual form of the gen. of dies 
which at Geo. L 208, Virgil has written die. 
2d, Considering the mode of hving followed 
by the ancients, and the manner in which 
the poet usually describes such feasts as that 
mentioned, it cannot be imagined that after 
minutely specifying the various parts of thu 
costly and varied banquet, he would pasa 
over in silence wine, the great inciter of joy. 
3d, It is not to be beUeved that a poet of so 
fine and delicate taste as Virgil, would call 
bulls, swine, and lambs, laetitiam diei. He, 
therefore, understands laetitiam Diei (Lc, 
Dei) to mean wine, and refers to 734, laetitiae 
Bacchus dator, in confirmation. Inreplyto 
Wagner's objection that Bacchus is never 
designated by the word deus by itself, he 
quotes iEn. ix. 336, Multoque jacebat Mem 
bra deo victus, where deo can mean nothing 
else but wine. He suggests, as a question 
for dehberation, whether or not the sen- 
tence may be taken thus, tauros, sues, agros, 
laetitiamque dei mittit munera. Peerlkamp 
conjectures laticemque LyaeL 

637. Splendida is usually said to be equi- 
valent to spkndide here, but a nearer 
examination will show that it contains 
much more than a me r e adverb. So 
tacitum, 502, above, is much stronger than 
tacite. 

639. Vestes, "coverlets." Ostro does not 
depeud on laboratae, but is an "abl. of tho 
material," on whieh see note 655, below 
Superbo, i.c, spAendido. 

640. Ingens argentum — " A large numbei 
of silver vases," with raised icork (caelata) 
of gold, recordiug the deeds of Dido's a'i« 
cestors. 

644. Praemittit— "despatcheshastily," so 
that his mcssenger might reach Ascanius 
before Dido's servant, with the present, 
should convey the joyfnl news of peace and 
help. 

648. PaUam, a long and ample cloak, 
reaching from the neck to the feet, worn by 
deities, prophets, and tcomen — said to be de- 
rived from vdXksiv (to shake, move 
quickly), on account of the movemcnt of its 
lower extremity as the wearer walked. It 
was simply a square piece of cloth folded in 
a pecuhar way. In the woodcut, the 
wearer is represented as in the act of 



B. I. G49-CG1. 



XOTES ON TIIE JENEID 



B. I. CC5-G97. 



fastening tho Palla at thc shoulder with a 
fibula. 




049. "A vail bordered with acanthus 
leaves inwrought." Or velamen may mean 
an eutlre peplus. * 

651. Peteret — last sylL lengthened by 
arsis, on which see note 308, above. Xote 
thc zeugma in peteret, — "was repairing to 
Troy. andcontracting herunlawfulnuptials." 

654. Monih baccatum, Le., "a necklace 
adomed with pearls." Pearls are often 
called baccae, from their shape. 

655. Dnplkem, i.e., of two materials, — a 
golden diadem studdedwith gems. Gemmis 
and auro arc "abls. of the materiaL" See 
above, 639, 107 ; ii. 7G5. 

656. Haec eelerans — either "about to 
bring these things hastily," or, " about to 
txecute vvith speed these commands." 

057. OytJierea — see note 257. This 
artifice of Venus is suggested to Virgil by 
Apoll. Bhod. iii. 7 sqq. Venus, fearing lest 
Dido's kindly feeling might be altered by 
Juno's interference, inflames with love the 
queen of Carthage, and even consents (iv. 
107 sqq.) to her marriage with the Trojan 
hero. 

658. Faciem=corporis formam, " in per- 
son." 

661. Ambirjuam—o{ doubtM faith— that 
could not be trusted in. Bilbujuis — double- 
tongued — two-faced — "treacherous." It is 
not to be wondered at that a people wholly 
devoted to mercantile pursuits should ob- 
tain this character, which gave origin to 
the proverb, " Punica fides," similar to our 
"custom-house oath." 

662. Sub noctem — the events just men- 
rioned occurred in the evening, and Juno 
therefore broods over thcm during the 
night. 

Urit atrox Juno — "Juno is inflamed to 
savageness;" or, "The hostile spirit of 
Juno galls (or goads) hcr ; " for urere is 
often used— angere, vexare, pungere. 

664. Meae vires, etc, ic., Thou art the 



person by whom I show myself strong and 
.* Solus is one of those words that 
have no voc (This is denied by Priscian, 
v. 14, 77.) 

665. Typhoia — Typhoeus one of the sons 
of Tartanu and Terra, who rebelled against 
Jupiter, and was hurlcd beneath ^Etna. 

668v Jactetur— last syll. lengthened by 
- se above, 651. 

669. Nota tibi (suntj, a graecism foi 
not/an ett tibi. 

672. Cardine— "crisis." "She (i.e., Juno 
suggested by Junonia preceding) will nol 
be remiss at such a crisis." 

673. Flammd — par excellence for amor. 
Capere ante, for antecapere. 

075. Ut is to be supplied in this line after 
sed, from the preceding ne: sed (ut) teneatur 
Mecum—" equally with myself." 

680. Sopitum—sopor and sopire are used 
of deep sleep. 

Cythera — ™ Kvdvpx — it is called alta 
because the island stands high out of the 
sea. See 257, note. 

681. Idalium — a mountain and grove in 
Cyprus. Super is used for in or ad when 
mention is made of places of elevated posi-i 
tiom Cf. vi. 203, 515, vii. 557. 

Sacratd sede, Le., in templo. 

682. Nequa, scil. ratione, or via. Medius 
occurrere, i.e., in medio negotio; or like our 
phrase " to run throunh" a thing. 

683. Faciem — not the face only, but the 
whole body. See 658, above. 

684. Notos vultus, Le., proprios vultus. 
The metaphor m induere is too common 
to require explanation. The repetition of 
the stem puer is a beauty rather than a 
blemish. 

686. Laticem Lyaeum, for Lyaei. Bacchus 
was called Lyaeus — Xvccio?, from Ays/v— 
because he dispels cares and anxieties ; so 

LlBER. 

690. Gaudens — delighted at taking part in 
the plot, and with pleasure contemplating 
the opportunity for indulging in his favour-. 
ite occupation of inflaming mortal minds 
with love. 

692. Fotum, This word is properly ap- 
phed to the action of fowls in cherishing 
their yonng, but is transferred to men and 
deities, and implies a dcgree of love and 
aftection along with the idea of nursing. 

Irrigat — the moistness of night suggests 
tho application of liquidus to somnus — 
vypog vkvos — and of such terms as 
irrigare=thc Homeric iZ luiv - 

Gremio — "in her lap." 

697. Aulaeis— the tapestry of the couches. 
In Geo. ih. 25, it means curtains. Superbut 
is often applied to things highly orna- 
mented, magnifica, which manifest the pride 
of the Dossessor 

29 



B. I. G93-701. 



NOTES ON THE AZSFAD. 



B. I. 70?-71. ?. 



608. Composuit, I.e., assumed R becoming 
attitnde ofbody, and a serene and dignified 
aspect of countenancc. 

Aurcd is to be scanned as a dissyltable, 
by tynizesis. See above, 2. 

Mediam locavit. Took the middle seat, 
i.c., the place of honour, as waa her 
laeealy right. Not only the Bomana but 
Lfae Africana also followed this practice. 
See Sall. Jug. 11, 3. Ne medius ex tribus, 
quod apud Numidas honori ducitur, Jugur- 
tha foret. On the Trictinium, represented 
in the accompanying cut, and on banqucts 




gcnerally: see Ramsay's Rom. Aniiq.. — and 
Beckers' " Gallcs." But we must not 
imagine that Dido was seated with ^Eneas 
audAscanius close at her right and left on 
the couch, as in the following illustration, 
for that would have been indecorous aud 
iudelicate. TVc cannot refer this feast too 
rigorously either to Greek or Ronian cus- 
toms, since the character of Dido, a icoman 
and a queen, was one unknowu to sach 
sntertainments. 




701. Manibus — dative dependent on dant. 
The towels (mantelia) were for wiping the 
hands, not for rubbing the tables. Tonsit 
rillis, "with closely cut pile."— the pile was 
soft, and cut or plucked so as to be of equal 
length. Cererem, i.e., panem. The follow- 
ing cut represents some ancient loaves: — 

80 




702. Expediunt — " brhig forth and di.^tii- 
bute to each guest." 

703. Instead of longo, the common read- 
ing, Wagn., Forb., etc, prefer longam as 
being more difficult, and therefore more 
hkely to havc undergone alteration than 
the more usual longo ordine. MSS. give 
both forms. Longa penus means the "pro- 
visions arranged in a long line." Ordinc is 
to be construcd with struere. Struere is not 
for the gerund, but, together with penum, 

I forms the subject of est. See JEn. v. 638. 
On the peculiarities of penum, consult the 
Dict. Penus, says Cic. N.D. est omne quo 

| vesaintttr homines — it meana an abundant 
stock of provisions, a stock which will last 
for a long time. Hence Klaussen in his 
work on the Penates, derives their name 
from Penus, "quod PEKPETOAM conservandac 
/amiliae curani agunt." 

704. Flammis adolere penates =flammas 
adolere in Penatibus, Le., in domo, in, pene- 
traiibus, in foco — "To make the hearths 
blaze with fires ;" or " To light up the altars 
to the Penates with fire." The phrase is 
similar to incendere aras. The object was 
to offer sacrifice, as well as to cook viands, 
and not as Schirach thinks, for preparing 
sacrifices only. Forb. 

706. Onerent et ponant — thus the best 
MSS. read, and not onerant and ponunt. 
Sunt qui is sometimes followed by the indic, 
but here that mood would be unsuitable, as 
the artual occupation of the servants is not 
stated, but only their duty, what they were 
requitcd to do. 

707. Per limina, i.c. iu domum. 

705. Jussi, "invited." Tori picti, " cm 
broidered couches," adorned ■"•Uh needle< 
work. 

711. Pictum, scil. Acu. 

712. / > f^//«ft<rae(thcpassion), "destineJ 
to be her bane." 

716. Implevit amorem, "satisfied his fa- 
thers love." i.c, remaincd in his father's 
euibrace, and rcceived all his endearing 
tokens of affection, till .Eneas was satisfied 
and released him. Falsi, i.c, qui fallebatur. 

717. Haec is opposed to iEneas, 715. 
Cupid seems to carry kisses from J.neas to 
Dido. 

718. Gremto fovet. As Ascanius must 
have now rcached an age too old to be 
fondledin the lap. Heyne thinks these worda 
to refer to the attitude which would be taken 
by two individuals reclining at table next 



B. i. 719-726. 



KOTES ON TllK JEXEID. 



B.L727-7 2 



to each othcr. Wagn. and Forb. urge. iu 
opposition to this view, that thc phrasc </<- 
sideat proves that gremio fovet mu»t be 
taken Uterally. The poet, disregarding the 
age of Ascariius, sacrificcs tnith to poetic 
imagination. Ci'. 693 aud 698, above, and 
ls'. 84, as also Hom. IL xxi. 506. 

719. Insideat— This form is preferred to 
insidat by Wagn. and Furb. as niorc con- 
sistent with the meaning of the passage. 
lnsidtre means to take a seat, or to begin 
to sii doun, whereas insidere means to 
have taken one and to be occupying it — 
Insideat, therefore, agrees better with 
gremio fovet. 

720. Aeidaliae — Ven us was called Acidalia, 
from Acidalius, a fountain ncar Orchomenus, 
in Boeotia, where she used to bathe in com- 
pany with the Graces. Abokre Sychaeum 
— to obliterate all recollection of Syehaeus, 
her former husband, and thus to anticipate 
(praevertere) the chance of a re-kindling of 
her affection for him, which might interfere 
with that for ^neas. * 

723. Qmes prima, Le., as soon as they 
had finished the banquet proper. Mensae, 
not the banqueting board with its supports, 
but the smaller tables on which the dishes 
were brought in and presented to the guests. 
These small tables were changed with each 
successive course, so that mensae came to 
be applicd to single duhes. 

724. With tliis line cf. Hom. II. i. 469, 
470. Vina coronare has been interpreted in 



as seen bclow. On the scansion of 
see abovc, 2 and 693. 




two ways: — lst, To fill brimming cups, to 
"tecrptheglasses." ThisistheHomericsense 
of the corresponding term Wur-i-^tavro. 
2d, To encircle the cups with garlands of 
flowers, which was the Koman custom. A 
Bpecimen of tha Crater is given above. 

725. The infiufcnce of Bacchus is notlong 
Li being felt. Volutant, a word which weU 
eonveys thc idea of sound traversing a spa- 
cious hall. 

726. Laquearibus — this word is applied to 
the hollows between the beams of a ceil- 
ing «= Lacunar. These intersticcs were 
usually adorncd with carving and painting, 




7_'7. Funalia. "torches:" thefibres ofthe 
papyrus, or other plants, twisted in rope 
tashion, and smeared with wax or pitch, a» 
seen in the woodcut. 




729. Pateram gravem gemmis et auro, Le. 
a massive golden patera adorned with gem3 
- its shape is seen in the woodcut. This 
is another instauce of Hendiadys, on which 
see note 2, above. 




731. A prayer is offered to Jupiter, Goa 
of Hospitality, ^ivios. Dare jura means 
" to fiave established the rights of guests 
and hosts." On this use of tlie pres., see 
Ecl. viii. 45. 

732. Diem, i.c, the day of which the 
night now being spent forms the continua- 
tion. Velis — ("be, if youwill") — a word 
usually employed in reference to the de- 



B. I. 734-744, 



NOTES 0>T THE yENEID. 



B. I. 746-753. 



crees of the deitics. So, cum Diis volenti- 
bus. 

734. Laetitiae dator. Sce above, 636. 

736. Laticum honorem, i.e., vinum m 
deorum honorem iibatione etjusam. Latices 
is frequently uscd absohitciy for vrine. 

737- Libato, scil. honore, not vino, which 
would make nonsense, for she could not 
Irink of the wino after it had been poured 
out. 

Summo ore — merely touched it wifh her 
Ups, as became a lvomaii, particularly ac- 
cording to the ideas of thc aucients. As a 
queen and as the president of the feast, she 
■et the example, but, as a tcoman, she ab- 
stained. 

738. Increpitans does not imply rcproach 
cr reproof, or banter, but merely invitation, 
'■' challenging." Bitiae is a Phoenician name : 
lt occurs again, ix. 672, 703, and xi. 396. 

739. Pleno se proiuit auro, "drenched 
himself with the full golden cup." So our 
phrase, "Moisten one's clay." Cf. Hor. 
Serm. 5. 5, 16. MnUa protutus vappd. 

740. Crinitus— Bards, who werc ncces- 
sary adjuncts to feasts, wore loug hair, in 
imitation of Apollo. It was considered 
unmanly by the civilized Romans. 

741. Quem — the vulgar reading is quae, 
which Heyne prefers. Forb., Jahn, and 
"SVakefield,' approve quem, on the grounds : 
— lst, That the subject of the song is spe- 
cified with ample distmctness in the follow- 
i.vj: lines. 2d, That personare is sornetimes 
used absolu tety withoutanobject, e.g.. Tacit. 
Annal. xvi. 4," and that the verb, by its very 
want of an object, excites In our minds a 
greater interest and curiosity to hear the 
rest. 

Personat, etc. " Accompanies the cithara 
with a loud voice." Cithara, hence our 
word guitar. 




742. The demonstr. hic marks out Iopas 
tts to be carefully distinguished from 
Atlas. 

Errantem Junam. i.e., lunce errores. 
Vaga luna, Hor. Sat. i. 8, 21, for she chauges 
position more visibly and more frequently 
than auy of the other planets. Soiis iabores, 
Le., the 'eciipses of the sun and their cause; 
or his Hercuiean labours in overcoming the 
twelve signs of the zodiac. 

744. Arcturus "Ap>cros oleos').— Avery 



bright star of the first magnitude, in 
Bootes, or Arctophyiax -whose rising (5th 
Sept, and 13th Feb.) and settihg (22d May 
and 29th Oct.) were accompanied by violent 
storms. 

Hyades — called plurias, from va* — "to 
rain," werc sevtn stars in the head of Tau- 
rus, whose rising, from 7th till 12th May, 
was attended with daily rains. The Roman 
rustics caHed them Suculae deriving the 
name from l;, sus, which etymology, 
though condemned by many learned men, 
is nevertheless defended by Nitzsch, on 
Hom. Od..vol. ii. p. 42, and Schiller, on 
Hor. p. 7. Forb. 

Qeminos Triones, i.e., the Grectt Bear and 
the Littte Bear. The Great Bear was also 
callcd the Waggon ecfiec%oi, Charles' Waiii, 
the ancient Itahan name being Septem 
Triones, or Septentrio Major — the secen 
ploughing oxen. The Little Bear was hke- 
wise called Septentrio Minor, and thus, 
Virgil says " geminos Triones." See Smith's 
Dict. of Biog. and Myth., article Arctos. 

746. Tardis means the summer nights, 
which are not iong in duration, but long In 
coming on. He speaks of the variations in 
the length of the days at different seasons 
of the year. 

747. Piausu is the reading of the best 
MSS., instead of the more common ptausum 
orplausus. The phrase is confirmed by a 
similar one, Ingeminant hastis, for hastis 
ingeminant ictus, in ix. 811. 

750. There is in this line a beautiful in 
stance of epanatepsis, that is, the same word 
bcginning and concluding a line. See xiL 29. 

751. Aurorae fitius, scil. Memnon, son of 
Tithonus and Aurora. He slew Antilochus, 

.son of Nestor, and was in turn slain by 
Achilles. His mother was said to weep for 
his death, inher tear, drops of rnorning dew. 
See above, 489, and consult Class. Dict. 

752. Diomedis equi, viz., those horses 
which Diomede took from Rhesus. Dio- 
mede did, it is true, take horses from JEneas 
also, according to Homer, but there is no 
reason for supposing that it is to them Dido 
refers ; indeed, we must give her credit for 
more politeness and prudence than to sup- 
pose such a reference. It is much more 
hkely that she inquires the particulars oi 
the night attack on Rhesus, which the pic- 
ture described, 472, showed her to be ac- 
quainted with only in a general way. Dio- 
mede, however, and his father Tydeus, are 
both represented as skhled breeders and 
trainers of steeds. 

753. Aprimd origine—from the first be- 
ginning, viz., from the pretended flight of 
the Greeks and the bxulding of the horee. 



B.n. 



N0TE3 ON THE JENELD. 



B.II. 1 




[The Cajptukeof Trot.— Vatican Manuscript.] 



BOOK SECOXD. 



AKGUMENT. 

i£>-EAS. in compliance with Dido's request, details the particulars of the capture of Troy, 
so far as he had witnessed them. After expressing reluctance to fight his disagreeable 
battles over again, the hero goes on to tell of the despondency of the Greeks in the tenth 
year of the war, together with their stratagem of the hurse. Lurking in Tenedos, they 
Bend a cunning fellow, Sinon, to prepare the way for the reception of the wooden horse, 
which they pretended to be a return for the stolen Palladium. The Trojans are credulous, 
and believe the whole, but Laocoon sees through the decc-it. aud exposes it His warnings, 
however, are vain; and he is hhnself slain by two serpents sent against liim by Minerva 
(1-249). The Greeks return from Tencdos— the horse is opened, and the city is taken 
(250-267). JEneas is warned by Hector s shade to consult for his safety, but he is too 
valiant to follow the suggestion "before he has tried what might can do. He makes an 
Ittempt, and is for a while successful till having assumed the armour of some Greeks 
Whom they had slain, his associates are mistaken by the Trojans, and many of them killed 
by their own friends (263^437) . Then follows the sack of Priam's palace. and the murder 
of the king himself (438-658) . ^neas at last abandons all hope of saving the city, and 
therefore sees after his family, with which, consisting of father, wife, and son, he endeav- 
ours to escape from the ruins (559-729). Creiisa (his wife) loses herself in the crowd; 
and on his retura to the city to seek for her, her shade me"ets him, and tells him some- 
thing of futurity (730-794;. He retreats from Troy a second time, and finds many men 
and women ready to accompany him to exile (795-804) 

This book is perhaps the most interesting I it was one of those which he readbefore the 
of the twelve composing the ^Enei«L The Emperor as a specimen of the poem. Set 
poet himself entertained a lugh opinion of 1 Heyne, Excuraus to Book II. 
its merits, as is evidenced by the fact that j l. Obserre the difference of tense of con- 



B. IL 2-: 



NOTES OX TIIE JESEID. 



B. II. fc-lS. 



ticuere and tenebant, the former denoting a 
momentary and perfectly completed action 
(Greek Aorist.); the latter a continucd one. 
"Inamoment all were hushed in siLcnce, 
and with eager interest fixed thcir cyes 
upon hhu," or "composed their countc- 
nances." Fntenti, earnestly awailing the 
recital. The phrase is not=intmta ora, 
bnt expressea that they were deeply in- 
terestedin the subjcct, and did not attend 
through mere politeuess. C£ 2E.viL 250; 
viii. 520. 

2. Torus, properly means a swelling pro- 
tuberance, as that of an overcharged vein: 
hence, from the swelling undulations pro- 
duced by the stitchcs, it signities a quilted 
cushion, ox mattress. lt is hcre called alto, 
as the more splendid of thcm were raised 
high by frame-work, extra stuffing, and, 
moreover, by pillows. Infandum, " un- 
utterable," "unspeakable," or "thatought 
not to be told," Le., horrible. 

3. k.ftcvjubes (me) renovarc dolorem, sup- 
ply narrando, upon which eruerint depends 
tlnough ut. Relative propositions, which 
in strictness are to be referred to some vcrb 
of tctling or feeling, not expressed, are not 
unfrequently madc to depend in this way 
on verbs signifying an afrection of the mind 
(cspecially the verb mirvrj. On narrare ut, 
see EcL vi. 31, 65. 

Ladeicig thus explains the syntax: do- 
lorem governed by renovare, has the follow- 
hig clause, from Trojanas to Danai, at- 
tached to it in apposition, aud quae coupled 
to it as a cdordinate notion. 

4. Lamentabile, "deplorable," "ill-fatcd." 
Adjs. in bilis are usually passive, but fre- 
quently active also, as in Geo. i. 93, penetra- 
biiefrigus. 

5. Ut Eruerint — quaeque — for examples 
of a siniflar transition from notm to verb, or 
verb to noun, in two coordinate clauses, 
see Ecl. v. 47 j ^En. i. 742. Translate./reety, 
"Those events which, most pitiable as they 
were, I myself witnessed, and those cala- 
mities, whieh in great part fell upon niyself." 
C£ Forbiger iu loc 

6. Fcmdo—ichde rclating— the gerund is 
nere put in a somewhat rare use for the 
pres. part. act, and indicates not the cause, 
but a contemporaneous event. See Madvig 
Lat. Gr. § 416, and obs. 1; and cf. Livy viii. 
17. Xovi deinde consules, popidando usque 
ad moenia atque urbem pervenerunt. IcL 
xxL 34. 

7. Myrtnidons and Dolopians — troops of 
Achilles and Neoptolemus. See Hom. IL 
ii. 684 sqq. 

Duri Ulixi, eithci^strenuus et fortis, as 
in Geo. ii. 170, or relentless, hard-hearted, 
as elsewhere sa?vus Ulixes, immitis Achil/es. 
On the form Ulixi in the gen.. see above L 
£0, note, and Madvig Lat, Gr. § 42, oi 

34 



Schmitz, § 63. On the troops of Ulysses, 
see Hom. II. ii. 631 sqq. 

8. Tcmperet (scil. sibi.) a lacrimis. Forthe 
diffcrcnce of temperare with accus. (^=to 
modi rale) and with dat. (to restrain), sco 
Dict. and Madvig Lat. Gr. § 244, obs. 2. 
Cf. Geo. i. 2G0. 

" Humida," dcwy— a frequcnt epithet o( 
niglit. In warm countries dews liul heavier, 
as thc moisture, largely cvaporated durhig 
the dav, is condcnsed in grcater quantity by 
ttight. 

9. 1'raecipitat (se.) etc Nox is personi- 
ficd a.id represcnted as driving through the 
heaven in a chariot At the time liern 
epoken of she is supposed to have passed 
the zenith, aad to be careering down "hea- 
ven's sloue " at tlie approacli of moming. 
"And tlic Binking stars invite to sleep," 
i.c, not sdting, but lilce Nox, on their 
do^mward course. 

10. Amor (^desiJerium) cognoscere, Greek 
construction for cognoscendi, so audire, ncxl 
linc : or ratlicr cognoscere is the nom. of tbe 
subject, with amor in apposition. Cf. iEn. 
v. 638 and i. 704; see note 350, below, 
and Kritz ad SalL Cat. xxx. 4. 

11. Supremum laborem — " the fiual 
strugglc," /.<""., dcstruction. Cf. the use of 
Ka.f*.vu iu Greek. 

12. Horret — refugit. The aoristic use of 
the perf. refugit (in a momentary sensc) 
well expresses the instantaneous recod of 
the mind of iEneas from the task imposed, 
while the pres. horret is equallyappropriate 
as applied to a contin ued feeling. For similar 
examples, sec iEn. x. 726, 804. Some con- 
sider refugit as used in a habitual sense, 
"always /ecoils." 

13. Jncipiam=suscipiam — "I shall under- 
take, attempt, the matter." 

Fracti bello, i.e., wearied out and almost 
crushed. Cf. Hor. Sat. i. 1, 5. Repulsi, 
" baffled," it being fated that Troy should 
not be taken till after a ninc years' siege, 
Cf. Hom. 11. iL 328. 

14. Labentibus, not=Iapsis, but including 
those past along with that noio running 
its course, the work being still unaccom- 
plished. 

16. Ititexunt=texunl, sec x. 785. "And 
form its sides of fir-planks." Abiete to be 
pronounced and scanned abjete, 3 sylls. On 
this synizesis see iEn. L 2 ; vL 33. Bentley 
ad Hor. Od. i. 8, 1, etc etc 

17. Votum (esse) — "vowed to propitiate 
a safe return." 

18. Huc includunt—Cf. Geo. iL 76. An 
instance of constructio praegnan*. Huc is 
explained by caeco lateri which follows. 
After includunt we should cxpcct simply a 
word ofrest, but we havc huc, a word im- 
plying motion towards, used instead; arid 
thus there is suggegted not ouly the poinl 



B. II. 19-31 



NOTES OK iin: .i.m:ii>. 



B. II. 00-49. 



trrieedat, bu< abjo (fa moHon //< - 

6r/'//</ (Ae otyec/ <o ffczj //o//;/. Slmilar ls tho 
vnlgar Scottisfa ose oftnto, as ui the phrasc, 
" You will timl it folo thc cupboard-." From 
thus containing the two ideaa of motion 
toicard and red ///, the fonn of syntax has 
rcceivcd thc name " Constructio praegnans." 
lt is <>f vcry conuuoii occurrence in Greek 
wrjtcrs. Deltcta virum corpora —dekctos 
viros, so odora vis canum. 

10. Penitus, "thoronghly" — to.be joined 
with eomplent fpack, cram) — complent 
strongcr than implent. 

20. Armato nuHte, •"with anned sol- 
dicrs" — sing. for (>lur. — sce below, 405. and | 
Ain. i. ."/«4. An instancc ot* sitnilar hardi- | 
hood and patriotic devotion has becn Bup- 
plied tn inore rccent tiines in the kingdom 
of Holland, in 1590, whcn on onc occa- j 
sion sonie forty Dutchnicn, secreting them- 
selves in a vessel laden with tarf, passed 
the search of custom-house officcrs, and 
naving landed unchallenged, retook the 
town of Breda from the Spaniards. The. 
story of the Wooden Horse is derived by 
Virgfl from the Odyssey and the Cyclic 
poets, but it has been raised by him into 
paramount iiuportance, though ' |llt an idle 
riction. 

21. Tenedos (or LeucopJirys, called by the 
Turks, Bogdscha Adassi) — in sight of the 
Trojan coast (40 stadia distant), most 
celebrated (on account of templc of Apollo 
Smintheus, orby means of the songs of post- 
hoineric bards), and rich so long as PrianVs 
power stood. Dives opum, either froni the 
temple. or commerce ; on the construction, 
see Madvig, j 290, e. 

23. Trans. — " Xow there is but a bay and 
a haven supplying an anchorage for ships, \ 
and that a very insecure one." 

Male is often nsed like non satis, 
parum, minus, and is therefore almost=»on, 
but not so stronfr. It implies a fault. either 
too great or too litth. See below, 735, and 
y£n. iv. 8. Carinis synecdoche for navibus. 
See below, 25, Mycenas. 

•_'4. Huc condunt, see above, Huc inclu- 
duut, 18. 

25. •• Wctliought that thcy (eos, omitted,) 
liad departed, and had set sail for Mycenae 
(i.e., Greece, a part for the whole), taking 
advantage ofthe /avourable breeze." Thus 
Heyne and Thiel. 

27. DoricA c\stra. Virgil derivcs this 
term from posthomeric writcrs. Homcr 
calls the Greeks Aehaei, ArgiviaaA Danai, 
but ncver Dorians. The Dorian migration 
ia said to have taken place 80 years qfier 
the Trojan war For similar examples of 
.En. viii. 286, tempoR\&\mis; 
v. 222, eurresx v.v.mis, ctc. etc. 

39. Tendebat, used to pitch his tent (hut 
rat!icr y . 

31. Mincrvae — according to some (Ileyne, 
L 



Thicl, etc.) thc dat. on donum, "tlie gtfl to 
Minerva" (see 3G, 44, 40;, according to 
others (Wagnor, small cd.. and Forbiger,) 
the gen. ; cf. below, ls:;. and above,15 For 
other intraiisitivc verbs, followed by an 
accus., of. below, ~A'l. EcL ii. 1 

Tliiiiim,:!,.-; — consult Olass, Dict. His 
wife and child had, according to thc lcgend, 
bcen slaln by 1'riam, hence he deemcd he 
had a sufticient ground to act trcacherously 
(dolo, 34). Observe viirantur, plur. aftcr 
Hlupet, sing., the subject of bothbeing/jar.s. 
This is an instance of tlie construction. 
Sunesis, on which scc JEn. i. 70, notc, and 
iii. 67G. 

35-38. " But Capys. and thosc who enter- 
tained more prudcnt scntimente, urge them 
either to throw headlong into the sea the 
treachcrou8 device and suspected gifts of 
the Greeks, or (if it please them better) to 
destroy them by the application of fire, or 
(adopting a difterent course) to probe," ctc. 
For ve instead of que after subjectis, there is 
no mannscript authority, at all events the 
change is unnecessary, the latter being often 
used as a disjunctive. 

3G. On Pelago, see i. 181. Dativc foi 
accus. 

39. Incertum — not a mere epiiheton ornant 
— "■jicklc," but uncertain,doubt/ul,not know- 
ing what to do in the present ixstaxce. 
The crowd are divided in their opinions, and 
are doubtful how to act, some being zealoui 
(such is the force of studia) for one course, 
and some for another. 

40. Primus ante omnes, forcmost befora 
all othcrs, i.e., of the crowd descending from 
the citadeL 

41. Summd arce — "From the highcst 
part of thc citadel." See Schmitz Lat. Gf. 
§361. 

42. Et procul, the verb of declaring is 
omitted frequently in excited narration, 
" and whcn at a distance cries aloud." 

46 sqq. Thc horse is here exposcd as a 
mere ruse de guerre, to beguile the Tfojans, 
the rcal object of it being to provide a ma- 
chiue similar to the toicers used in sicges b$ 
the Romans — onwhich see Ramsay'sAntiq. 
under Turris, p. 400. 

Aut scparatcs ideas essentially difterent— 
vel (mutilated unperative of volo), those 
between which thc differencc is unimpor- 
tant, oroneofname only. See Madsig L. 
G. § 436. 

47. Desuper urbi. "To come into the 
city from a higher position," Lc ., from the 
citadel to command the city. Cf. i. 165, 
420; iv. 122, etc. 

48. Aliquis=alius quis — "somc othcr;" 
"some deceit or other is concealed." 

40. Tliis line lias becomc a "household 

word," and a Btandard quotation againstall 

and sundiy, who, in the slightest degrce. 

expcso themselves to the suspicion of 

35 



B. IL 50-62. 



NOTES ON TTIE MSFAD. 



B. II. 64-8L 



hypocrisy and duplicity. Observe the tndic. 
est, not sit. 

50. Validis viribus—& mere poetic exag- 
geration— " with great force." 

51. In latus inque ahum — "neyne and 
Wagner consider this as a hendiadys=in 
turvum latus—but ThieL more properly, 
legards the repetition of the prepos. as fatal 
to such au explanation, and therefore takes 
the phrases separately— the spear not only 
penetrated the wooden franie-work, hut it 
also entered to some distance within the 
cavity, so as to wound oue of the Greeks — 
which idea is countenanced by the expres- 
sion gemitum dcdere. Curvam compagibus 
— bent (curved) by reason of the joints of 
ihe timber. Transl. " The cu7n-ed andjointed 
beOy." 

52. lUa, scil. hasta. For similar uses of 
■Ma, see Kritz ad BalL Cat., 45, •_>. In this 
jjid the following liues, commentators find 
Sn instance of onomatopoeia. 

53. Wagner understands cavae as an ad- 
terbial adj. joined to insonuere, and would 
transl. "gave forth ahollowkindofsound." 
Gossrau agrees, andwould transl. "sounded 
B". as to show that they were hollow." But 
Forbiger prefers to join cavae cavernae — 
quoting similar expressions of poetic 
archaisms from Lucretius and Plautus, e.g., 
tonitus sonans — anxius angor — pulchra 
puicritudo. 

54. Sifata deu?7i — " and if the fates of the 
gods had so allotted 'that the fraud should 
be detected) — if our _ninds had not been 
infatuated, he (Laocoon), (or ' it,' the cir- 
ciunstance of the groan, etc.) would have 
induced us to violate with the sword the 
hiding-places of the Greeks," etc. 

Impule7'at is here much stronger than 
impulisset would have been. Some regard 
lacva as an iustance of zeugrna, applicable 
both to fata and mens. 

56. Stares — Some ("Wagner comparing 
iEn. viL 6S4, where there is a similar change i 
from nom. to vocative) read staret to avoid 
the homoioteleuton with maneres, but with- I 
out MS. authority ; the double que casts 
doubt on such a readhig. 

57. Revinctum manus—For the construc- 
tion, see note L 228, andMadvigL. G §237, 
C.: also Schmitz L. G. § 259, 1. Cf. Ecl. L 
55, d/epastaflorem. 

60. IIoc xpsum sfroenef, " effect this very 
thing," viz., to be brought before the king 
aud questioned. 

61. Fidensanimi=confidenteani7no, "with 
confident, undaunted n 

occumbere — the infs, 
are either governed by paratus or placed in 
apposition to utrumque. " Prepared either 
to put his wiles in practice, or to meet cer- 



tain death." On the syntax of occumhert. 
see Dict. and Madvig L. G. § 245 

64. Circumfusa ruit, " throng around"— - 
observe the change to plur. in certant — So 
above, 31, 32. 

65. Ab wio crimine, i.e., ex scelere unius 
— "from one example of treacherous and 
vricked conduct," or "from the crime of 
one, learn the character of alL" 

67. Ia medio conspectu — in a central point 
of view, Le., exposed to the gaze of alL 
" For as he stood open to the gaze of all, 
with an agitated air, defenceless." 

GS. The spondaic termination is admir- 
ably suited to the position and feelings in 
which the captive Sinon Ls represented 

71. Super is here an adv.=moreover. Cf. 
Geo. iii. 263. 

73. "By which lamentation our feelings 
tcwards him were changed, and every at- 
tempt at violence was checked." 

74. Cretus, particip. of cresco, or rather of 
obsolete creo, from which cresco is formed. 

7-5. Ut me7noret, eta — "We urge him to 
state on what ground he entertained confi- 
dence in spontaneously delivering himself 
up as a captive." 

76. This line is wanting in many MSS. 

77. Fuerit quodcunque — Waguer compar- 
ing Livy xxx. 17, Quidquid aliud fecerit 

* * e.i Paires co77iprobare; and Xen. Cyr. 
viiL 2, 12, Tetpii^s. '-roivTa, orou t^n, 
refers quodcunque to cimcta, in the sense, 
" all particulars of whatever kind each be." 
But Servius, Thiel, "\YeieV>ert,Forbiger, etc, 
imderstand the phrase to mean, " Whatever 
shall result to me," from the plain state- 
ment Their opinion is based principally 
on the form fuerit Ln the subjunctivo 
mood. Siipfiius iimls additional confir- 
mation of this interpretaticn in the position 
of quodcunaue fuerit between cuncta and 
vera. 

79. Hok py-imum, scil. fatebor. Finxit=> 
fecit: Cf. Hor. Od. iv. 3, 12, nobikm 
fingere. 

80. Lnp7'oba must be translatcd separ- 
ately fromfama. and alongwiththe second 
clause only, "Though Fortune has made 
Sinon (cf. Hor. Sat. L 9, 47,) miserable, she 
will not be wicked enough to make him 
faitldess too and false." 

81. Fand), either (1) used passiveh/. as 
habendo, Geo. iL 250 ; tcgendo. Geo. iiL 454, 
or (2) activehj. as iu 6, or (3) as an ab- 
st7-act ve7*bal subsi., which last is preferred 
by Forbiger. 

* Ahquod istobejoinedwithnojnen. Some 
books read aliquid, which will then b_ 
governed byfando. 

TransL: " If perchance in the course of 
conversation (by rumour) there sbould have 



B. IL 82-97 



NOTES ON THE .ENF.II>. 



rcached your ears any mcntion of Paia- 
medes, descendantofBelus, and his renown, 

niade glorious by faine, whom, under afalse 
accusation of treason, thc Grceks put to 
death, guiltless tuocgii he was of the in- 
1'amous crime whlch was laid to his charge, 
oecaose he dissuaded them froni war^ but 
whom they lament now that he Is dead: to 
be a companion to him, rclated as I was to 
liiin by blood, my fathcr, a poor man, sent 
me to the war at its very commencenient." 
Or, " In my early years:" But dulces natos 
(138) opposes such an interpretation. 
<ig, however, prefers the latter meau- 
ing, frqm tRe eireumstances that (1,) Sinon 
\s ealled juvenis; (2,) the words pueritia 
and adolescentia had a wide extension ; and 
(3,) dulces natos does not necessarily imply 
great age. 

82. Belides — patronymics from nouns in 
us of the 2d decL have the penult short, 
thus Priamides from Priamus — those from 
nouns in eu. of the 3d decL, or from cles 
have the per ilt long, as Promethides from 
Promelheus. In the word before us we have 
one of the few exceptions to the rule. See 
Priscian, iL 7, 37. For the story of Pala- 
medes, see Class. Dict. 

S-3. Demisere nect — formcd on the moael 
of such plirases as demittere Orco, umbris, 
kto, stygiae nocti, etc. Cf. Hom. ^v^us 
Aio^t Tpoioc^iv. 

88. " So long as he (Palamedes) retained 
his royal dignity undiminished, and pos- 
sessed influence in the assembUes of the 
(Grecian) princes, so long I too enjoyed," 
ctc. This use of stabat in the sense of 
"continuing prosperous" is frequent. See 
^En. i. 268 ; Geo. iv. 209. 

89. In Nomenque decusque some consider 
a hvndiadys to be employed— nominis decus, 
but this is unsatisfactory ; nomen seems to 
imply renown,reputation, and decus, dignity, 
consideration, injiuence. 

90. PeUacis — artful, %cheedling Some 
copies read fallacis. On the gen. Uiixi see 
note 1. 30. 

01. Ilaud ignota, Le., bcne nota, by the 
figure Litotes. 

92. " Distressed in mind I dragged on my 

life in retirement and sorrow, and in soli- 

mde (mecum) broodvd over (bcmoaned) 

f the unmerited disaster of my guiltlcss 

friend." 

' rgos used for all Greece, see 25, 
55, 78. Euboza was his native place. 
Heync prefcrs agros, as a private soldier 
is spoken of — but in the whole phrase 
■?m victop ad A.. though from the 
mouth of a common soldicr there is no- 
thing strange. 

97. Hmc=exhacre. Labes — '■'■plaguespoW 
A spot ou the surface indicativc of disease. 



S. II. 98-102. 
Cf. Ilom. II. xL C03, xaxou Vdpat, oi 

TlXlV OCfX,^' 

98. Terrere, spargere, and quaerere are 
so-calkd " historic mfinitives." 

99. Conscius quaerere arma. On the 
meaning of these words therc is great di- 
versity of opinion. In the first place, arma 
is interpreted, (1) " counsels which Ulyssea 
devised to ward off the danger that threat-. 
ened him from Sinon;" or (2) treacherif 
and stratagems which he was preparinjj 
to put in force against Sinon (as machince, 
fm%etva! t nu^iot, are sometimes used). 
Secondly, conscius is understood to mean 
either, (1) conscious of the danger that 
threatened himself; or (2) being an accom- 
plice, Le., having assumed to himseif ac- 
complices, e.g. Calchas — see below, 267 — 
[thus Heyne and Wagner] ; or (3) conscious 
of the act of injustice he had perpetrated 
against Palamedes. Forbiger would tran 
slate as follows : "And conscious of (or — 
conscius being often used absolutely in a bad 
sense — conscience-smitten by) his act of in- 
justice (to Palamedes) sought the help 
(arma=operam) of others." 

100. Enim (cf. the use of y&p in Grcek) 
seems to refer to a suppressed clause which 
may thus be supplied: That I am right in 
asserting that Ulysses used all means for 
my destruction is evident — "for he did not 
rest till," etc. For the sudden break otf 
(aposiopesis) at ministro, cf. iEn. L 135, 
quos ego — sed, etc. 

101. Sed autem — the combination of these 
particles, though frequent among comic 
writers, is found nowhere else in Virgil. 
Wagner and others consider it equal to 
tandem. But it seems rather to be used for 
the purpose of contrasting his own feelingg 
on these painful subjects with the indirtlr- 
ence which might naturally be expectef 3 
to exist among the Trqjans concerning 
them, which, indeed, the rest of the line 
implies. 

Nequidquam and frustra difter in this, 
that frustra refers to the subject and the dis- 
appointment of his expectation — nequidqwm 
to the "«;^/;7i/" in which a thing ends. 
See Doderl. Lat. Syn. Note the difference 
between quid revolvo and quid revolvam, 
and see Madvig, § 353. 

Ingrata — objectivehj, " for tchich you 
will not thank ?ne. ,% 

102. Quidve moror—thorc is in common 
editions a note of interrogation after these 
words; but Wagner and Forbiger place a 
comma merely, and indicate the question 
after sat est; jamdudum s. p. forming a 
separate clause, connected in sense with 
what follows. On uno ordine habetis, 
cf. 64. 

31 



B. II. 103-118. 



NuTES ON THE yENEID. 



15. II. 121-133. 



103. Jd—(1) this. viz., that I ara onc of 
tlic Grccks— thus Ileyne: (2) (If to hear) 
this onc tltimj (which I havc just rclatcd) be 
sufikient to enable you to forra a judgment 
of all the leaders of the Grceks — so Wagner; 
(3; >,l = c« (to be referred to what has gonc 
before), Le., if you reckon all tlie Greeks on 
a footing of equality. be they fricnds to 
Ulysses, or his eneraies, it is enough for 
you to have heard so niuch as I have akeady 
stated. Jahn. Ou jamdudum, sec Zumpt, 
Lat. Gr., § 287. 

104. Ou velit and mercentur, iu t!ic Bub- 
jjunctive, see Madvig, § 352. On Atridae 
6ee above, notc on 82 ; and on tlic mean- 
ing, cf. Iloin. II. i. 255, H xn ynHffeu 
llpiafios, ctc. 

Mercentur — Cf. similar use of npiu.G-Su.i 
[rpieufAHi ulv, etc), in Xen. Mem. Soc. ii. 
5, 3. 

107. Prosequitur—he proceeds— used here 
kbsolutely. 

109. Discedere — "to separate" to their 
homes. 

111. Interclusit. Whenspeakingofthing-s, 
intercludere is ahnost cqual to impedire, (in- 
tercladere cdicui fltgam) and is therefore 
appUed to persons, governing sometimes 
tlie simple abL, orbeing sometimes followed 
by ab (aliqua rej: it is used absolutely here, 
guommus irent, or some such phrase, being 
understood. 

Terruit cuntcs — Heyne, rcferring to a 
well known participial construction in 
Greek, would interpret — "wlien wishing to 
depart, prevented them from setting saiL" 
But lorbiger prefers to consider euntes herc 
as equal to ituros, though this is, perhaps, 
the oidy verb (eo) of which the pres. part 
is, in Yirgil, put for the fut. Scitantem, in 
114. is cqual to a fut., but retains its proper 
force as a pres., since it signiiies "(We send 
Eurypylus) and he inquires and brings 
back,"*etc. 

114. On Eurypylus consult Class. Dict. 
On scitantem, see" above, note 111. Some 
books read scitatum, supine. 

11(3. Vir>jun\ scil. Iphigenia — see Class. 
DicL In sangume et vinjine caesd therc is 
a hendiadys («» ota. ouoTv ;) thc phra.se 
is equal to*' - the blood of a slain virgin," 
but see L 2, note. According to tlie com- . 
mon version of the story, the maidcn was I 
not really slain, but carried off by Diana, 
and a hind substituted hi her place. 

118. ThcYC-rblit>ircl>.vT7;), = y-<z>^.iif:7*, 
means primarUy to sacrifice under favomr- 
able omens. so that the gods signify to ttie 
worshippers bysoine visibie tokcn thatthey 
are appcased. Secondly, it Bigrdlics to 
propitnUe the gods bysaciifi.ee, as in this 



passagre : and thirdly, it is used in a general 
■way of mere sacrificlng. As to construc- 
tion, it is sometimes put absolutely, witliout 
an object — sometimes the object is e.v 
pressed In thc accus. (hostias litarej <>r 
' in the abl.. as hcre, or with both con- 
joined (sacra litate bove — Ovid, Fast. Ev 
630). 

121. Before cuifata parent, supply metu- 
entium, ofthem fsartng (bacause tluy were 
in uncertainty), for whoin, etc. The objcct 
of parent may be easily supplied from thc 
preceding sentencc, 118. Miiller considers 
fata as tlie accus. governed by parent, tlie 
subjcct of the verb bcing Oraecorum >tn<-> \ 
suggested by mittimus, aljove. But this 
seems too forced; a supernatund agency 
needs to be represented In both clauses. 
See Gossraifs opinion, quoted in Forbigcr, 
p. 164. 

122. llic, "■upon ihis." 1'rotmhit, "drag* 
forth." 

123. Quae sint ea nnmina — " wliat theso 
indications mcan," what is the wlflh of 
Apollo, Le., who is the pereon indicatcd. 

124. Flagitat — " demands with vehe- 
mence" — impatient eagerncss. Sce Dod, 
Lat. Syn. under Petere. 

Canebant, i.e., predicled — tlie prophets 
used verse, hence canere, to prophesy or 
foretell. " Forctold to me the Iteartless 
villany of the plotter." 

12-3. Taciti, Le., secum — "in their owu 
convictions;" or, saw what was to bappen, 
though they lifted no voice against it." 

126. Tectus, " dissembling," (Heyne) — 
" In retirement," (Henry ancl others.) 

127. Aut — we often find copulative con- 
jmictions usedfordisjunctives (alternativesj, 
and Ukewise disjunctives for copulatives as 
here. 

129. Composilo — more usuaUy ex ordine 
composito. . It means hcre " agreed on witli 

130. " And wliat each fearcd for himself, 
that he permitted to be turned." Thc 
shurfling character of Calchas is suggested, 
Heyne thinks, by Hom. II. i. 69. 

133. Sdlsae fruges, i. e., roasted corn 
crushed, and mixed with salt. On vittae 
and salsa mola, see Ramsay'8 Antiq. Voss. 
ni Ecl.. p. 429, has sbown that the ltoinan 
salsae fruges or inota salvi differ from th« 
Greck olXoxvron. This is. therefore, 
one of the manycascs m which Virgil attri. 
butes to other na.ions the customs of his 
own. But see i. 4fI9, notc. The ceremony 
of sprinkling with thc mola saha was called 
imnwlatio. hence immoh/rc. The vitta waa 
properlythe riband which was employed in 
forming the infula, but it is sometimes put 
for the infuln itsclf, as secu in the woodcuu 
See 224. with illustratiou. 



R II. 134-142. 



NOTES ux the .r.Ni-.ii). 



R II I48-1C3. 




134. Thc part of thc hypocrite is well 
carried out here. Sinon, though candidly 
avowing his escape, yet professes contrition 
for his apparent deficit-ncy in religious zeal 
and devotion. Yincuhi, not the fillets, but 
the bonds with which he was bound and 
brought toicards the altar, (the victim stood 
/ree before the altar). Peerlkamp thinks 
that vincula refers to the place of confme- 
ment, the prison in which Sinon may have 
been kept previous to his pretended immo- 
lation: Or the phrase may mean simply 
" I escaped," since rincuki rumpere is often 
used for the simple verb aufugere. See 
JEn. viii. 65L When Sinon is first brought 
before us in 57, he is still hound, and rs- 
rnaius so till Priam orders hiin to be re- 
leased, 140; but thifl was the act of the 
Trojan shephenls, and therefore no objec- 
tion can be raised on this ground against 
Peerikamp's interpretation. 

Aderat' parari. eripuL Observe the 
change from the historic inf. (so-called) to 
the finite verb. 

139. Obscurus delitui — " I lay hid so as to 
bc concealed" — this is what is calied thc 
pro/eptic use of the adj. Por other examples 
see Geo. ii. 353, and consult i. 63, above ; 
x. 103, 314, etc. j see Madvig, § 481, obs. 2. 
Compare the Ecg. phrasa, " kiD ?■ wxn 
dead," " struck blind" " Washed my fore- 
head cool" in Dream of Eugene Aram. 

136. Dedissent here — daturi essent, the 
pluperf. snbjunctive often standing for the 
periphrastic fut. ; see Wagner. Ileyne con- 
siders the latter clause of this line spurious ; 
ifitbeallowedtoremain, hewouldpunctuate 
thus: dum vela, darent si forte, dedissent. 
Wagner, however, defends the genuineness 
of the verse, and points it, darent, si forte 
dedixsent. 

138. Dulces natos — see note on 81, end. 
Cf Hom. II. v. 408. 

139. Fors for forssit, is often us?d by the 
poets as an adv. Reposcent — "demand as 
a substitute,"— oc.vna.tr i7v. Cf. Liv. iii. 
23, auxilium datum reposcere. 

142. Per. After per an accus. wonld be 
exi>ected, as above, with superos, but the 
whole claiueis in this case the object — "by 
whatever uncontaminated faith," etc. It is 



unnecessary to supply intemeratam fvJcm 
in the accus. Cr'. Soph. Phil. 469, vf,o;ji>* 
<ri rra.r^i — TfOi T it rt ffot Ktxr o'iko¥ 
Iffrt TpofftptXU. Sec also JEa. x. 903. 

Fides, Heyne dcfines as "justi rectique 
observantia, h.l jitris divini et humanitotis." 

143. Animi — on the nature of the genitivd 
scc Madviit, § 271», and 0)i tlie use of it as 
here, § 292. 

140. llis lacrimii, Le., to him relating 
these things with tcars. 

Uttro—thb word is stronger tlian sponlc, 
or voluntate — it nieans "contrary (<> 
(or beyond) ic/iat pou would expect." A 
most decisive example to prove that this is 
thc full force, occurs in Livy i. o, Capturn 
regi Amuiio tradidisse vnnooccusantes, i.e., 
(resolving the phrase) " (the robbers) not 
content with cscaping accusation at the 
hands of Remus, even went so far as to 
c/inrrje /iim." See Dbd. Lat. Syn. sub. voc. 
The stem ultr means "beyond," "farther," 
jmd tlie termination o signifies locality — a 
point in space; hence uttro denotes "to (or 
at) a point beyond: " hence the mearingwe 
have assigned to it above, from which ara 
derivcd others — such as "excessive," "be- 
yond all bounds." See 279, below. 

140. Levari properly means to loosen, ta 
lig/iten of a.burden, but here, to takeoffcom- 
pletely, as sometimes the Eng. verb lighten. 

148. LTinc — from this time forth. 

150. Quc=quorsum, "with what intent 
have they built this mountain of a monstei 
horse?" 

154. Tgnes, i.e., the sun, moon, and stars; 
non-vio/abile — "ichicb cannot be injured tcith 
impunity." 

155. Enses—" invidiose pro singulari," says 
Forb. Vittae deum, Le., fillets which are 
used in the sacrifices to the deity. The cut 
rapresents a cu/ter, or ensis — a sacrificial 
knife. 




t® 



157. Fas, (estr-not sit, as Serv. suggests: 
the afnrmative is a decided one) — "Rigbt 
in the sight of heaven." Transl. : "No divine 
precept forbids me." 

Sacrata jura, Le., "holy ties of com- 
mon citizenship." See below, teneor patriae 
nec /egibus ul/is. 

158. Sub auras, and tn auras—sec note 
759, below. 

163. Impius— Tydides is called so, either 
because he was the most prominent actor 
38 



B.1I.1C5-174. 



NOTES ON THE AJNEID. 



B. II. 175-1 86. 



In the capturc of thc palladium, or because 
of his habitual disregard for things divine, 
e. g., his wounding of Mars and Venus. 

165. Fatato— "ffcte bearing" — the safety 
of the palladium waa one of the securities 
of Troy's existence. 

Areilere — " to drag doicn" — it was chained 
to the temple. 

168. Virgineas vitlas deae, Le., virgineam 
ileam — cf. 31, innuptoe. 

169. Commentators have not been able to 
come to a unanimous opinion on this pass- 
nge; they dirTer as to the source whence 
Ihe figure is borrowed Heyne says, "from 
a niass piled to a great height sliding 
down." Wakefield (on Lucr. L 1038), 
draws it from the sudden fall of a stone 
whose stays thne has been gradually 
undermining. Wagner takes it from a ship 
nrged up a stream by rowers, but driven 
Dack when they slacken. Others take the 
figure from the" backward course of a river, 
dammed up by some suddenly-formed em- 
bankment or other obstruction. All these 
render it necessary to consider retrb as a 
tautological word, of which use there are 
doubtless examples, though many of those 
which Forbiger has given (at Geo. i. 200, 
where the same half line occurs) may be 
explained without necessarily supposing a 
tautology. The figivre appears to us to be 
taken from a person walking (or a mass 
of matter being dragged) up an incline 
losing his footing or hold, and being, there- 
fore, reluctantly driven to the plain whence 
he started. We would, therefore, translate, 
"From that moment the hope of the Greeks 
begau to faiL and losing its hold and sliding 
baekward, to bebome to itsfonnerposition." 
This idea seems to be confirrned by the 
words themselves— the two phrases, fluere 
and sublupsa referri are explained in the 
next line by fractae rires relerring tofluere 
(became unsteadu, mgecttre), and aversa mens 
(compared witiT 162, ftducia Palladis -aux- 
iliis stetitj to sublapsa referri. 

171. Ea signa — " such tokens," i.e., tokens 
of the are?'sa ?nens. 

Tritonia. This appellation of Minerva 
has been variously derived — some say from 
rpiru, which, in J£o\, means a head, so 
that TpiroyiM-ioc, -n-ould mean head-born, 
Le., from Jove'shead; others trace it to 
Triton, a river of Boeotia, flowing into 
Lake Copais, and this is the opinion most 
generally received by modern scholars. 

172. " Flashing flames blazed from her 
wildly staring and maddened eyes," The 
salsus sudor was an evil omen. On salsus 
svdor, see Aristot. probl. ii. 3. 

174. Ipsa, Le., the ichole palladium op- 
posed to several parts, especially to !u??iini- 
hus, etc. 

Dictw— see Madvig. Lat. Gr., §§ 97, 412. 

40 



175. The hasla and parma are seen in tha 
accompanying figure of a Roman solciier. 
For a description of each, see Ramsay. 




178. Omina m repetant. This is another 
instance of Virgil attributing Roman cus- 
toms to the heroic age of Greece, (but see 
L 469) ; for, says Servius, if an evil omen oc- 
curred, it was usual for a Roman general 
to return from the camp to the city, if 
at all near, t» take the omens afresh. The 
meaning of the passage is, however. very 
obscure — the difficulty tying principally in 
the words numen reducant. Perhaps the 
simplest method is to consider numen as 
equal to palladium, translating thus, " Un- 
less they again seek omens at Argos, and 
bring back the deity which they have (jusl 
recently) carried away over the sea, and 
taken with them in their curved ships." B« 
it distinctly noted, however, that the last 
liue quod pelago, etc, does not belong to the 
prophecy of Calchas, but is added by Sinon 
himself, in explanation of the latter part of 
it, as thechange of mood sufficiently shows. 
For a fuU discussion of the qu?stion, see 
Fo r b. in loc 

180. "And now that they have set sail 
for their native Mycenae with a fevourable 
breeze, (their object is. i.e.,) they go to pro- 
cure reinforcements of troops, and to secure 
propitiated gods as their companions"— the 
apodosis to quod petiere is foimd in parcwl 
and ade?'u?it. Thc clause from quod to 
Mycenas forms an accus. of refcrence or 
lii/iitation, depending on a verb suppressed, 
but easily deduced from parant. 

1S4. Piaret=expia?et — M atone for." 

186. Coelo. The poet? oftea. use the dat 



n .187-201, 



KOTKS ON TIIK .EXEID. 



B. II. 202-212. 



after a vcrb of motion Instead of thc accus., 
with ad or in. See Ecl. u. 30. 

187. Observe tliesequenccofconjunctions, 
ne, aut, (of the alternative of one idea), 
neu=et ne (Le., et, ut, non) of a different 
notion. 

■'— pres. subj., since it forms part of 
Sinon's speech : had it been a repethion of 
that of Calchas, the imperf., posset, should 
have been employed. 

188. The meaning is, that it might not 
hold the people bound to their former super- 
stitious confidence, and protect them with 
the preseni aml ali-powerful infiueiice of the 
palladium, since they wonld eease to liold 
it in tliat reverence with which they viewed 
the heaven-sent image of Minerva. 

190. Exitium—futurum esse — this inf. de- 
pends on the phrase "he said," implied in 
jussit, 18$ above; see Zumpt, § 620, and 
Kritz SalL Cat. xxi. 3. 

19* Ultrb. It appears unnecessary to 
wrest the meaning of this word from it» 
usual signification, as Ls done by Wagn, and 
Forbig., who make it equal to vr-pa.iotliv, 
used of a foe &om a distant quarter ; see 
above, note on 14o. 

Pelopea (for Pelopeia), i.e., Argos and 
Mycenae, see Class. Dict. on " Pelops." 
The following is the line of thought in the 
! from 183 to 194 :— " This horse is in- 
tended as an offering to Minerva, in lieu of 
the palladium ; but it has been made thus 
large that it may be impossible to bring it 
within the gates, and that you therefore 
may cease to esteem it equal to your former 
representation of the deity, and despising 
it may offer it violence, and so bring upon 
you the wrath of Minerva. If you do so, 
sure destruction will follow, but if on the 
other hand you give it a place in your city 
at any cost, then Asia, not satisfied icith 
being delivered from her enemies, uill even 
go so far (see on ultro 145; «5 to make an 
attack, in her tivrn, upon Greece." 

*i94. Eafata, "such fates," Le., the same 
as wonld await you did you violate the 
Bacred image, 

198. Mille — used for a round number — 
the ships enumerated by Homer are 1186. 

199. >II'ic — "upon this" — "at this poiut 
of time." Aliud—le., another, with refer- 
ence to Sinon's appearance, 57. 

200. Improrida pectora—is an <example 
of the proleptic use of the adj., on which see 
note L 63, iL 135. TransL — " Confuses our 
miwLs so as to makc them unwary," (in- 
capable of forethought). 

201. The story of Laocoon is aptly intro- 
duced, and told with great gpirit and ap- 
propriateness of description. The minute- 
ness of detail ana variety of phraseology 
have called forth the admiration of all com- 
mentators. It contains. too, a symbolic I 



reprcsentation of the destruction of Troy; 
the serpents comc from Tenedos. and so do 
ks m tlieir retiim from pretended 
tlight; tlie scrpents kill the prt 
embodiment of the Trojan religion, as the 
Greeks afterwards violate the deitlea of the 
Trojana, and abrogate tlieir sacred righta. 
Moreover, tlie speeial phrases, tendunt, ag- 
mine certo, ctc, are borrowed from military 

Neptuno — Laocoon was properl> 
of Apollo, though chosen by lot to offi- 
ciate on tliis occasion to Neptune, to whom, 
as joint patron of Troy, along with Apollo, 
they deemed it due to oifer sacrifiee for their 
delivery. See Ilenry, Class. Mus., vol. vL 

202. Sollemnes ad ca-as — " at the faoly 
altars," Le., the altars where sclemn sacii- 
fices were wont to be made ; or sollemnes, 
like ingentem, may apply solely to the great 
solemnity and sacredncss of their offering 
on this occasion. 

203 Gemini=duo, with the idea, how- 
ever, of close siinilarity and paraHelism in 
shape, size, appearance, and action, as 
bronght out in the sequel. Alta i.e., viaria, 
which is often omitted hi prose as well aa 
in poetiy. 

205. "incumbunt, " lie vpon,'" with the 
idea of burdening, as it were, "oppress." 
Compare Milton, Par. Lost, L 192, quoted 
by Henry:— 

Thns, Satan, talking to his nearest mate, 
TVith head uplift above the wave, and eyea 
That sparkling ' blazed : his other parts 

besides 
Prone on the flood, extended long aud 

large, 
Lay floating many a rood ! 

206. Jubae sanguimae, Le., "theirblood. 
red necks." Cf. Hom. IL iL 308, fyaxutt 
Iti vura. o^aipoivo;. 

208. Legit — "sweeps," with the idea of a 
quiet and peaceable motion. 

Sinuat is better than sinuant, as the 
description ought here to be confined to 
the hinder parts, the heads and front being 
mentioned before as erect and steady. 

209. It is better to remove the comma 
after sonitus, and thus make salo the abl. of 
the instrument, depending more immediately 
onft. "A rushing noise ensues, in conse- 
quence of (by means of) the foaming of the 
sea; " i.c, the sea lashed into foam by the 
violence of the waves, for the foam itself 
makes no noise. 

210. Oculos, depending on suffecti as the 
accus. ofreference, or limiiation. See L 228, 
note, and Madvig, Lat Gr., § 237; Zumpt, 
§ 458; Schmitz, § 259, 2; cf. infra 273, 
and EcL L 55. 

212. Certo agmine, "in undcviating 
course." 

41 



B. II. 215-226. 



NOTF.S ON "IHE -KXKID. 



B. II. 220-250. 



215. Jlfiseros arlus=miserorum artus, by 
hypallnge of the adj. See JEn. i. 4, memo- 
rtm Junonis ob iratn, for ob. iram memoris 
Junonis. 

Morsu depascrtur=in~6'rdet 

210. Trar^sl: '" (Laocoon) Limseif' coming 
to the heln (of his children) and bringing 
weapons of defence, they seize and pinion 
with their hugc spiral-coils ; and now, twice 
eocircling his waist. twice windlng their 
scaly bodies arouiul his neck, they overtop 
himby the (height oftneir) heads and lofty 
necks." If the head of Laocoon wcre meaiit, 
we should read caput. 

221. Perfusus vittas — another aceus. ofrc- 
ftrence. Cf. 222. helow, and see note on 
lines 57 and 210, above. 

223. Qualis (i.e. quules) mugitus, govenied 
by toUit. The/natural order would be 
fjualis mugitus taurus tollit (the last word 
being supplied from the foriner Bentence) 
q itum, etc It very freqnently happcns in 
Latin as well as ln Greek, that a principal 
word, properly belonging to thc indepen- 
dent clause, is inscrted in the Bubordinate. 
See Geo. iii. 387. Translate: "Snchmoorn- 
ful bello-wings as the hull raises, when he 
rushes wounded from the altar, and endeav- 
ours to shake off from his neck the erring 
axe." Observe the habitual seuse of the 
perfects. 

224. The following illustration, " Dido 
Sacrificing," will show the securis, vittae, 
mola salsa, etc 




fes*£>s>:s^ 



225. Summa delubra — the highest places 
of the shrine. 

226. Teguntur, in a middh sense=" shel- 
ter themselves." The image here spoken 
of is, of com-se, difierent from that wliich 
had fallen from heaven ; it is the large one, 
visible to all, not the smaller and more 
sacred one, kept within the holy place. 



220. Expendisse scelus — "paid the /ull 

penalty of his crinie." 

lui laeserU=* u inasmuch as hc has 
injurcd" (they say). Note the sul>j. here in 
tlie indirect rehearsal of the opinions of 
otliers. 

233. Conclamant — " Call out with one 
acclaim." 

234. '• We break down thc walls, and 
ezpose the inner buildings (moenia) of 
the city." " T Iuh Wagner and Niebuhr. 
Wagner is of opinion that when iu 
placed after muros, it means the citu icit/i 
its buibtings; but when before muros, it 
means l\\& fortifications. On tlie difference 
between thc two words, consult Dod. Lat. 
Syn., and Kritz on SalL Jug., 94, 4. May 
w"e not interpret thc prcsent passage as 
follows, consideruig the second part of the 
line as an e.rpansion, or as a consequence of 
the first, muros, meaning thewalls, as such, 
and moenia, denoting their purpose, (with a 
desponding reference): "We make a wide 
breach in the walls. and (thus, in our mad- 
ness) lay open the dcfences of our city. ' 

235. Rotarum lapsus = rotas labentes, 
" rolling wlH-els. - ' They put slides beneatli 
the feet of the horse to serve as wheels. 
Compare the expressions remigio alarum, 
JEn. i. 301; vi. 10. Labor is a favourite 
verb in this sense ; thus ^En. i. 147, rotis 
levibus perlabiturundas, and also 240, below, 
iUabitur urbi. 

237. Scandit, "scales," mounts, as it were, 
step by step, sloicli/, thus Horace, " dum ca- 
pitoliitm scandet cnm tacitavirgine Pontifer." 
FataUSn an act sense, "fate-bcaring." So 
likewise infelix m 24-3. 

208. Armis=armatis homtAibus. Circitm 
is an adv. 

239. Sacra, scil. carmina, "hymns" (of 
joyous thanksgiving). 

240. Minans, threatening, Lc., of a tower- 
ing height : c£ i. 162, note. Afediae urbi de- 
pends on iUabitur and not on mkuuu; cf. 
Ecl. iL 30. 

242. It was deemed an unfavourable omcn 
to touch the threshold going out or coming 
in — it was the stopping that in this caso 
alarmed them, as the mere touching could 
not be obviated. 

244. Immemores, etc, " heedless of the 
warning, and blind with mad zeal." 

246. Cassandra — see Class. DicL " She 
had slighted ApoUVs love, and was punished 
by him in the manner specified in next Hne. 

248. Quibus vltimus dies — this clause is 
introduced to explain the appropriatencss 
of the term miseri, as applied to the Trojans. 

249. On the religious customs referred to, 
i consult Ramsay's Antiq. 

250 sqq. This passage has been justly 
admired by critics. The calm and peaceful 
moonlit night— the joy of the Trojans at 
the departure of the Greeks, and tlie cou- 



13. 11. 151-258. 



NOTES OX TIIE .T.XEID. 



R. TI. 259-270. 



senuent lonse given to Indulgenco, and tlic 
peribet security whlch all !'elt. are Btrongly 
contrastcd with the din, confusion, danger, 
and deetrnctlon which bo instantly ensue. 
1'he description cannot faiJ to eulist our 
warmcst Byropathies on behalf of the 
wretched Trojans. 

Vertitur — acoording to the ancient be- 
Uef that thc heaven dcscribed a revolution 
every day — the carth standing stilL 

Ruit oceano Nox—Ct supra. H, Nox 
coelo praecipitut. The idea is suggested 
by seeing the sun descend into the ocean, 
and darkness immediately come on, while 
night, on the other hand, departs as the sun 
rises Btom the waves. The monosyllabic 
tormination is, In a rhythmical point of 
view, objectionable; but by its very strange- 
ness, it calls the attention to soniething 
ttriking and gratid (Geo. i. 247), or to 
somethiug of importance and moment, 
though not elevated or sublime (AZn. v. 
481), or to what is veiy stnall and ruliculous 
(Geo. i. 181; Hor. Art. Poet. 139). Sej; 
Quinctilian viii. 3, 20. 

251. Thc spondaic time of tliis verse 
suits well the meaning. 

255. Tacitae, etc. Some would under- 
Btand silentia lunae to mean interlunium, 
the "dark of the moon," in whioh sense 
luna siiens is found, since a state of darkness 
was better suited to the stratagem of the 
Greeks ; others, however, following ancient 
tradition, that Troy was taken about full 
moon (see also 340, below), give to the words 
their most common acceptation. This mode 
is much more poetic, and represents the 
moon in a more distinctly peisonal aspect — 
that she, "the eye of night." must have 
seen the proceedings of Troy'. enemies, but 
yet preserved a silence which betokened 
her favour to the Greeks. See 257. 

256. Cum regia puppis — " when the royal 
ship had raised alcft the signal tcrch." 
Wagner proposes to arrange the following 
lines thus for the jjreater simplicity of con- 
struction : — 

Et jam Argiva phalanx, flammas quum 
regia puppis 
Extulerat, tacitae per amica silentia lunae, 
Littora nota petens, instructis navibus ibat 
A Tenedo ; fatisque, etc. . 

257. Fatis deihn iniquis^tor diis iniquis, 
i.e., infestis. Sce note on 215. "The 
partiaL" "one-sided," decrees of heaven; 
or simply, " unpropitious," without any 
idea of partiality. 

258. Danaos, et pinea clatistra laxat — 
" lets out the Greeks and opens the pine 
wood doors." It often occurs in Greek 
and Latin writers (vcry rarely in English) 
that one verb, expressive of ageneral notion. 
governs two substantives, but must reccive 
with cach a signification suitable to tlie 



govrmed word. The verb is usually moie 
particularly applicable to the nearest object, 
while a cognate signtfication, eaaily derivable 
from the general idea, must be suppUed by 
thc mind to thc more distant object. Thi-i 
construction is called zeugma (£'.uyp.cc, 
^ivyivpi) or si/Uepsis. Sec Zumi)t and 
fifadvfg, Indrx under zeugma. The »en- 
tence -upplies also an frxample ofthe li^uro 
called v<rrtpov trporspev, (for an cxplana- 
tion of which, see uote 853, bclow), tha 
liberation of the Greeks, though^rrt indi- 
cated by the poct, behlg of course posterior 
to the opening of the doors; but see 353. 

209. lbat — quum extulerat — et laxat. The 
scquence of tense in these verbs is found 
fault with by some commentators, but is 
well defended by Forbiger as follows: — 
"The Argive fleet was advancing (the im- 
perf. having its proper idea of continuance) 
when, suddenly the royal ship had raised 
aloft [Le., in a moment, suddenlu, raised] 
the signal torch (the thing being so quickly 
done as to be past and completed as soon 
as perceived), upon which Sinon at once 
opens the doors — an action of so short dura- 
tion that it is advantageously expresscd bv 
the present tense." See the parallel pas- 
sages quoted by Forbiger, and cf. Zumpt, § 
508. 

Sinon — Greek words in wv, wvo;, nsnaDy 
lose the final n of the nom. in Latin, a* 
Apollo, but the poets (as also Nepos and 
Curtius) often retain the full form. See 
Zumpt, Madvig. etc, 

261. The word dures docs not mean leader» 
of the expedition, but merely expresset 
their rank in the army in a «reneral way. 

263. Neoptolemus, or Pyrrhus, son of 
Aehilles, ^and, consequently, grandson of 
Peleus. On patronymic "forms, consurE 
Zumpt or Mad\ig. On the proper names, 
consuit Ciass. Dict 

Primus— either "first to descend," or 
ll first among men," since his bravery in 
battle was no less celebrated than his skill 
in the hefiling art. 

264. Fabriator—ihe maker, builder of 
the horse. See Hom. Odyss. viii. 493, 
^■Trvou) rov 'Etho; \<roiv)<riv trvv ' A6f,vri. 

267. Conscia agmina — sce 99 — i.e., jun- 
gunt (sibi) agmina conscia (doli). 

268 sqq. This passage seems to be mould- 
ed on the form of Hom. II. xxiii. 62 sqq., 
where the shade of Patroclus appears to 
Achiiles. 

MortaVibus aegris — o^tO.o) Bporoi. 

269. Etdono, etc. "Andby thekindness 
of hcavon. steals upon them with most 
grateful influence." There should be only a 
colon after serpit. 

270. In somnis — on the plur. here, 6e* 
Madvjg, § 50, obs. 3 ; Zumpt, § 92. 



h. II. 271-27S. 



KOTES ON THE JENKID. 



B. II. 279-257. 



271. Vtius (esl)=ioo>iu — an appropriate 
word wben Bpeaking of dreams. 

272. Ut quondam refers both to raptatus 
btgis, and oier, otc. 

273. Trajeetus per pedeslora — bya Greek 
construction (the part oi" perf. pass., used 
tor part. of perf. mid., attracting to it an 
accoa case) loris per pedes trajectis. Cf. 
Hor. Sat. i. 6, 74, pueri laevo suspeusi loculos 
tabulamqut lacerto. And see note on 210, 
above, but especially L 228, note. 

Tumentet — Dr Henry (M.D.) allcges 
that tlie feet of a dead man wonld not swell 
from the compression of a rope: for this 
reason, therefore, and from comparing Mxl 
L 483, and Soph. Aj. 1031— "Exra//» ftit 
Lx'i-^v\i\ /S/av — he considers that Virgil 
does not mean to represent Hector as com- 
pletely dead when dragged round Troy by 
Achilles. 

274. Cf. Ovid Met vL 273 for a very shni- 
lar passage. 

275. Beatt is here pres., and is not con- 
tracted fbr rediit, as the quantity of the final 
syllable shows. The present teiise strongly 
brings out the vividness of the apparition 
before the mind of iEneas, representmg all 
the concomitant circumstances which had 
occurred on the occasions referred to as 
again passing in review before hhn. " Wlio 
at this moment appears be/ore me, as he re- 
tums from," etc. 

E.vucias indutus — see above, 273, and 
notc there referred to. On the form Achilli, 
see note on L 30. Ou the slaughter of 
Patroclus by Hector, and the assumhig of 
the armour of Achilles, seeHom. IL xvii 194. 
On the burning of the ships, see Hom. IL xiiL 

Achilli — Yirgil uses two forms of the 
gen. of this word, either Achilli or Achillis — 
the ear, in the opinion of Wagner, being the 
only guide to choice. The form in i is 
adopted when an adj. of the 3d decl. accom- 
panies, or when a sigmatismus (repetition 
of the 5 sound) would oe caused, as here. 
The form without the final s is made. either 
by contraetion of Achfllei into Achillei, and 
that again into Achflli; or (as Wagner 
thinks, see note L 30) from the Doric form of 
Buch nouus in Greek, e.g., 'A^iXr,;, ov 
=1, of the lst decl., or the ^oL form of 3d. 

276. On the dat. puppibus after a verb of 
motion, see note on 36, above. 

277. Barbam — criues — vuinera, all de- 
pend on gerens, which is equal to habens, as 
above, 90; Geo. iL 122. 

278. Vulnera. Either (1) the wounds 
which he had reoeived from time to time 
throughout the war; or (2) those which 
had been inflicted by the Greeks imme- 
diately after his death, and the lacerations 
received by being dragged round the wafls. 
See Hom. IL xxii. 369-375. This latter 
opinion is more consistent with the whole 

44 



description of the barba, crines, etc, dis- 
figured in the last struggle, andseems to be 
confirmed by the phrase circum patrios 
muros. 

Mark the separation of the prepos. circum 
from the governed noun, in Greek fashion. 

279. Uttrb—see notes on 145 and 193, 
above. " I myself, too, (as well as he) 
fn tears, seemed not to wait for Hector 
[thepersoncomingjtoopentheconversation, 
but eontrary t» icltat might be expecled to 
address the hero," etc, 

281. Lux — not glory, but de/ence, sa/e- 
guard, "light and larap." See 2 Samuel 
xxi. 17. 

Exspectate—" O eagerly desired." 
We should here expect the nom., but the 
vocative is retained, being attracted by the 
foregoing nouu. Zurapt, § 492, Madvig, § 
299, obs. 2. 

Ut is commouly joined with aspicimus in 
the sense of quomodo, liow happens it, aud 
is varioosly explained; (1) by the worda 
post multa de/essi (Thiel) ; or (2) ut refers to 
the sad plight in which Hector appeared 
(Gossr.) ; but (3) Wagner and Forbiger (/ol- 
loicing Wunderlich), attach it to de/essi, on 
the ground that the words post multa — 
de/essi are perfectly otiose iu the other mode 
of rendering. 

287. IUe nihil, scil. respondit — " he mad« 
no reply." 

Mbror is often used as nearly equivalent 
to curo. See Hor. Epist. L 15, 16; iL 1, 264. 
Vana — " questions now useless." 

2S9. Heul /uge — this interjection, when 
joined with the hnperative, indicates great 
earnestness on the part of tae person ex- 
horting. Hand. Tursell. ih. p. 68. 

290. Alto a culmine Troja. Cf. Hom. IL 
xiii. 772, uXito <ra,<ra, xoct cixpr,; "iX/s," 

ttfTTHVr,. 

292. Hdc-^ifX.Tty.u;, " with this right 
hand of mine ;" a gesture accompanying the 
utterance of the sentiment. Cf. 2En. viLL 
570; Hor. Sat. I. ix. 47. 

293. Penates — see Keightley's Mythol. and 
^n. i. 68, 703. Suos is to be applied t« 
sacra as well as to Pen-ites. An adj. is often 
thus used, being expressed but once to two 
nouns. Prose writers place it either be/ore 
the /irst, or a/ter the second of tiie two 
substs. thus qualified; but poets very often 
place it between the two words, as here. 
Cf. iv. 5S8, Litora (Le., vacua) et vacuos 
portus. 

295. Magna, etc, which, having com- 
pletely traversed the sca, you will build 
after a long delay, but (to compensate for 
this) the city wflfbe a great one The re- 
ference in Magna is, of coursc, to Romc. 

297. Hector seems to have brought forth 
the fillets and image of Vesta from the 
temple of the deity, but whence thepenates 



B. II. 208-312. 



NOTES ON TIIE VENKID. 



I. 313-326. 



came tlie poet doefl not say ' Ovid (Fast. 
vi. 295) speaka of Vesta as represented by 
theever-buming/lre, but withoutanyhnage. 
Bee tne commentators. 

298. Diverso luctu, i. e., luctut e ofbversit 
urbispartibtu. Heyne. "Theeityis thrown 
into confusion by cries of woc froin various 
quarters;" or rather— " Meanwhile there 
irisea In the eity a confased noise of wail- 
ing and clamour from dlfferent quarters;" 
miscentur moenia referring to one kind of 
mixing and variety, diverso luctu to another. 
See note 487, below. 

299. Secreta, Le., removed from the Scaean 
gate, and that part where the Greeks had 
entered the city. But sec?'eta recessit, taken 
in connexion with tecta arboribus, seems to 
imply more than this, viz., that the house 
stood apart by itseif, none or few being- 
ncar it, and also that there was little 
thoroughfare that way. 

300. Recessit—this verb is used of places 
which are retired and solitary, hence the 
subst. recessus, a quiet retreat . 

301. Ingruit means "to advance with 
threats and importunity" (Dbderl.), an idea 
peculiarly applicable in our present case. 

302. Excutior means to be roused hastily 
by a loud noise. Summi fastigia tecti by 
hypallage for summafastigia tecti. 

303. Adscensu supero, see 225, above, 
effugiunt lapsu. 

304. On the donble simile in this and fol- 
lowing lines, see Hoin. II. ii. 455 ; xL 155, 
and iv. 452. Lucret. L 282. 

Austris — put generally for auy wind. 

305. Torrens, X l ' i P a '?? S — " a torrent 
made rapid by (receiving the waters of) a 
mountahi stream, dcvastates the fields and 
lcvels tho luxuriant crops," etc. 

307. Jnscius — ignorant of the cause. Ac- 
cipiens, hearing. 

309. Manifestafdes, i.e., the truth of what 
Hector had said, viz., that the city was 
taken: "andnowthe tmth is but too evi- 
dent," as we say. Soine interpret fldes " bad 
faith" of the Grecks, but this is not to be 
approved of. 

310. Deiphobi, sonofPriam andHecuba; 
Rec JEn. vi. 405 sqq., and Ilom. IL xiiL 
1C3 sqq. 

Dare or trahere ruinas (see below, 465) to 
fall to ruin. 

311. Vulcnno, Le., igni, see L 177. Prox- 
imus ardet Ucalegon — " (the house of) 
Ucalegoii his ncxt neighbour is m a blaze," 
sce Hor. Sat. i. 5, 71, sedulus hospes paene 
arsit (i.e., his house paene arsit) ; cf. Juve- 
nal's close imitation, iii. 198. Jam poscit 
aguam, jam frivola transfert Ucalegon. 

312. "Tlie broad Sigcan bay shines 
brLyhtly with the flames." The Sigean 
promoDiory was at that point of Troas 



where thc Hollespont widens out into the 
^SSgean. 

313. VhgD foUowfl the Tragic poetl b) 
hi* mention of trumpets. Homer knowa 
nothing of thc tuba and htuus; but seo 
noto L 469. 




315. Glomerare manum, so, elsewhere 
glomerare dgtnina, hostes, legiones, etc. Bello 
inthe dative, "for war." 

317. Praecipitant nientem, Lc, "hurry nio 
to a hasty (rash) decision." 

318. Panthus — us long, as bcing the rc- 
presentative of the Greek ou;, contracted 
for oos, therefore voc. u, Greek (os) ou. 

319. Othryades— OSpv-Klr,; from OOpv;. 
Arcis Phoebique, Le., "of the temple of 

Phoebus on the citadel." JJendiadys, see 
L 2. 

321. Trahit — remark the peculiar applica- 
bility of this word, which suggests the diffi- 
culty felt by the child to keep up ^ith his 
grandfather. There is a zeugma in trahil 
applied lo deos and nepotem. 

322. Quo res summa loco. These words, 
and the following, quam prendimus arcem, 
have given rise to much difference of opinion 
among commentators. Forbiger adopts, for 
res summa, the meaning salus reipublicae. 
Henry understands the first phrase to mean 
"the hottest battle." Tliiel makes it the 
ciladel. In the following phrase, Wagner 
makes quam—quomodo, how (are we to 
reach or regain the citadel?) Forbiger, 
following Servius and Weichert, interprets, 
"TMiat post of strength is now left, which 
we may lay holdon?" (Le., we cannot gaia 
the citadef itself). This last gains confir- 
mation from a comparison of 319 and 320. 

Panthu, voc. from Panthus = Tldvho;, 
contracted Ua.v6ovs. Se e above, 318.^ 

324. Summa dies — fitop<riu.ov or a'/<rif&ov 
Ifjt-txp. Cf. Hom. IL vL 448, and Hor. Od. 
i. 15, 33. 

Ineluctabile— "inevitable;" literally, "out 
of v/hich we cannot fight our way." Cf. 
Eur. Alcest. 889 (or 864, Bothe), rv%>. 
^vo-ToiXaKrro; i\x.u. 

325. Fuimus—Cf. Eur. Troad. 554, Bothe, 
Tpiv tTot Yifztv. fiifiaxsv okfio;. fiifiaxi 
Tpoia. "There was (O, seldom blessed 
word of was) ;" Sidney, Arcadia. The pro- 
priety of tense has been much praised and 
imitated. See Schiller, Mary Stuart, iv. 1L 

326. Ferus — stronger than saevus, and=» 
o-tfrhios.. Argos, the accusative, being 

45 



B. II. 029-340. 



NOTES ON TIIE JKXKID. 



E. II. 342-353. 



neot. in the sing., but masc, Argi, in tlie 
plur. 

829. Victor, i.c. propositi. voH compos, 
perhaps with roferenoe to 95, above. Cf. 
also Mn. iii 439. 

Incendia miscere=turbnre, i. e., adda to 
theconfusion by applyingtorcb.es, or applies 
torches in all directions, so that the blazes 
raised by him meet and unite. The periidy 
of Sinon, and his total disregard to tiie 
promptinga of gratitude, are thus more pro- 
minently brought forth. 

330 Bipotentibus—not simply open, but 
"with both valves wide open thrown." 

Alii is herc opposcd to those coming out 
nf the house, uot to the following alii, in 
the sense of "some — other." 

331. Quot mSHa—"AB many thousands 
as cver came "— a hyperbolical expression. 
The darkness and terror would naturally 
make the Greeks appear more numerous to 
the Trojans than they really were. 

332. Angusta viarum = Angustas vias. 
This absolute use of the neut. adj. for a 
subst. is verv eommon with the poets after 
the time of Augustus. It is found also in 
prose writers. Cf Livv xxvii. 18. 10. Tac 
Annall i. 61. [Kritz Sall. Cat. 59, 2.] See 
also J£n. L 310, 422; ii. 725. 

333. Stat similar to est, but stronger. 
Stat "quippe sublatus et erectus ensis" — 
Ileinie. ''The unsheathed sword bladc is 
raised with glittering point ready for the 
work of death." 

334. P<irata neci, i.e., necare. Srimi, 
" foremost," either as being stationed in the 
ftrst entrance to the city, or as having first 
offered resistance to the*Greeks rushing in. 

335. Caeco Marte— " blind " — either (1) 
referring to the darknoss of niglit, but to this 
interpretation there have been objections 
previously stated ; or (2) " maddened," not 
guided by composure and presence of mind 
— "blind" rage," '-slash, d.ish away at 
random." This latter is the explanation of 
Forb. and Gossr.. and seems tmquestionably 
the right onc. See 357, below. 

336. Numim — "will and instigation of 
the deities;" for the events of his sally 
and the mformation received from Venus 
on his returr, led to his speedy departure 
from Troy. and to the safety of his father, 
his son, and the Penates. 

337. Erinys. Heyne interprets, " the 
ardour o/ ftghting" — but a hero could 
scarcely call such a feeling tristis. Under- 
stand it therefore, with Wunderlich, to 
signify a deitij exciting to battle, and the 
eawsetherefore of sorroic. On the mode of 
writing Erinvs, cf. Blomf. Aesch. Prom. 
525. 

339. Khipeus, and the others here intro- 
duced, are not Homeric heroes, but are 
created bv Virgil. 

340. Oblati per faflawj— "seenbv us and 
46 



recognised by the light of the moon." Ob- 
lati is to be considered as refcrring to all 
the Individuala here mentioncd, and not to 
Hypanis and Dytnaa alone, as some would 
punctnate tbe linea. 

342. From illis to audieril, 346, is par- 
enthetic 

343. Insano here means "extravagant," 
"excessive." "passionate," "mad;" "Rixam 
et insanos amores," Hor. OiL iii. 21, 3. Sce 
below, 776 

344. Gener — " son-in-law," to be. 

345. Furentis — "divinely inspired."' 

346. A udierit. Wagner prefera this rcad- 
ing to audierat, on thc gTound that it does 
uot express simply what was done, but sug- 
gests what ought to have been done. 

347. Incipio, put ahsolutely for incipio 
dicere — his, insuper — " I begin to encourago 
them, besides (i.e., although they had 
already braved the danger of battle)." 
Scrvius. 

348. Super — insuper, and his = ad hos. 
Heyne considers super his = posthaec, but 
theidca of time has been already expressed 
in quos ubi vidi. 

350. Cupido sequi. Many grammarians 
lay down the principle that the infin. mood 
here and in similar expressions is equal to 
the gcrund, and that it depends on the suo- 
stantive, which is apparently the subject of 
the clause. The meaning of the infin. and 
of the gertmd in this construction is, how- 
ever, very different, as has been well demon- 
strated by Ramshorn, Lat. Gr., § 168 A, 
note 1 ; Kritz Sall. Cat. 30, 5 ; and Forbig. 
Geo. L 305. The inf. is not dependent 
on the subst. alone, but on ttr subst. and 
verb combined, which convey a joint verbal 
notion, e. g., cepit consilium invndere=de- 
erevit moadere; cupido incessit sequi=cupi- 
vit sequi; animus est=vult, etc. The con- 
struction with the inf. and witli the gerund 
differs in this, that in thc former mode of 
expre^sion the infin. itself becomcs the sub- 
ject. the subst the predicate, the verb esse, 
etc, being a mere copula; while in the latter, 
that with the gerund, the subst. is the sub- 
ject of the seutence, and on it the gen. of 
the object (expressed by the gerund) de- 
pends, the verb esse containing the predi- 
cate — thus tempusestfacere=facere esttem- 
pestivum, but tempus faciendi est=suppetit 
tempus adfaciendum. For other examples 
see above," 10; Mn. i. 704; Geo. L 305; 
Sall. Cat. 30, 5 (Kritz), mos est vendere. 

351. The verb excessere is peculiarly ap- 
plicable to this kind of tteng. The Roman 
custom of summoning (evocatio) all the 
deities of a beleaguered city to come fortt 
before its destruction is here referred to. 

353. Moriamur et ruamus — this inverston 
of the order of succession of events closely 
connected together, or resulting one from 
the other, is very common with the poeta 



B. II. 



NOfES UN THE -ENEID. 



B. II. 363-38." 



U ls called by the grammarians, vo-npov 
rponpov, tliat is iu plain English. "thc 
cart before thc horec;" or, tooseonrown 
Engbsfa tenn, preposterotu. The Ggnre Ceo- 
called) is a mere Jtction arising from a 
careless ezaminaiion of the full force of 
a phrase. aml the conseqnent failing to 
dueet a beaaty. To takethis examplc; ' 
who does uot sce that thc second phrase 
tends to heighten thc first. as if he said, 
" Lct us die — ay, any coward can do that 
— uay, ratiicr let us court death by rush- 
iug to meet him." Again. in one of Words- 
worth'8 sonnets on thc Trench campaign 
in Russia, in 1812-13, thcrc occurs the 
phrasc — 

Wliole legions siuk— and, ui onc instant, 

find 
Burial and death. 

Tliis is not /t>nteron-proterin,bdt an air/uUy 
faithful picture of the suddenness of dcstruc- 
tion — the burial almost preccding death,. 

355. The comparison of men to wolves is 
often cmployed by Uomer. See II. xi. 72; 
xvi. 156, 353". 

P«r tela, per hostes. The Tepetition 
of the prepos. instead of a conj. is often 
employed by poets and orators with sin- 
gular force and beauty. Such an orna- 
mental repetition is, however, to be carefully 
ilistinguished from that whieh is made by 
nll writers when tlie govemed words do not 
rcfer to the same thing. 

360. Cavd — tliis adj. is applied to many 
nouns which denote unsubstantial, or va- 
poury objects, e.g., nox, nubes, imayo, um- 
bra, ctc. Tlie idea is derived from the 
facility with whicb tlicy envelop substantial 
matter, and suit thcmsclvcs to all shapes. 

This line has bccn brought forward by 
snme critics (Wagncr) as an instance of 
I ujilius dormitaru, on the ground that it is 
\acu\\sis\.bi\X.v;n\\-i¥).oblatipei'lunam. Thiel, 
liowever, defends Virgil by supposing (1), 
that he speaks of such a period of the moon's 
■••. ould imply tbat she set about mid- 
and (2), that therelbre thc first arri- 
val of the Grccks. and the collecting of tho 
Trojans, was effected ander ber light, and 
that thc second act of the great tragcdy 
which begins with thia line waa performed 
in the darkncss and gloom whicb continued 
up to thc time of 801. Bnt to this it ia 
objectcd (1). tliat a tradition existed that 
Troy was takcn at/a/Z moon, when a mid- 
rtiiiL' is iuipo-sible ; and (2;, that 
if thc n.ight was dark dnring thc latter 
part of it, thc changc of arinour at 389 
would havc been nnnecessary. Korbi?cr 
con&idcrs tbe a<ljs. used in rcfercnce to nigkt 
'3*J7, 420. 621) as merely ornative, and 
uot intended to dcscribo the peculiar np- 
pearii/ixe of that identkal eveniny. It ap- 



peara from 402 sqq., 410, 422, and 428, 
etc., that the darkness was not such aa 
397 and some other vcrscs would seem te 
Why rnay we not then imagine it 
one of thcsc blnstermg and somewhat 
stonny nights. whcn clondl driven by the 
wind (see 758) occasionally obscure the 
moon'a disc ? Thc cbange " from clear to 
cloudy sky, from bright light to interrupted 
and dirn blinks of moonshinc, will well 
represent tlie sad alteration which had takei: 
l>lacc on the fortune of Troy. A few hours 
ago and she was lulled in security and snp- 
• :*ty — her moon riding high in a 
now cloudlcss sky — whcn suddenly ber 
finnament is overcast. and thoogb rays of 
hope occasionally break through the gloom, 
yet she cannot but feel that the hour of 
darkness and dismay has come. 

363. Dominata, "having exercisedsway." 
Inertia, i.c, as Forb. prefers to understand 
it, the bodies of the helpless, viz.. "oldmen, 
wonien. and infants." But it wUl add to 
the hoiror of the scene if we understand it 
ofstrong, able-bodied men also, who aie 
slain ere thcy awake. 

367. Quondam, " sometimes," " occa- 
sionally." Etinm is to bc joined to victis. 

368. Crudelis, i.e., excessive; compare 
Stiris, in Greek, and the vulgar usage of 
•• cruel" and " dreadful," in English. 

369. Pavor — obser re the last syil. length- 
ened by cnesura. On its meanhig, see 
Doderlein, Lat. Syn. 

Plurima mortis imago — " Death in many 
a shape." Observe plurimus with the sing. 
imaijo. On this syntax, cf. Ecl. v'i. 60 ; 
Geo. L 1S7 ; Mx\. vi" 659. 

373. Sera, used actively, eqoal to quae 
serosfacit. 

377. Sensit delapsus (i.e., se delapsum esse) 
yo-far Iftvziruv. This i<j an instance «l 
attraction which, though coinmou m Grcek, 
is imitated by Latiu prose writers ordy with 
verbs of "desiring," and "seeking after." 
Poets, howevet, extend it to verbs of "per- 
ccivuig and dcclaring." Gossran wishes tu 
take sensil absolutcly, suppl>ing errorem 
suum from the context; see his learncd cx. 
cursus on Bk. ii. 

378. Observe the pleonasm in retro re- 
pnssit, and the zeuguia iu repressit pedem 
cum voce. 

379. Cf. Ilom. II. iii. 33 sqrj. Aspris lbr 
aaperit, so periclum, vinclum, etc. 

Nitent humi—'-\\\ walking:" pressit 
— "has trodden upon." On humi, see i. 
193. Refuijit — thc perC, sigmTying '-/tabit," 
or "wont." 

■ ■~l Jras, i.e , tratum capul. Abibat — 
" endi:avoured to escape. ' 

385. Atpirat — "favonrs." It is primarily 
uscd of the favouiliig brccze that specds 
a ship, thcn of the bicuth of divine b> 
47 



IJ.I1. 



notes on the ,kxeii>. 



B. IL 403-436. 



stigation, and, lastly, ot help or assistance 
gcnerallv. 

386. Wundcrlich would understand ani- 
mis to mean the minds of the companions 
of Coroehus, but fur this interpretation there 
seems to be no grounds whatevec It nnist 
mean, "exulting in his success, and, there- 
fore, 'elated in mind, and emboldened." 
Observe the zeugma. 

388. Dextra — " propitious " — an adj. 
qualifving fortunta. 

Insignia-4he armour, more espe- 
cially the sliields and hehnets, which bore 
the devices. 

390. Quis requirat in hoste, (in the case 
of an enemy) dolus, an virtus (sit, i.e., ad- 
hibeatur) . " All is fair in war." 

393. Clipei insigne decorum—eithcr "the 
shield" simply, or "the shield, adorned 
witb some emblazonment." 




Induitur — "equips himself in " — Greek 
middle voice. See i. 228. So the vulg.tr 
Scotticism, " Ile is tcell put on," for " He 
dresses himself welL" 

396. Haud nostro, i.e., averse, unpropi- 
tious. Haud is prefixed to substs. when the 
notion of the attributive noun is to be taken 
awav. and the contrary idea to be enforced. 
Hand. Tursell. iii. p 2*5. 

39S. Orco for in Orcum, as before, dat. 
for accus. of motion. 

401. Conduntur— Wakefield ad Lucr., r. 
9-J4. interprets, "w eamuiafim injiciunt." 
Note the force of the middle voice. 

402. Translate — " Alas! by no means 
(nihil; is it right for any mau to be confi- 
fient (Le., over-conndent in self) when the 

48 



gods are advcrse." The line is a propei 
introduction to what follows, and not a 
concluding reilection on events detailed in 
the preceding paragraph. 

403. Trahebatur—" was dragged along 
as a captive ." The phrase and connection 
seem to hnply nothing more. 

408. Injecit se mcdium—obserxe thc pre- 
dicative force in medium. " lle plungcd 
into the thiekest" (of thc fight), i.e., he BO 
flmig himself forward, as lo be Li the 
thickest, etc. 

411. Obruimur— last syllable lengthencd 
by caesura. 

412. Errore — "on account yf a mistakc 
arising from our wearing Greeian crests.' 
A very good example of thc primary mean- 
ing of the gen. (jubarum) expressing th6 
origin or source tvhencc. 

413 Gemitu, etc. "Thcn the Greeks, 
spurred on by vexation and wrath, on ac- 
count of the rescue of the maiden." Ird 
ereptae virginis — on the syntax compare 
lacrimae rcrum. ALn. i. 4'J2. Ajax, [.<:, 
Oileus, who by reason of liis love for Cas- 
Bandra, waa mcerrimtu. 

416. Anthon translates as follows: — "Ai 
at times, a hurricane haviug burst forth, 
opposing blasts strive fiercely together, 
hoth Zephyrus, anfl Xotus, and Eurns ex- 
ulting in his eastern steeds." Cf. Hoin 11. 
ix. 4 sqq. 

418. Tridentisacvit. "Thefoam-coverid 
(spuma marit adspersus) Nereus ragea 
wildly with his trident." The trident is 
sometimes assigned to Nereus, who is not 
to be confounded with Neptune. The three 
prongs of thc trident symbolised the triplc 
dominion of Neptune over lakes. rivers, and 
seas. Sputneus is pcrhaps ratner " the 
foam-raising." 

422. Me ntita— takan by Scrvius as equal 
to a pres. part., "weapons falsely reprc- 
senting their bearers to be Greeks;" but 
Forb. prefers to receive it in its comiiion 
passrve sense, Qqui\&lent to simulata, fr.L^r, 
i.e., " counterfeit " 

423. Ora sono discordia—" The forcmost 
recognise our shields and counterfeit wea- 
pons, and by our voice note our external 
ippearance. whieh agreed not thereto." 

424 Ilicet — from irc licet, or more pro- 
bably contracted for i licct. 

426 Unus. when joined with the superl., 
indicates the highest possible degrcc ; it is 
equal here to prae ceteris. 

431. Observe the skill of the poet in the 
turn whieh he gives to the narrative, and 
in the deep emotion with which JEneas ac- 
counts for his own safety. 

433. Vices, " ^ieissitudes," " dangers," 
" and if it had been fated for me to faU, 
that I merited it (at the hands of the 
Greeks) by my acts of bravery." 

436. VuLnere Ulixi—a. wound Luflictod 



B. II. 437-453. 



mn riiE ixi:ri). 



IJ. II. 400-471. 



-~es. Observe the peculiar form of 
the gen. in i, on which see i. 30; ii. 275. 

437. Protiniis is said to rcfor to time, 
proteniis to space, but the distinction is not 
fully borne out by examples. 

440. Sic is to be joined with indomitum 
— "so ruthlessly do we see," etc, or 
"so furious a battle." In the line above, 
iclla is used for proelia, sxs often in the 
poets. 

441. The testudo here mentioned was one 
aiade of shields. and not the warlike ma- 
chine of later times. Consult Ramsay's 
Antiquities. 




442. The present tense is used, the better 
to bring us in medias res, and thus to im- 
part life, spirit, and quickness to the nar- 
rative. How much more lively, and how 
much more indicative of magic speed is 
haerent than the prosaic admoventur. 

Parictibus is to be pronounced paryetibus 
by synlz 

"443. " With their left nands they present 
their bucklers to the weapons, to defeud 
themselves ; with their right they endeav- 
our to grasp the battlements of the roof. 

446. His — "with such weapons as these." 
Ultima, t« itjguvet. Convellunt — " pnll 
at," Le., "try to pull down." 

448. Observe the difference between de- 
cus, decCris, and decor, decoris. 

451. Instaurare animum, for reficere, re- 
creare, is very seldom found, if ever, else- 
where. "Our fiery spirit was re-kindled." 

4-33. Observe the variation of expressfon 
in this sentence, and theornaraent bestowed 
on a raatter of so humble a kind — limen', 
fcres, usus and posles, being all employed 
to the same object. A tergo is not confined 
to postes relicti, bnt applies to the whole 
6entence, as Dr Henry rightly remarks, 
Class. Mus. vol. viL Translate./rec/y, thus: 
"In the rear (of the building) there was an 
entrance, and a secret door, and a | 
which afforded communication between the 
different parts of Priam's palace, [pervius, 
Le., ita patebat ul familia regia per plurts 
domus, sire pnlatii parlcs dispersa, ex una 



in alteram facile transire posset, vilato 
antico limine,] and [there was] an on- 
guarded postern." 

45G. Incomitata. Greek andTrojan ma- 
trons were not in thc habit of going fonh 
alone. See Hom. II. iii. 143. Saepius solc- 
bint — such pleonasms are frequent among 
ourselves. 

407. Adsoceros, " toherparents-in-law," 
i.e., ad socerum et socrum, viz., Priam and 
Hecuba ; so below, 579, patres=palrem et 
matrem. 

Trahebat—this vcrb suits well the half- 
walking, half-running, tiptoe gait of a child 
ted by thc hand. 

4-38. Evado, "I mount," i.e., adscendcndo 
supero. Fastigium means the cxtreme 
point of a thing ; here, therefore, there is a 
superfluity of epithet, similar to Ovid. Met. 
ii. 1, Iiegia solis erat sublimibus alta colum- 
nis. 

459. Irrita, " useless," not that they 
failed to inflict wounds, but that they wc-re 
unavailing to prevent the destruction of 
Troy. 

460. " A turret standing on the precipi- 
tous ledge of the building, and raised high 
in air, with very lofty pinnacles (or, raised 
high in air from the topmost roof), from 
which (tower) all Troy, and the ships of 
the Greeks, and the Achrean camp were 
wont to be seen, having attacked on every 
side with iron weapons, where the highest 
storeys rendered the joinings less firm, we 
tore from its lofty position and hurled for- 
ward (on the foe/." Turrim is goveraed 
by aggressi convellimus, but it suits the 
translation best to take the acc. first. 

462. Note the mesozeugma in solitae 
agreeing with naves, the middlesubst. of tlu: 
three to which it belongs. For an example 
of protozeugma, in which the adj. agrees 
with the first only, see iEn. i. 623, 4. Casus 
mihi cognitus * * * nomenque tuum re- 
gesque pelasgi. A case of hi/pozeugms 
may be found in Ecl. i. 58, 59. 

466. Truhit. Although the two pre- 
ceding verbs convellimus and impulimus 
are past tenses (Aori.-t), yet trahit is pre- 
sent. because its action immediately follows, 
and the time is present in reference to that 
expressed by them. Cf. 481-4. 

Dare ruinam means, to "/«£ with a 
crash," but trahere rumam BOggests far- 
ther a considerable time occupied in the fal!. 
and a greater extent of space covcred by 
the fragments. 

470. Exsultal expresses the quick motion 
of Pyrrhus bounding, now here, now there, 
now forwards, now backwards, his brazen 
weapons emitting a gleaming light. 

471. Cf. Hom. II. xxfl. 93. Heyne pro- 
nounccd the words in lucem to be either 
corrupt, or at best very tame and unmean- 
ing, from the apparent redundancy in the 

49 



B. II. 472-48*. 



NOTES ON THE .ENEID. 



B. II. 485-501 



in luccm and ad iolem . Wagner and others 
admit the redimdancy, but excuse it on tlie 
ground tliat the whole point of the com- 
parison lics in the gleaming brilliancy of 
Pyrrhus being repreaented by the ahining 
splendour of the seipent with renovated 
skin. and that thcrefon- the idea of light 
and brightness may witli propriety be re- 
peated. Forbiger, bowever, deniea that 
there Es any redundancy. He asserts that 
m luccin and ad solem are by no means 
i er.tical, the former being opposed to sub 
fetTo,andmeaningsimply "tothedaylight," 
"tolife;" the hxttcr xofrigida bruma. imply- 
ing Uic wanning and revivifying heat of the 
Eun's rays. The order, which is somewhat 
uitricatc, i? as follows: — Qualis ubi coluber 
pastus mala gramina, quem (colubrum) 
/1 igida brut/ia tegcbat tumidum sub tcrrci, 
uuiic, uovus c.ruviis positis, nitidusquc ju- 
vcnta. convolvit in luccm lubrica tcrga sub~ 
lalo pcctorc arduus ad so!em, ct viicat 
linguit trisulcii (i/<) orc. 

The tongne is called trisu/ca, though only 
divided into two parts, bccause its quick 
niotiou gives the appearance of three. 

472. Bruma, Le., brevima, brevissima, 
the shortest day. 

473. The Berpent is said to be most 
veuonious and noxious after having recently 
cast his slough. 

470. Virgil writes the gen. Achillis or 
„4cAi7// according to the wordsin juxtaposi- 
tion — ifthe letter s freqnently occurs in thc 
connexion, AchiUis wUl be avoided — thus 
Achilli will be used with adjs. of the 3d 
decL, e.2., immitis Achi/li. See. i. 30; ii. 
275. 

477. Scijria pubes— the youth cfScyros. 
This island, oue of the Cyclades, is at pres- 
ent called Skyro. 

479. Bipcnni — "two-winged axe," as in 
the woodeut. Sec Ramsay's Antiquities. 



gress i> here distinctly niarked: — (lst) from 
the street into the vestibule; (2d) into tho 
atrium, through the janua ; and (3d; into 
the honse proper from the ntriu<n. 

485. Armatos p/rfeji*— "They(the Oreeks) 
see anned men posled," ctc. See 440, 50. 

487. Gemitus, clamor, and such worda 
are said miseeri wheu thcyproceed promis- 
cuously from many, or dlflerent persons — 
hence, the place where thc clamor, <>r gcmi- 
tus arises is also said misceri, Cf. ahove, 
298, miscentur moenia luctu; and JEu. 
i. 124, misceri murmure pmtuin. 

Cavae — "vaulted" — the eplthct refers 
particularly to the holloiv reverberation of 
sound in tlic chambers. 

488. Ululare is au iDstanco of onomato- 
poeia (i. 53) — the tenn is applicd to thc wail- 
ing of women especially, but the house is 
said uluiare, inasmuch as it echocs tho ulu- 
latus, 

40-'. Sujfferre — "to bear up against," 
"withstand," the attack of Pyrrhus. Tbe 
acc. after sujfare is here onhtted, as it frc- 
quentlv is when it mav be easily supplicd 
from the context. Cf. lEn. i. 12, 00. 

.-iricte (to be pronounced as threo syl- 
lables, arycte) — Virgil often attributes the 
customs of his own thnes to those of former 
days. but see i. 469, note. The arics was 
not invcnted in the Trojan times. and thc 
word here means the frequent and violeut 
blows, as it were, of a battering-ram. 




4S3. Apparet. For thc diflerence in tensc 
between this verb and the preccding ca- 
taxrit and dcdit. see above, note 466. 

On the Boman house, see Ramsay, or 
Bmith's Dict. of Antiq. The order ofpro- 

50 




49S. Fcrtur cumuio — "is bornc with its 
heap, or mass of watcrs." Cf. 2En. i 105. 
Insequitur cumulo praeruptus aquae 
mons. 

499. Furentcm — Heync prefers frenten- 
tem, on aecount of furens occurring in the 
preceding Unc, but Jahn and Forb. prefer 
the common reading, " ob hanc ipsam com- 
parationcm fukextis Fijrrhi cum flt.extx 
amnc." 

501. Kurus is used here in a Bomewhat 
wide sense, to include not only daugfaters- 
in-law. but also married daughters. Priam 
is said to have had fifty sons aud fifty 
daughters. 

Yirgii has in this passage imitatcd Eu> 
nius:-- 

O Pater ! O Patria '. O Priami doinus 
Vidi ego te, adstante ope Oaruariea, 
Tectis coelatis, laqueatis, 
Auro, eborc, instructum regiticc. 
Ilaec omnia vidi inflammari, etc, 

Ahdbohachs. 



B. II. 608-S29. 



\<>l ES OS TllK .l.M.IP. 



B. II. 



503. ////— this pronoun is uaed to denotc 
*rhat is wcll known, splendid, or rcinark- 
able. Translate — " Thosc fifty famout 
chambers." 

It has been oojcctcd to barbarico, tliat, 
as it is a word applied by thc Komans to 
mcan Phrygian. it is in very bad taste to 
introducc a Trojan thus characterismg his 
own country. But why is this nccessary ? 
May uot /Eneas usc barbarico of the ene- 
uiies of Troy in eastcm Asia, with as much 
propriety as a Roman cmploycd it in re- 
fcrencc to a Phrygian ? 

506. Forsitan requiras. Almost all the 
best -writers aseforsitan with the subjunc- 
tive, to express a suspicion concerning a 
thing which is actually thc facL See Mad- 
vur. J 350, obs. 3. 

509. The order is — Senior ncquidquam 
circumdal humeris trementibus aevo arma 
diu desueta. 

510. Cingitur— (middle voicc)— "begirds 
hirusclf with " — it governs ferrum in the 
accus. Ou the principle of Grcck con* 
stniction frequently referred to bcfore, see 
above, 393, ir.duitur insigne, and i 22 

511. Moriturus means " destined to die'' 
--moriens, " in the act ofexpiring." 

513. Ara— the altarof Jupiter Hercaeus. 

515. Nequidquatn — "without sucecss : " 
referring to the eesult. Frustra — "to no 
purpose: " referring to the intcntion. Sce 
above, 101. 

Praecipites, Le., se praecipitantes, 
H hastily taking shclter." Condensae — 
" crowding together," or. as an idea otfcar 
h implied, " cowering together." 

519. Metu, "infatuation" — it = f-m;, 
or fvy.c;, and Bignifies any more violenl 
excitcmcnt of uund, which urges a man to 
action. 

521. Defentoribut istis — as itte has re- 
ference always to the second 
this phrase has nsnally been txanslated, 
•' sncfa defenders as you." But Forb., fol- 
lowing Dr Heury, prcfers to consider the 
- referring to thc weapons just enu- 
mcrated, and interprc-is : Thetime does not 
deinaud such help nor such modes of dc- 
fcnce, (such defenders> as those weapons of 
yours ; come rather to the altar, and have 
r< course to pr ay er . For instances of defen- 
sor applied to inanhnatc things, see Caca 
BclL Gall. iv. 17. where tublieae arc callcd 
defentoret. So also is the bow of Ilc-rotilcs 
in Claud. in BoC 

..,«., scil. possct nosarmis dejendere. 
Tandem, " I pray you." 

526. De cnede Pyrrlii. " From a wound 
given by Pyrrhus." i. c-., baring escaped 
bein^- killed outright. 

Infetto vulnere, "with dcadly aim," 
vr " weapon." Lvstrat, " traverses" in 
icarch flf a pktXt uj refuge. 

M 



titiou otjam adds i 
: the vividncssoftbe deacription — "ai 
j cvcn now, hc holds him in his gr 

is in the act of transfixing hiin witli his 
| spcar." Anthon. Premere is not eqnal to 
tramjlgere, bnt rather to urgere, "to press 
upon," which lattcr term is frequcntly ap- 
plicd to thc huntsman in kccn pursuit of 
the wiw 

"Although he is now beld bi th« 
very midst of death," i.e., althongh death 
assails him on one side in hLs son, and on 
the other in his own impending fate. 

534. Iraequc — voci and iraeare so closely 
combined (the former giviug exprea&ian to 
the latter; that the poct uses the simple 
copida que Mtcr thc preceding negativo 
nec, when bl prose a Becond nec would fol- 
low. 

535. Al — Iu prayers for good to accruo 
to any one, or for cvil to befall him, at is 
used to express violent exciteinent of mind. 

536. Pietat — "commiseration," "sym- 
pathy," "kindly fecling." 

537. Pertolvant, etc. — "Maythe gods 
retiu-n to thee in full measnre a worthy rc- 
tribution, and pay thce the rewards thou 
dost so richly mc-rit." 

538. Fecitti me xernere, instead of ut 
cernercm, by a Greek construction. Such a 
syntax is frequently cmployed when a re- 
sult (as here), aud not an intention, is 
spoken of. 

541. Tulis in hostefuit. The pecnliarity 
of this oonstrnction is well pointed out by 
Kritz Sall. Cat. 9, 2, and approvc-d by 
Forbiger. Kritz asserts that this twofold 
oonstrnction of the acc. and abl. can find 
place only when the verb sigrifying some 
affection of the mind can be conceived of in 
two ways, either (1), so tbat by means ol 

tnwith the acc, it is closely at- 
tached to some object; or (2), that beuig 
nsed in a general sense, ai;<l absolntely, 
it is niore accurately defined by thc abh 
with the prc-p. r», this abl. indicating that 
thing in wTuch is cxcrciscd the absolute 
action. or that which canses or gives rise to 
the action, and expressing that in which the 
affection of the mind is manifested. Thus, 
talis in hostemfuil, which fonns one whole, 
bonnd togetber in close coherence, and 
which makss the BUBJECl of the sentence 
particularly emphatic, differs hi conception 
' from talit in hostefuit. In the lattc-r, tatii 
fuit is iired absolntely, in hoste being addc<l 
as an after-thought for uearer deflnition 
^quod attinet ad hostem. Achillcs W8B ii"t 
of such a c-haracter, in the case of his enemy, 
Priam, — I mean. In the case ofan enemy, 
an ( pportunity was oflfered of displaying 
himself -snch as he was in his general 
charactcr. In this casc more partieular 
racT. 

542. EtuLui(—-m bistancc of au bitrnng. 

51 



B. II. 644-550. 



NOTES ON THE .EXEID. 



B. II. 651-564. 



verb govcrning an acc. This construction 
Is frcquently found in botli Latin and Grcek. 
Cf. iEn. i. 67, aud 524; conault Zunipt, 
Lat. Gr., § 383, andMadvig, § 223 ; see also 
Gossrau on JEn. ii. 31 and 542. 

544. Sine ictu — "without mflicting a 
wound" 

546. Et couules repuhum (est) to pependit. 
The .omission of est led Heyne, Wagner, 
ami Wakefield to prefer e or ex summo. 
Biu from a comparison of Geo. i. 234 and 
cther places, Forb. shows that thc subst. 
verbisfrequentlyomitted, even in sentences 
introduced by a relative, when that relative 
is equal to a demonstrative [and a conjunc- 
tion, as quod here = e t lwc.~\ Translate, 
" which was at once checked by the dull 
sounding brass, and hung down harmlessly 
from tiie extrcmity of the boss of the 
Bhield." Commentators are divided iu 
opinion as to the meaning of this passage. 
Heyne, Ruaous, and other.s considor that 
1'riam's spear point was entangled in the 
kather covering of his adversary's shield; 
while Symmons, Anthon, and others, refer- 
ring to iine 470, where Pyrrhus is described 

( luce coruscus ahend, denythat such 
ncovering coukl have existed. Protinus, too, 
fcems to imply that no external envelope 
i etarded, in the slightcst degree, the weapon 
ofthfeaged king. The simple explanation 
scems to be that the spear, so soon as its 
progress WaS checked, fell with the wooden 
tnd dependhig to the grouiid— the point 
having impinged upon, and perhaps slightly 
fndented, the brazen buckler so as to detain 
it ;it least a moment (if not longer) on. the: 
balance. 

547. Referes—ibis. Thiel remarks that 
this future, used for the imperative. com- 
moniy denotes a certain degree of familiarity 
and contidence, but is here etnployed to ex- 
pre.-:s irony and derision, ergo increasing its 
force. Reftres, however, is used strictlp as 
afuture, expressing certaintv of 'fuljilment. 

548. Tristia — "ead," "shocking," iroui- 
cally. 

549. Memento — "doivtforget." Xarrare 
JTeop. degen. Therc is no necessity for sup- 
jtlying esse with degenerem ; the adj. agrees 
with Neopt, which is snaccusativusdequo., 
as grammarians say. There is an inversion 
in the syntax, the adj. degenerem, though 
dependent on Neopt., being in reality the 
more important wordfor thc meaning of tho 
sentence. Thc whole is said m kec-n irony, 
and may be tlms translated : " Don't for- 
get " (memento) to give to him a " full, tme, 
and particular account " (narrare) of my 
" shocking decds, and of the degeneracy of 
Neoptolemus" — this last expresson refers 
to 1'riam's words, recorded in hne 540. 

550. Trementem, sciL aetate, non formi- 
dine. Sce 509. 

52 



551. Lapsantem— Virgil is the first vv-ritcr 
to use this word Forb. 

552. It was customary, partlcularly with 
kings, to wear the liair long. Priam had 
not assumed a hehnet along -with the otlier 
pieces of armouf. 

. "raised m air his flashing 
sword, and buried it hi his (Prianvs) side 
to the hilt." Tmus and versus always fol- 
low the governed case. 

554. Tliis and the following Unes, though 
contaming pbain and evident reflections on 
the death of Priam, are finely introduced, 
and are eminently calculated to excite 
commiseration for his unhappy fate. Finis 
js sometimes tnasc. and somenmes fem. iu 
Virgil. Seei. 241; iii. 145. 

550. Populis and terrii ai - e ablatives 
governed by superbum, and not by regna- 
torem. The rnler of Asia, exaltcd in dignity 
by (exercising sway over) so many nations 
and kingdoms. Forbiger had formcrly 
adopted the vicw of Heyne and Wunder 
lich, that the words mentioned wcre m tlie 
dative, dependent on regnatorem, but lie 
retracts this opinion, rightly as we think, 
in the 3d edition. With the whole passage 
compare Ovid Mct. xiL 015, 16. 
Jam cinis est, et de tam magno restatAchillc 
Kescio quid, parvam quod non bene com- 
pleat urnam. 

558. Sine nomine — either in the sense of 
" without value or consideration," or "un- 
able to be named" from the want of the 
liead to distinguish it. The fate of Pompey 
the Great is supposed by some to be alluded 
to here ; a view which is tountenanced by 
ths use of the words ingens (referring to 
his serviees and political greatness), and 
litore, which is more particularry appro- 
priate, as applied to the death-spot of the 
Roman. Some have substituted limine for 
litore. 

559. At marks a changc in the subjcct, 
and implies that no anxiety on account of 
his fatherand relatives had before this tiaie 
disturbed iiis mind, kut NOW, etc. Forbiger 
remarks on the skilful use made by the poet 
of the incident of Priam's death, to bring 
back tlie narrative toits niain object — %iz., 
the departure of jEueas from his native 
country. 

5G0. Subiit — "came up before," sciL men- 
tem. 

561. Aequaevum, i. e., with Anchises. 
Creusa was daughter of Priam and Hecuba, 
and wife of iEneas. 

563. Casusluli — "the danger of Iulus"— 
the mischances which might befall lum. 

564 Respicio — he had bfeen sn i 
by the fate of Priam that hc neglected to 
observe what was going on In bis owu 
immediate locahty, on the roof of the paiace. 
Hc now looks arouud and finds himseli' 



J. II. 56C-5G','. 



NOTES ON TIIE yENEID. 



B. II. 567-579. 



alone. He Is on the roof looking down into 
the impluvium of Priam'8 palace. 

Copia is used In thc sing. in refcrcncc to 
soldiers, when regard is bad not to any 

organiscd and disciplined body, but merely 
to a nuimrcus and tumuUuous host. See 
Kritz,Sall. Cat. lvL 1. 

560. It is to be borne in miud thatiEneas 
and his companions were fighting frorn the 
tower of the palace. Aegra— because ex- 
hausted by fighting, or bccause they were 
perishing by a most shocking death— the 
scorching of the flames. 

567. This, and the following twenty-one 
Jines, are not found in the best codices, and 
are passed over, without illustration, in the 
commentaries of Servius, Donatus, and 
Poniponius. Tucca and Varius, who uu- 
dertook the revision of the poem after Vir- 
giTs death, are said to have cancelled them, 
either because they deemed it disgraceful 
to the hero of an Epic to lay violent hands 
on a female, or because the verses appearetf 
to contradict ^En. vi. 510 sqq. They are, 
however, of the same character as the four 
with which, in some copies, the iEneid be- 
gins, and are found iu those MSS. which 
exhibit the four refeired to. Moreover, 
thtir dictiou and finish mark them out as 
Virgilian, and, besides, the context would, 
without them, be incomplete. For, if Vir- 
gU did not write thtse verses, line 589 
shotdd exhibit hic or tum instead of cum, 
unless, indeed, we adopt the suggestion of 
Jahu, that lines 565 and 566 may be paren- 
thetic, and that the connection will thus go 
on from lustro (564) to cum (589). But, 
farther, if the BUBpected passage be omitted, 
the sudden arrival of Venus, to urge yEneas 
to do what he was about to carry into efiect 
of his owu accord, wfll appear morc un- 
called-for, and her references, m indomitae 
•4), to the state ofher son's mind 
as detailed in 575, aud in Tyndaridis facies 
(601), to 567 sqq., will be wholly useless 
and inexplicable. In answer to the two 
main objections notcd above, it may be 
urged — (lst,) That jEneas was fahly ex- 
cusable for entertaining the thought of 
slaying Ilelcn, seeing that he looked upon 
her as not only the cause of the whole war, 
but also as the betrayer of her rcccnt 
friends; aud when, at the moinent he had 
been keenly reminded of the probable fate 
of his nuher. wiie, and clyld, through her 
sinful weakness. The poet, it setius, had 
inticipatcd this objection in 58-3 sqq., and 
mswered it in 585 sqq. — (2d,) In palliatiod 
of thc apparent inconsistency with vi. 510 
•qq., we ueed only bc reminded that VirgU 
toob hismaterials fronc various soui 
that he did littie more Uian draft a full out- 
liue of tlie poem to be poUshed and com- 
plcted by revision, but that be did not Uve 
to sarry out .his iutentions. Heyne, Wag- 



ner, ThieL Gossrau, and Forb. retain and 
defend the whole passage. 

5G7. Jamque adeb—adeo, joined to the 
i adverbs of time nunc and jam, lias a re- 
stricted force. 

Super — eru/a from superesse by tmesu. 
This disjohiing of the vtrb is found even in 
prose writcrs. 

5o'S. 8ervantem,Le., "lurkingin," "keep. 
ing hersclf close hi." 

569. Tyndarida, i.e., Helen, the daughtei 
of Jupiter, or, according to another story, 
of Tyndareus by her mother Leda. On the 
formation of feminine patronymics, con- 
stdt Zumpt, Madvig, or Schmitz, Lat. Gr. 

573. Erinys—an the mode of writing 
this word, cf. Blomf., ^sch., Prom., 
Vinct. i>-2b, and glossary; Hermann Praef. 
ad Soph. Antig., ed. iii., p. xix. sqq., and 
also Ellendt Lex. Soph. 

574. Invisa — "unobserved," or "kated 
one as she was," as below, 601. But see 
56S, 9, above. 

575. Exarsere ignes animo, for animus ira 
exarsit. 

576. Scderatas poenas — either, " punish- 
ment on a wicked wretch" — (Heyne and 
Wagner) — or "a punishment for her crime," 
(WtmtL, Thiel, and Forb.) — or "apunish- 
ment by which another criine would ba 
committed." Gossrau. 

577. Scilicet is expressive of strong irony. 
" A pretty story,forsoot!t, thatshe," etc. See 
Kritz,SalL Jug. 41, 3. 

Patrias Mycenas — Sparta was, properly 
speaking, her native place, but Mycenae is 
put for the whole country, as Agamemnon, 
its king, was the generalissimo of tho 
Grecian army. 
- 578. Adspiciet. In Greek and Latin the 
fut is einpioyed to ask Lu a tone of indigna- 
tion what one does not wisb. to take place, 
or what hc thinks wfll not occur. Ibit — 
"go in procession!" 

579. Co>ijwjium,\Lc., conjvgem, the ao- 
stract for the concrete noun, as ofl 
servitium ibr servi. Ste Kiitz, SaiL Ca f 
14, 1. 

Patres^purentes — see above, soceros, 457. 
Wagner condemns this line as spurious tbi 
these reasons : — lst, Because Helen is said 
to be about to revisit her husband at Sparta, 
though he is even now at Troy, and will 
necessarily be restored to her before theii 
departure. 2d, Bccause her parents are 
said, by Homer, to be already dead. 3d, 
Because it is ridiculous to mix a tukba 
Iliadum with thc mutual salutation of 
friends long separated. Forbiger adds a 
fourth, founded on the omission ofgue aftei 
patres. In reply to these objections, it may 
be statcd, lst, that conjugium mcans not 
only her husband, but aiso all the pleasurea 
of married life, and the duties of the marriage 
relationshio, as domum means the enio//- 
li 



B.II. 581-6&C 



NOTES OX THE JEXEfD. 



B. II. 587-C&3. 



ments of domestic happincss. 2<1, That 
thongh Homer represents Leda as dead 
previous to this date, yet Euripides (Orest. 
249) makes Tyndareus survive the murder of 
Clytaenmestra. The expression is a general 
one, and does not mean Patres and natos 
[she had only one child, Hermione, before 
leaving Grecce], to be taken in their literal 
sense. Such modes of speaking are com- 
mon with oursclvcs. Besides, evcn werc 
her parents dead, she might well be said 
to retum to them when.she revisited thc 
place of thcir tomba 3d, That thc saluta- 
tion of friends would naturally be more 
hearty a\ hen they saw the female captives, 
since it would be to thcm a sure proof that 
that city had been completely liunibled 
which had dared to violate the righta of 
hospitality, to trample on the sacmi law of 
marriage, and dcbase tlie character of a 
woman, and tliat, too, a relative. 4th. That 
the line consists of two members, conjugium 
and domum formiug one of these, and having 
a kindred signification— patres and natos 
composing the other, and being also kindred 
in meaning ; and that, therefore, since the 
gue after conjugium is not at all neccssary 
to the syntax. the poet is by no means 
chargeable with inconsisteney in omitting 
it aftcr patres. Gossrau adds a fifth objec- 
tion, viz., — That Helen could not be sup- 
posed to exult for joy on her retum in 
seeing her father, husband, and children, 
since, had shc realiy loved tliem, she would 
not have left them. But to this, again, it 
may be replied, that Ilelen was under the 
orders of an irresistible destiny, which, bcing 
now fulfilkd, she may reasouably be sup- 
poscd to feel a longing desire for hcr former 
country and fxiends, and to be anxious, by 
future nflection. to atone forhcr past follics. 

5S1. In expressing indignation at the 
prospeCt of an event yet futurc. thc Latins 
aso the future tense, and they farther em- 
ploy thc Futurum cxactum, ashcre (arserit, 
ete.) in such a way that it (tlie tut. exact.) 
iudicates the cause of the mdignation noti- 
ficd by the sinvple future. 

584. Femined — adjectives in eus vcry frc- 
quently (as hcre) assume the place of an 
objective gen. (see i. 4G2) of the kindred 
EubsL : so hostilis metusiov metushostium. 

5S5. Xefits foT ncfaria, as scelus for scelesta, 
ctc, applied to Helen, and meaning " the 
iiliomination," " the uuholy onc." Merentis, 
the gen., "from her deserving it;" or, ac- 
eording to Heins and Wagm, m/erentxs— 
merentes, and is used passively (meritas), 
behig similar to sceleratas poenas, 570. 
Thcre is, howevcr, no example of merens 
similarly uscd. and thc gen. aftcr sumere 
seems aless violcnt construction than that 
favonred by Wagn. 

586. l.audabor exstinxisse, shortly for hiu- 
picrca quod extinxerim, " I shall 



be commended for having blotted a gailty 
wretch from the face of earth, and for 
having intiicted punishrnent on one deserv- 

5S7. On account of the harshness of the 
construction, cxplesse uUricis flammae, 
Ileyne and Burmann would read ultrici 
fiammd. But Wagn. and Forb. defend 
thc common reading: thcy consider tho 
gen. ult. flam. as depending not on explesse 
alone, or on animum alone, but on the coni- 
bincd notiou of the two, which, they say, 
BUggests thc adj. cuphlum to govern thc gen. 
This. howevcr, docs not appear necessary— 
saliare, implere (impientur veU ris Bacchi, M:\. 
i. 215), and verba of a similar kind arc follow- 
ed by tlie case here osed on the principle of 
tlie " antecedcnt notion" (see Jelf Gk. 
Gram.), which the gen. contains ; and tho 
expression finds a parallel in our vnlgar 
phrase, "togiveone his fill of." UUricis 
flammae=ultionisfla?n>iia,mcamngvehemc>it 
desire for it ; and it will afford me pleasuro 
(hereafter) that I had taken my fill of 
burning vengeancc. and had brought solace 
to the ashes of my friends. 

Saiiiisse cineres — the dead were Bnpposed 
to know of, and rejoice in. the punishment 
of their formcr adversaries on earth. 

588. Jactabam — "I was ejaculating." 
See note on ^En. i. 102. 

5S9. Cum. See note to 567. The oruer 
is: — Cum alma parcns, non ante tam clara 
oculis (scil. meis), obtulit se videndam milii, 
et rcfulsit per noctem in purd luce confessa 
deam (betraying the goddess, Le., revealing 
hersclf to be a goddess), a'que (talis) quahs 
et (tanta) quanta solet videri coclicolis. This 
passage is closclv imitatcd from Hom. D i. 
183 sqq. 

Non ante must refcr to some interviews 
previous to thc time of this history, for no 
othcrs arc mentior.ed by Virgil before the 
present case. Servins is forgctful, when he 
alleges that the mceting of Vcnus and 
JEneas near Carthage is the one referred 
to, for that event was manhestly posterior 
to the one here recorded. 

590. Per noctem. These words do not 
contradict line 569 (I)ant clara incendia 
lucem), as Peerlkamp asserts, for it is by no 
means necessary to imagine that the blazcs 
illumined every spot far and wide around. 
Nor can fault be found with line (521, on 
similar ground 

Jn purd hu-e — "in undimmed light," i-c-, 
non nube obducta, as Minerva in (510. 

593. Insupcr — "besides," "in addition 
to" catcning by the hand. Praeterea inti- 
mates something that complttcs what has 
gone before: insuper, something in " ■ 
to what has gonebefore: idtro, something 
that excecds what has gone before so strik- 
ingly as to east it into the back-giound. 
Doderl. See above, 146. 



B. II. 595-GOft. 



NOTES on tiii: -KXr.ID. 



B. II. 600-C27. 



50-3. Cuni noslri, i.e., affection towards 

mc, to be ghown in dcfcndlng and Bavlng 
Anchis. s. 

506. Non is hcrc uscd for nonne, but it is 
more emphatic and forcible. Tlic fotnre is 
uscd in negative questions, which at tlic 
same time servc as exhortations. 

Adspicere is used by thc pocts as equal to 
tircumspicere, intisere, anquirtrt. 

597. Superet=superstes sit. Ne should bc 
loined to superet rath.er than to conjur. 

508. Quos — circum ; for a similar separa- 
tion otprtp. and casc, see above, 278. 

509. Resistat — tulerint — hauserit. The 
variety of tense ia worthy of notiee. The 
words* are not put for restitisset, tulissent, 
»m d hausisset, but are designedly used to 
oxpress that the care of Yenus is still ex- 
crcised, even while they are speaking, and 
that therc is still danger, as there has been 
for some time past, of the sicord drinking 
their blood. Our English idiom, requiring 
past tenses in hypotheses, has led some 
commentators astray. 

601. Tibi must depend on evertit, as tfie 
Dativus incommodi, and not on invisa, as 
thus invisa wiil be morc forcible, and the 
hatred will be made toappear more general. 
' ; It is not the hated person of the Laconian 
Tyndaris (Helen), nor is it the rnuch- 
blamed Paris ; (but) it is tbe unrelenting 
decrees of the gods, of the gods I say, that 
have overthrown for you this kingdom, and 
that are now levelling Troy from its highest 
pinnacle." 

602. Cf. Hom. E. iii. 164. Culpatus, "the 
blamcd Paris" = scelestus, as culpa some- 
times = scelus. The repetition of divum 
(anaphora) gives a tone of peculiar solem- 
nity to the intiination. Some books would 
spoil the beauty of the passage by Bubsti- 
tnting verum for the first divum. in vrhich 
the secret agents in the accomphsliment of 
the great event are presented to the view of 
^neas. 

604. The following passage is particularly 
beautiful. It is based partly on Hom. II. 
v. 1.'7. xii. 13 sqq., 27 sqq.,'and partly on 
the descriptions of other poets. To draw 
away ^Eneas from the danger of the fight. 
tJ lead him to save his own family, anrt at 
the same time to preserve Helen, who had 
ever been her favourite, Venus opens the 
cyes of her son to behold the beavenly mes- 
dengers, and convinces him thereby of the 
ntter inutility of resistance. By this device 
of divine interposition, the poet saves the 
character of his hero. 

606. Caligat. Tliis verb, which usually 
means visus cahgine laborare, caecutire. (to be 
blind. uscd of a person). is here equal to caligi- 
nosum esse (to be full of darkness). Some 
take it as transitive, " blinds you." Heyne 
objects to this and the next line, as being 
parum commode inlerposita. But Wagner 



defends them, on the grounrt that theysap- 
ply the reason why venus took awaythe 
cloud lbmi hor son'8 eyes, viz., that seeing 
the real state of niatters, he might at onco 
Usten to her advice, and act upon it. 

609. Undantem. This word is often ap- 
plied to ascending flame and smoke, from 
tlie resemblancc which they present to tlie 
successive surges of the sea. 

010. • Tride/iti. Some books read tridente, 
on tlie piinciple that the abl. of suhsts. in 
ns is made in e, but that of adjs. in i. But 
the authority of the best MSS. is in favour 
ofi. 

Neptunus. Cf. Hom. H. xii. 27 sqq. Th« 
enmity of Xeptune to the Trojans is said to 
have been caused by the refusal of ' Laome- 
don to pay to him and Apollo the stipulated 
sum for their labours in rearing the waUs 
of Troy. An attempt has been made to 
explain this story, by saying that since the 
temples in ancieut tirnes were so many 
banks for the deposit and safe keeping of 
treasures, Laomedon (i.e., the ruler of the 
people) had borrowed from the temples of 
Apollo and Neptune the amount of gold 
necessary for the expenses of his fortitica- 
tions, but had failed to repay the debt, and 
hence his calamities. See Mitford, Hist. of 
Greece, vol. i., p. 104. 

611. Totamque — que is equal to "nay," 
" aye moreover." 

612. The Scaean gates looked to tha 
Grecian encampment and the sea — hence 
they were much exposed, and are most 
freqnently mentioned. Troy hadfive other 
gates. Saevissima, "most savage of all" 
(the gods). 

613. Join/«m?s with vocat, and thus the 
second particip. accincta, without a copula, 
will not be objectionable. " With her sword 
girt on, summons in frantic haste her allied 
band from the ships." 

616. Nimbo. This must have been a 
dark cloud, since the goddess was unpro- 
pitious ; but it became red and glaring by 
means of the light from the flames of burn- 
ing Troy playing upon it. Consult the 
Classical Dict. on Mhierva and the Gor- 
gons. 

617. Ipse Pater, i.e., Jupiter. Vires secun- 
das, Le., assistance which sliali produce a 
favourable issue. Sufficit is here transitive, 
*• supplies plentifuliy." 

Cl!". Eripe fugam. Since, from the en- 
tire rnin of the city. you can rescue nothing 
else, seizc upon "flight at least, i.e., the 
power of escaping. Jahn. 

621. See note on 590. 

625. llium—Troja. The repetition of the 
most prominent noun has a pecuhar force 
and pathos. 

627. Accisam. Thisword means thc frst 
attempts to/ell. Thc order is. ac veluti cum 
agricolae, certatim instant eruere antiquam 
66 



B. fl 629-642. 



NOTES OX TIIE JEXEI1>. 



B. II. 643-619. 



orrvm in summis montibus, accisam ferro 
crcbrisque bipennibus, illa usqueminatur, etc. 
Obscrve the epexegesis inferro and 
bus. Much of the beanty ofthe comparison 
•num, tne stateiy wild mountainash, 
whichon the highest point ofthe loftypeak 
h/Bsforyeara "brayed the breeze." Thereis 
no apodosis in this sentence, but it is easily 
supplied bythe mind; indeed, it maybesaid 
to be implied in lincs 624, §. As the ash, so 
it length old Troy gavi 

629. Comam—ncc. after a pass. particip., 
frequently noticed before ; see i 228. The 
comparison of the foliage of a trce to the 
hair of the head is a favonrite one with the 
poets. Thus Milton— 

The winds 
Blow moist and keen, scattering the 
gracefnl locks 

. Of these far-spreading trees. 

631. Traxit ruinam. Sec note on 465, 
above. To one wbo has hcard the last 
groaning soundof thefallingtree, sentforth, 
as it were, from his -\vhole trunk, and with 
all his expiring energy, the word congemmt 
will appear remarkably appropriate. 

632. Descendo, sciL de arce. Those who 
consider 567 sqq. spmious, supply de turri. 

Deo — Some -would read dea as Yeims is 
spoken of, but such a change is unnecessary, 
since deus, like ^os, means a divinitij, eitbcr 
male or female. See JEn. vii 498, where 
deus is used of a female. 

633. 4. Heyne finds fault with the repe- 
tition of flammam.flammae; but Wagner 
pohits out that tela and flammae in the 
second line, respond to hostes awdflammam 
in the first ; that the repetition is therefore 
necessary, aud that all zccKoipuvov ma y be 
obviated by putting a little stronger em- 
phasis on dant locut. and recedunt, passing 
over tela said flammae. 

636. Petebam, Le., adibam, approached to 
carry off. 

638. Integer aevi sanguis, i.e., integri aevi 
sanguis. Transl. : "Who havc the blood 
of vigorous life, and whose energies are 
firmly grounded on their ovra natural 
strength." 

640. Agitarefugammeans.flrst, todebate 
as to flight ; and secondly, to take to flight. 

641. Ducere=producere. Me is placed 
first in the line, and thus receives additional 
emphasis — "as for me." We very often 
find the personal pronouns, when expressed, 
placed near the beginning of tbe line for 
greater einphasis. 

642. Observe tina in the plural; consult 
Zumpt, or Madvig § 71. Anchises refers to 
the capture of Troy by Hercules, on account 
of the perfidy of Laomedon in not paying 
the hero tbe reward stipulated for the res- 
cue of Hesione. Sce Class. Dict. 

66 



643. ftuperavim us, i.c., superfuimus — ' ; we 
have lived to see, and moreover bave out- 
lived." 

644. "Thns, O thus laid out"— eithcr, 

1 am, without farther trouble, or 
without waiting for death— repeat the fare- 
well formula (vale, three timcs), and thus I 
sliall aiiticipate death in the preparations 
for my buriaL Some suppose that he threw 
hhn.sell' on tlie ground in the attitude of a 
corpse, to pIioav his complete resjgnation. 
Consult Smith's. Ramsay'8, or Adam's An- 
tiquities on the funeral cercmonies. 

645. Manu. Wagner, allcging (see Qa 
Virg. xviiL 2, 1) that ipse manu is in Vir- 
gilian diction equal to mea manu, under- 
stands the speech of Anchises to hint at 
suicide — moreover, hewouldinsert aut after 
inveniam. But in no MS. is thcre thc 
slightest trace of sucb an aut having ever 
stood in the line, and cvcn ; f it wcrc sup- 
posed to be placed after inveniam. what 
sen?e would thereby be gained ? For if lie 
had resolved on suicide, wliy sliould he yet 
wait till the enemy should slay him ? How 
languid would such an opposition bc ! To 
Wagner's explanation of ipse manu, by sm- 
cide. thereare two grave objectionsfurnished 
by the passage itself. lst, The word iuveniani 
woidd be wholly unsnited as applied to a per- 
son determined to slay hiniself. 2d, ^Eneas 
shows by bis speech, 660 sqq., that he enter- 
tained no such idea of bis father's meaning. 
Forbiger would, therefore, interpret: "I 
myself shall, by resisting the foe to tbe last 
m self-defence, ensnre death at their hands, 
on account of my opposition." " Tlie 
enemy then will treat me, old as I am, in 
the same way as others, ind will rather 
consign me to an honourable death than 
carry me off to captivity." Moreover, he 
adds, they will slay me even for my spoil. 
Those who wisb other explanations of this 
passage, several of which are mentioned by 
Forb., "\vill do well to consult bis work. 

646. Facilis jactura sepuhri — " the Iosa 
of a tomb is to me a matter of little mo- 
ment" This opinion is veiy much at 
variance with that generally reccivcd by 
the ancients, who thought the soul of an 
unburied man was doomed to wander about 
for 100 years before being allowed to cross 
the Styx. 

649. Fulminis ventis. The ancicnts be-» 
lieved that uind ahvays accompanied liglit- 
ning (an idea which might readily be 
imagined, since tbe fluid striking and rarefy- 
ing the air, rendc-rcd it more difficult of 
breathing), and that it was cven the cause 
of thimder and lightning both. The scien- 
tific knowledge of our own timcs proves 
that one part at least of the abovo opmion 
is well founded; but we cannot htsre cnter 
into the subject fartiier. 



B. II. 650-688 



NOTES ON THE /EXEID. 



13. II. 6D0-707. 



Anchises waa snid to havc bcen maimcd 
fcr dirulging his Intimacy witb Venua, and 

to this it is supposed rcferencc is mado by 
hinx 

650. Fixus, i.c, loco. Perstabat memo- 
rans, "persistcd in repeating his detcrmi- 
nation." 

651. Effusi lacrimis, Lc, in lacrimas, 
"diasolved ln teara." ObtettaH sumus, or 
some nuch word, is to bc supplied to govern 
thc elause introduced by sed. 

652. Vertere r~. evertere. Cuncta, the for- 
tune ofall, for the others were determined 
not to abandon tiim. 

6-34. Obaerve haeret applied 5n different 
senses to incepto and sedibus. (Zeugma.) 

661. Isti janua leto patet — "a means of 
approach to that death which you court is 
open." Iste has always a reference to the 
second.pers. 

66-5. Eripis for eripuisti, but strongcr, as 
implying "thouhast rescuedme heretofore, 
and art even now carrying out plans wbich 
shall keep me free from harm." 

667. Cernam — this pres. tense is unusuSl, 
but the sense requires, " to see as I do this 
day." Erat (664) refers to the counsel 
adopted by Yenus m reference to iEncas 
at a time now past — the results, however, 
are stitlfelt. 

670. Nunquam — "by nomeans." So we 
sometimes use never. 

674. Patri, Lc, mihi, JEi) 

678. Quondam implies a taunt to JEneaa, 
as if he no longer cared for his wife, when 
he was thus Eeady to abandon her to her 
fate. 

682. Levisapex— "aslighttaperingfiame." 
Burmann takes apex to mcan the tbin coni- 
cal top of the Phrygian cap ; but line 68-5 is 
opposed to this view. The phenomcnon was 
supposed to portend regal power to the 
person on whose head it appearcd. See 
JEn. vii. 71 sqq., and Livy, Bk. L, c. 39. 
The science of electricity accounts satisfac- 
torily for such appearances. 

683. Taetu depends on innoxio, and not 
«n lambere. 

684. Lambere — this is a favouritc word to 
exprc-ss the flickering of a blaze, which so 
closely imitates the playing of tho tongue 
round an object. 

Mollis (Lc, mofles) agreeing with comas, 
and tlius the awkwardness of two epithcts 
to ftamma will be avoided. Pasci — com- 
bustible mattcr being the food of fire, the 
blaze Ls saidto browse upon the hair. 

685. Trepidare — means to run around 
Iulus under tlie infiuence of dread and 
anxiety, but therc is not containcd in the 
word any idea of ruiming up to. Hetu d"» 
; pavidi. 

Sanctos — as sent from heavcn. 
688. Coelo, i.c, ad coelum, as often in thc 
poeta. Tetendit, observe the zeugma. 



600. Adspice nos; hoc tanthm. "Wagner, 
ignampugnare, 
. aequora i nrrere (=cursu>n 
maritimum currere), would remove the 
semicolon after nos, and interpnt, "cast 
Qpon us bnt this one propitious glance," as 
il it were hunc tantum adspectum nos adspice. 

But the more simple explanation is to ba 
pniirrcd — "Lookuponus: this only do 1 
beg— for one glance is sufficient to excito 
thy compassion." Gossrau omits the puno 
tuation marks after tantum and et, and, 
viewing et as placed in a somewhat unusual 
. would interpret thus: "And, if 
wc mcrit so much kindness as this (tantum 
hoc), on account of our picty, then father," 
etc. For a full discussion of the passage, 
see Forb. 

Ladewig favours the inlerpretation of 
Wagner, making hoc depend on adspice (as 
id in the plirase id te hortor). Anchises 
was seeking for a second augury to confirm 
thc first. See Judfres \i. 39. 

602. Fragore. YTakcfield, Lucr. v. 318, 
explains this as meaning a bursting of the 
Jieavem, and a dividing of the clouds. 

Q;<e="when." This conjunction isoften 
used when the writer hastens from ona 
subject to auother, or when he indicates 
that something is hastily executed after 
another, so that no time, as it were, elapses 
between the two events. See Wagn. Quaest. 
Virg. xxxv. 6, ancl cf. iEn. iii 9 ; vi. 499 ; 
Geo. ii. 80. 

693. Laevum — "on the left," which was 
propitious. Cf. Geo. iv. 7. 

694. SteUa—a kind of meteor. 

606. IJa — a mountaiii ncar Troy, much 
celcbrated for its pines, pitch, etc. ; it still 
retains the ancient name. Claram — "dis- 
tinctly," "visibly." 

697. Sulcus — the meteor left a furroic—i 
track, in the heaven, which was conspicu- 
ous by its greater brightness after the 
brilliant nucleus of the fiery body liad de- 
scended lower to the horizon. 

703. Vestro in ■nv.mine Troja est. Anchises, 
who was skilled in augury, drew from the 
omens that Iulus would prove a glory to 
his racc and would restore the kingdom of 
Troy in another land. Therefore he says, 
"Troy (i.c, the Trojans — the Trojan raco 
and interest).is an object of your guardian 
care and solicitude : it is not yet entirely 
overthrown : it will risc from its ruins, and 
once morc rule in power." This is the 
explanation adopted by Burmann, Wun- 
derlich, Watrner, and Forbiger. Heyne's 
is dificrent, but docs not dcserve mention. 

70-3. Clarior — "more distinctly." 

706. " And the burning piles roll the (in- 
tense) heat nearer." Thc expression ia 
equal to incendium serpit prophis. 

707. Ergo age is said witb a certain de- 
grec of reproach and mcitement, as hasten- 

67 



B. II.708-7S 



xotes ox tiii: .enkid. 



II. 729-742. 



lng onc who has hcen unneccssarily causing 
delay. 

Jmponere — pass. impcr., used as Grcek 
middle vcrb, "piace yourself" 

708. Subibo humeris, i.e., will take you 
np upon my shoulders. 

70». Quo—cunque separatcd by tmcsis. 

711. Longe servet. Tlicy are to kcep 
separate, lest a crowd shoukl excite sus- 
picion, and foil their purpose. The ser- 
vants, too, were sent by diffexent routes. 

712. Animis advcrtitc, quae dicam. for the 
more c« nmon exprcssion, animos advertite 
ad ea quae dicam. 

714. JJcscrtae Oereristemphtm, by cnallagc, 
for desertum templ Cer. Scrvius suggests 
thrce reasons why this cpithct is applied to 
the temple of Ceres — lst, Because of her be- 
ing deprived of her daughter; 2d, Because 
her priest, Polyphoetes, had been slain in the 
war; and 3d,Because hcr worship had, of 
necessity, been suspended during thc ten 
years" siegc Wagner and Forb. say, "Be- 
fause the temple waa in an unfrequented 
and sohtary place out from the city." 

715. Reiigione=cidtu, "religious vene- 
ration," "worship." 

71S. Me, bello e tanto — rather e.r, wbieh is 
the more usual fonn of the prep. used hy 
Virgil when it is plaeed after the govemed 
subst., or between the subst. and aclj. This 
excuse is ingeniously devised by the poet 
to make the history agree with the common 
story, that Anchises bore the sacred things. 
Uf. above, 167, and see 1 Chron. xxiL 8. 

r 19. Orpheus is said to have introduced 
into Greeee the custom of purification pre- 
vious *o touching anything sacred. Blood 
was snpposed to poliute with the most in- 
veterate contamination ; cf. 1C7. The 
custom of using running water for such 
rcrposes originated in a sufficiently cvident 
idea. and was carried so Ear as that atten- 
dants on solemn occasions poured a stream 
of -vrater out of ewers on the hands of thosc 
who wcre o take part in the religious 
ftremony. 

72L Latos liurneros, i.e., Jntmeros tam late 
suam licebat instratus sum. This is an 
example of the well known construction — 
" the accus. of the remoter object" after a 
pass. verb. See i. 22S, and Ecl. i. 55. 

722. Veste—peUe i.e., veste ex pelle teonina 
confecta. Super — insternor, by tmesis— or 
take super as an adv. 

724. Who does not realise the scene here 
deseribed? The appropriateness of impli- 
cuit and non passibu.s aeouis doi-s not require 
to be dwelt upon. 

725. Per opaca locorum. (jf. Geo. i. 393, 
and JEn. i. 422 ; Kritz, Sall. Cat. 57, 2. 
The phrase=qpaca loca, as strata viarum= 
stratas vuis. 

727. Glomerati ex agmine. Heyne and 
Vagner join these words in syntax," with the 



meaning, "gathered into a compact mass, 
having bccn collected froin thc enemys 
line." Forb., followfaig Thiel and Wunder- 

lich, looks upon glomeraU as an iu\j.--=densi, 
and ex adverso agmine, as=stanles in acie 
, as *? is used in Greek. Thus adverso 
agmine, which means " a linc of troops close 
' is opposed to tela, which means 
iceapons hurled /rom a distance. 

729. Suspensvm. "Inalarm." 

730. J'orlis, Le., a southcrn gate leadin™ 
to Ida and Antandros, and away from the 
post of thc enemy. 

781. Omnem viam, i.c, all the dangcrous 
part of the journey. Ilcync adopts Blark- 
land's conjecture of vicem for viam, but this 
seems totally nnnecessary. 

733. l'rospiciens. Not through fear, but 
his elevated position gave him a Avider 
range of view. 

735. Wagner would scan nescio as a dis- 
sylL, and thus avoid a line composed entirely 
of dactyls. Only egd, duo, Scid, and nescid 
have the o short in VirgiL Nescio quod is 
equal to aliquod. 

73C. Confusam eripuit mentem. This U 
an example of the Proleptic (anticipatory) 
use of the adj., by whicb a thing is repre- 
sented as already done, though in reality it 
is to follow as a consequence of the action of 
the verb on which its subst. depends. The 
phrase is somewhat similar to thc English 
one. "kill a m&n dead," "strikeonc dumb." 
Cf. Hood, Dream of Eugcne Aram ; 
Anon I cleansed my bloody hands, 
And washed my forehead cool. 
For other instances sce Geo. L 44. 320; JEn. L 
69, 100; and above all, ^En. iiL 237, Scula 
latentia condunt. 

738. Henry would join misero with/a/o, 
on the ground thstfato, without an e;>itl)pt 
of this kind, is frigid, and that heu renders 
misero, as applied to viihi, superfluous. 
He urges, fanhcr, that ^Eneas, in using 
the term misero, has regard to Creusas 
misery as well as his o^-n loss. But 
Heyne and Forb. explain the syntax 
thus: conjux mihi misero erepta, fatone sub- 
stitit. an errarit de via, an lassa resedit (sat 
dowo through exhaustion), incertum est. 
Wund. alleges that substitit, etc, are used 
in the indic instead of the subjunctive by 
a Graecism. But Forb. considers lines 738, 
9, as taken by themselves so as to constitute 
an independent question— the answer to 
which is fomid in incertum est. Thc sub- 
junctive would thus be unsuitable. 

741. Reftexi. This word is used in an un- 
wonted signification — it is here equal to 
"remember," but its usual meaning is "to 
intiuence to a change of sentiment." 

742. Tumulum antiq. Cer., i.c, a hill on 
which was a temple of Ceres of old date. 
On the omission of ad, see note &n. L 2. 



B. II. 746-762. 



- on Tni: .f.nf.id 



I?. H. 764-T92. 



7ir,. Incutavi deos hominesgue. This ia i 
tlie nsnal (brmala In reference to th<>-<' who 
eomplain grievoaaiy <>f tlu-ir lot The 
phrase ia also u><-«l to sigiiify m rybody vrith- 
out exeeption. The line ia hypermetrical, thc | 
gue being joined by synapheia to thefirst w< >rd 
of the next veree. Weicnert supports the 
various rcadingr'/< ttmgut, B0 as to avoid thia 
excess of syllables ; but Jahn argnea against 
him. that the old form deiim ia never used 
in this particular formula. Wagner con- 
cetves Virgil to have uscd thc hypermeter 
licre to avo.nl the homoioteleuton in the 
words natumque, \irumque, homiwimque, 
Seumque. Dryden suggests, that " It was 
not firr nothing that thia passage waa re- 
latedwith all thcse tender circumstances : 
— yEncus told it — Dido heard it.'' 

746. Cruo-:<ius, "more grievous," "more 
afflicting." 

749. Cingor — armis, refers particularly 
to the* re-adjustmcnt of his shield, which 
had necessarily been displaced to make way 
for his burden. Peerlkamp pronounces the 
line spurious: because (lst) Repeto recufs 
so soon again (753) ; and because cingor 
is a term applied to the putting on not of a 
thield\ but of a sirord, whicfa JEneas would 
not have laid asidc. 

750. Stat, Le., decretum est apudme. The 
fuller form is stat sententia. 

754. Observata per noctem, i.e., with as 
much accuracy as I could, sceing it was 
during the night that I had taken observa- 
tions, aud was now exaruining the marks 
again. 

755. Silentia — poetic plur. See Schmitz 
I.at. Gr., § 76, n. 1; Madvig, § 50, obs. 1; 
Zumpt, § 92, n. 1. 

757. Me re/ero, i.e., visurus si forte, etc. 
Such a verb is often omitted bcfore the 
particles si, and siforte. Cf. Xepos, Ilanii. 
B. The repetition of si forte indicates the 
most ardent desire for a thing which was 
in itself veiy doubtful and improbable. 
Wagner encloses the secoud si/orie in com- 
mas, makingit=s/ rv%et. 

759. Ad auras. Wagner, (Quxst. Virg. 
x.) collating the passages where !/* auras 
and adauras occur, endeavours to sliow that 
ad auras surgere is said with regard to those 
things which raise themselves from the 
earth so far as yct to touch it, or at least to 
be elevated but a gmallway above it; while 
in auras surgere nieans to rise clean into 
mid-air. See above, 699, and Ecl. L 57. 

761. Asylo (a, nol and trvXau, I despoil) 
— sanctuary of Juno, because she favourcd 
\he Greeks. The spoil was carefully guarded 
(<jt cqual distribution. VLrgil places the 
temple of Juno in the citadel, thinking of 
that which was built to her on the Komau 
capitoL 

762. PhQenix—Vlixes. See Class. Dict. 



704. Mensae — tables, inclnding alao tri- 

pods, and Bucb lik<'. Auro la the abL of the 

ConBnlt the Grammora, and see 

^En. i. <;.",5. 

■ubram — various readlng umbras — 
but when vmbra=no.r, the dark; 
night, Virgil uscs the rdng. 

771. The Btorywhich followsia nccessary 
to justify /Eneas in contracting a marriage 
with Lavinia; but \vc shall sce, in Book iii., 
that it leads to dimcultics, if not contradic- 
tions. It is douhtless one of the passages 
which the poet would have altered had he 
lived to reviae bia worfc. 

77.'. Injcli.r, i.c, "lucklcssly lost to mc." 
She could not be callcd iiifelix who had now 
been received nndcrthe protcction of Cybele 
(788) and made a deity, (nota major imago — 
beauty, size, and height of body bemg pro- 
perties of the deities). 

774. Steterunt. The penult is here short- 
ened as frequently. See Ecl. iv. 61, and 
Gco. iv. 393. 

776. Iadulgere insano dolori. " Give way 
to excessive grief." 

779. Fas is nom. to sinit, and not to est, 
understood; there ought therefore to be only 
a comma after it. 

780. Longa exsilia — (obeunda, "are to bo 
undergone,") •'tedious wanderingsin distant 
lands." Exsilia is often used for exsilium. 
Arandum — a favourite phrase in reference to 
sailing. 

781. Lydius Thybris, i. e.. Etruscan. The 
epithet Lydian is employed in accordance 
with the anciently received opinion that the 
Etmscans were a Lydian colony. 

Instead of et at thc beginning of the line, 
some books read ut, and some at. Wagner 
and Forb. approve of et. 

782. Opima signifies that ^Eneas was to 
come to a rich and well cultivated conntrv. 
and not to one waste and barren. 

783. Ees laetae — "prosperity," "a rich 
kingdom;" parta — "has been destined." 

784. Lacrimas Creiisae, i.e., propter Creii- 
sam effusas — "tears for Creiisa;" on thf 
syntax, cf. note, iEn. L 462. 

785. On the proper names here found. 
consult Class. Dict. Sedes superbas, i.e. 
regiam superborum dominorum. Fernap9 
"lordly halls" would express the idea. 

787. Dardanis — on feminine patronymics, 
consult Zumpt, Madvig, or Schmitz, Lat. Gr. 

788. Magna I). Genetrix — Cybele detains 
her to be one of hcr companions. Cf. Paus. 
x. 26, i. 

789. "Plenus affectiis r<?rsi/5,"saysHeyne. 
Cf. Propert. extr., 73, 74, Nunc tibi eom- 
mendo communia pignora natos 

792. Ibi is used of time, for tum. 

Ter repeated 13 used for aliquoties — "se- 
veral times " — a defiuite number for an In- 
detinite, as we say "a hundred timea," 
" fifty tltnes," etc. 

•U 



n. n. 79S-S01 



XOTES ON THE jENEID. 



B. II.803-S04. 



Dare circum — tmesis for circumdare. 
Collo is the dat. ca-c-. 
798. Pubem=populus—" an adult body." 

800. Deducere is the technical word em- 

:'or the planting of a colony, and 
heuce its adoption here, 

801. Surgebat jugis Tdae. The poets were 
wont to represent the stars as rising from 



the nearest mountains, and setting behinj 
those on the other side. 

I<ln — a Mt. of Troy close to the city. 
Luciter — the morning star, Le., Venus, 
sometimes. 

803. Spes opis, Le., of rendering help ta 
my country. 

wi, used absolutcly, "I dcparted," 
or " I yielded to fortune." 




[Death of Peiam.— From an Ancknt Vcue.] 



R III. 



NOTES ON THE JESEID. 



c.m. 




[2Ekeas Leavixg Trot. — Yatican Manvscript.] 



BOOK THIRD, 



ARGUMENT 

After the overthrow of Troy, jEneas builds a fleet of twenty ships at Antandrus, and 
having set sail in company with a considerablo number of fellow-exiles, lands first in 
Tlirace. There he begins to found a city ; but the shade of Polydorus (a son of Priam, 
who had been slain by king Polymnestor) warna him to avoid the cursed land, which he 
immediately abandons (1-72). Reaching Delos, he consults the oracle of Apollo with 
regard to his jonrney and final settlement, but, by a misinterpretation of the response, ho 
steers for Crete instcad of Italy (73-120). Here, again, ill omens and a plague retard tha 
building of his rising city; but being accurately and distinctly instructed by the Penates, 
who appeared to him m sleep, he finally directs liis course to Italy (121-191). But he is 
overtaken by a storm, and is Wafted to the islands, Strophades, infested by the Harpies 
(192-269), thence to Actium, wherc he celebrates games in honour of Apollo (270-290). 
Passing Corcyra, he lands in Epirus, and finds it ruled over by Helenus, orie of the sons 
of Priam, to whom, after the dcath of Pyrrhus, the kingdom had fallen, and along with 
it Andromuche (formerly the wife of Hector». He is received with great kindness by 
thesc his formei friends, and instructed by Helenus in all tlie labours and dangers that 
yet await him on his voyage (291-505). Crossing to the Italian shore, he coasts south- 
ward, and approaches the district of Sicily near to JEtna, whcre he narrowly escapes the 
Cyciopes, by information of a Grecian, who had been abandoned on the island by Ulysses, 
and again stan-ls out to sea (500-083). The warnings of Helenus cnable him to escapo 
thedangers of Scylla and Charybdis, and after a circiiitous course to reach Drepanum, 
where his father Anchlses djes; and whence setting sail he is drivcn to Carthage 
(684-718). The action of thia Book extenda ovcr a period of seven years— from tbe Back 
of Troy till the arrivul of JSneaa in Africa. The liistorical, (reographical, andmythological 
refercncefl an very numerous, und afford proof of the great leaming of Virgil tn theue 



B. III 1- 



NOTES ON TIIE .L.vEID. 



11.111 9-U 



departments of literature — learning which be la never slow to display. Though containing 
s :»;nc highly-wrought and beautiful passages, and such a delightful cpisode as the nicctiiig 
with Helenus and Andromache, yct, on ihe whole, the Third Book is infcrior to those we 
have already gone over. VirgU seems to have kept thc Odyssey in view thronghout as hn 
modeL 



1. Res Asiac, Ihe kingdom of Asia. So 
/En. viii. 626, and Hor. Ep. ii. 1, 2, Res 
Italas. The kingdom of Priam extended 
castward to the river Aesepus, and south- 
ward to tiie promontory of Lecteum, oppo- 
site Lesbos. Nine princes were tributary to 
him, and supplied contingents during the 
war. 

2. Immeritam — " unqffending," undeserv- 
ing such a fate. The crimes of Laomedon 
aud Faris were the cause. Cf. Hor. Od. 
iiL 2, 21, and iiL 6, 1. Evertere gentem, 
compare the plirase condere gentem, and 
note i. 33. Superbum is not used in a bad 
sense, but is equal to "cxalted," il famous." 

3. Itium, "the citadel;" Troja, l, the 
town." Neptunia, built by Neptune, in 
conjunction with Apollo. Cf. Hom. II. xxi. 
446 sqq. 

Fumat. Probus and Wakefield (on 
Lucr. v. 443) deem this an abbreviation for 
fumavit. But it is better to consider it, 
with Forb. and others. as a pres. used with 
design, and affording a peculiarly appropri- 
ate sense. The fall of Troy was instanta- 
neous, lience the aoristic perf. cecidit — but 
the smouldering rninscontinue to emit smoke 
for a long lime, evcn till ,Eneas resolves to 
emigrate, or is ready to depart; hence 
fumat. Humo=ab humo. Serv. 

4. Diversa, "remote," "in a different part 
of the globe." It applies to iEueas aud his 
followers only, and not to other bauds under 
£j9teaor, Helenus, etc. 

Desertas — "thmly peopled." For a 
discussion of the dirrerent readings aud in- 
terpretations see Forb. 

5. Auguriis — viz., thc apparition of Hec- 
tor. ii. 293 ; the assurance of Veuus, 619 ; 
Hie falliag star and tlie thunder, 695 ; the 
warning of Creusa, 7S0 ; and the lambent 
Baine, 6S2. Other auguries, not specified, 
niay be meant Peerlk- 

6. Sub Antandro — ctose io and loicer than 
Antandros, [what afterwards became] "St 
Dimitri." Thc town was situated at the 
foot of ilt Alexandra, one of the heights of 
Ida, from the vicinity of which much rimber 
was procurable. .Volimur, " we prepare 
with much labour." 

7. Incerti, etc This passage has been 
adduced as an instance to prove that eveu 
"bonus Virgilius aliquando dormitat," or, 
that this is one of the places which the poet 
vvould have altered, had not death preveuted 
a second revision. The prediction of Creusa 
(iL VSl), it is alleged, ought to have render- 



ed liiin smc whithcr lns course icd, am, 

whcre his wanderings were to end But 

I it is to be remcmbered, (1), Tiiat Creusa 

I liad furetold longa exsilia, which prevented 

j the hope of an immediate settlement in 

Italy; (2), Tliat yEneas knew of no country 

called Hesperia, as 163 showa, and that the 

legcnd referred to in Ludius Thybris, was 

most likely equally unknown to him ; and 

(3), That. on calni reflection, ^neas might 

not have felt full confidence in the prophetic 

indication of liis wife, which, indeed, is evi- 

denced by thc phrase (186), Quis ad Hespc- 

ria venturos Utora Teucros crederet? 

Sistere is occasionally used intrans. See 
Geo. L 479. Detur — for examples of dare 
governing inf., sce iEn. i. 66, 79, 319. 

9. Et. This conjunction (also que), like 
the Greek *«Mj frequently connects two 
parts of a senteucc when one event is said 
to follow close upon another. It may fre- 
quently be translated by "when," as Geo. 
ii. SO ; ^En. ii. 692, etc. 

Fatis. Heyne takes this word as the 
abl.="by," "in consequence of the warn- 
ings of the deities ; " but Wagner more pro- 
perly considers it as a varicty of the phrasa 
dare vela ventis, and tlius makes it a dat 
Fatis. as tlie abl., after auguriis .agimur, 
would be redundant. 

10. Waguer decides tha' et, in 9, responds 
to vix, 8, and treats cum as equal to et tum, 
(xtni roTi 1'K), as qui is equal to et is, and 
generally, a relative\to a conj. and a dejion- 
stkativi:. See iEn. vL 91. 

12. Penatibus et magnis Dis. Heyue in- 
terprets the onc phrase as ej)e.vegetical (L 2) 
of the other: but .Forb. considers theui 
different Vesta bcing decidedly included ui 
the latter expression, Sce his note, in loc, 
and cf. L 704. 

13. Mavortkt — the abode of Mars. Greek, 
as well as Latin poets, delight to as^iLrii 
Thrace to Mars as Ms favourite hamit 
Hom., Soph., Eurip., Ovid, Hor., eta, might 
be quoted in proof. See Forb. in loc. Reier 
to map of Ancient Europe. 

Procid — either "close by " the Troad, or 
"far away" from Carthage; or, procul 
coiitur, "is extensively cultivated." 

14. Regnata — an example of a pass. part. 
formed from an intrans. verb. Cf. Hor. Od. 
ii. 5, 11, Rcgnata rura Phalanto ; Ululatus, 
2Eo. iv. 609 ; Triumphatus, vL 637. 

Acri Lycurgo — the " stern, unyielding, 
Lycurgus " — referriug to the opposition 
offered by him to the iutrodBcjtion .of tha 



b. nr. 1-3-2 



NOTES M.N THE .ENKIl). 



B. III. 24-3G. 



worship of Dionysus, and the uso ot' wine. 
Cf. Hom. II. vi. 130 sqq. 
. 15. Hospitium antvjuum, i.e., betwcen it , 
and Troy there wasa "bond of Jiospitality 
of lon^r standing." Ties of hospitality were 
considered by theancientsas thc most Bacred 
of oll-obligations, binding not only on the ' 
iHdividuals who had tirst contracted them, 
but also on their descendanfS See the clas- 
skal writers, passim. Not only single per- 
sons, but also states, were thus connected. 

SoeHqut Penates — their Penates, too, 
wcre confederatc with ours, Polymnestor 
fcad married Ilione, eldest daughter of 
Priam. 

17. Prima moenia — "my first city," viz., 
^Enos; it waa situated near the mouth of 
theHebrus (Mai Htza), opposite Samothrace. 
It is now ealled ^Enos or Eno. It was in 
existence, however, long before the arrival 
of JEneas, but Vlrgil endeavours toconnect 
it witb his name, confounding it perhaps 
Mith -Enia ou the Tliennaic Gulf (Gulf ot' 
Saionika), the inhabitants of which re- 
garded iEneas as their founder. 

18. jEneadas, etc. "I call the town (the 
inhabitants rather) JEneadae, a name de- 
rivedfrom my own." 

19. Dumaeae matri. Le., "To my mother, 
Venus, the daughter ofDione," accordingto 
one geneaiogy. When Venus is calied 
Dionaea, affection is always implied. 

Matri divisque. When offerings were 
made to one deity in particular, it was cus- i 
tomary to invoke that god tirst. and the 
others aftervvards. Cf. tlie Greek phrase 
Z=y xat hoi, and such like. 

20. Auspicibus, " the favonrers." Cf. Hor. 
Od. i. 7, 27, "Jfil desperandum auspiee 
Teucro." 

Nitentem—"fat aud sleei" rather than 
'• white." The colouf was a matter of minor 
importance. Cf. Hor. Ep. i. 4. 15, Me pin- 
guem et nilidum bene curatd cute vises. 

2L Coelicolum. This abbreviation of thc 
gcn. plur. is foundmore especially in thecase 
af Patronymics in es and a. of certain com- 
l>ounds with cola and gena, and of some 
uames ofnations. 

22. Tumulus — not a funeral mound, but a 
•' heap of sand " gradually raised over thc 
unburied corpse of Polydorus by tbe action 
ofthe wind and waves. See Eur. Hec. i. 26. 
and G97 sqq. 

<luo summo — thcro is hcrc an inversion of 
the syntax: — TransL, "on the summit of 
hhich." Such examples are vcry common 
—summus mons, proxima cdluvies, etc. ctc. 

25. Hastilibus horrida myrtus. Polydorns 
aras Blain with javelins, which he reprcscnts 
as taking root and shooting up from his body. 
Tlie myrtle is Bpecified becanse " litora 
myrtetu laetissima," Geo. ii. 113 and 447. 



Horrida U applied to anything which pro- 
sents a rongh or prickly exterior. 

24. Yiridem sylvam — "thc grcen shoots." 

25. Tfj.re, i. c, ii.lare.i6 thc verb pro- 
perly used with reference to crowns and 
garlands hi sacred rites. The myrtle was 
sacred to Venus, and hence pcculiarly fit- 
ting in this case. 

:'7. 28. Wc havc here an exampie of the 
indefinite (quae) responded to by the do- 
monstrativc huic, instead of thc usual con- 
struction of the antecedent followed by iig 
relative ; see note 9-3, below. For sim- 
phcity wc may arrange tlic words thus— « 
yuttae atro sanyuine (Le., atri sanguinis) 
liquuntur huic arbori (Le., e.c liac arborej 
quae prima vellitur (ex) solo, ruptis radi- 
cibus. 

29. Tabum is any fiuid (more especially 
blood) in process of corruption. 

30. Gelidus sanyuis, etc.=sanguis JU yeli- 
dus et coit — "my blood runs cokl, and freezes 
througli fear." This is an cxample of ttie 
proleptic use of the adj. See note on iEu. 
i. Go, and ii. 736. 

31. Jnsequor co.ivellere, etc. "Iproceed 
to tear up the tough shoot of another (stem), 
and thoroughly to examine into the cause 
still secret to me." This passage has bcen 
almost literally translated by Spenser, 
Faery Queen, i. 2, 30 : — 

He pluckt a bough, out of whose rift therc 

came 
Small drops of gory blood, that tricklcd 

down the same. 
Therewith a piteous yelling voice was heard 
Crying, "0 spare, with guilty hands to tear 
My tender sides in this rough rind embar'd: 
But fly, ah! fiy far hence," etc. etc. 

34. Agrestes nymphas — the Hamadryades, 
See Class. Dict 

35. Gradivum, from Gradior, i.e., u mag* 
nis gressibus ineedit in pugnis " — tho majes- 

i of the god is ihus suggested. 
Some derive it from gravis deus, and othere 
from grainen, but thcse latter etymologiea 
are not to be approved of. The first syll. 
is here iong; it is occasionally short, re- 
taining the propef quantity of its primitive. 
Proper names do not so strictly follow thc 
rule of dcrivativcs ascommon uoims. See 
Bentl. oii Hor. Ud. iiL 25, 9, and Forb. on 
AZ\\. i. 343. 

Getae — put fortheir neighbours theThra- 
cians, for thc formcr Iived norlh of thc 
Danube in Daeia. See Mr Jamcsmt Smith's 
Dkt. (.'i' Gcog. 

36. Riti is usually employed in reterencc 
to the scrvices of mcn to tlie gods; hetc it 
applies to tlte gods who, accordi.ig to tlteir 

ftssist mankind. 
Secundarent — "render favourable." l.e- 
varent — "takc away thc ur.lucky aj)pcar- 
03 



B. III. 38-47. 



NOTES OX THE JEXELD. 



B. III. 48-59. 



ance of," "lighteu." See Hor. Od. iL 
17, 29. 

38. Obluctor adcersae arenae— " press 
against (a.inpittu) the sand." 

40. Wagner considers vox reddita to be 
a mere epexegesis of gemitus. Forb., with 
more judgmeut, views them as separate 
and distiuct:— first the groan, expresshre 
of grief and pain is heard, and then follow 
the words explanatory of the mysterious 
circumstances of the blood and sighs. 

41. Jomjaai vrith parce, notwith sepullo. 
Jam is used to urge iinmediate attention to 
what ought to have been previously done. 

42. Parce, "forbear;" Non, join with ex- 
lernum, as by this arrangement two ideas 
arebrought out: (1), I am not a foreigner; 
but (2), Troy saw my birth. The non, 
however, belongs, iu a measure, to both 
members of the sentence, so that aut followa 
without detriinent to the senso (cf. JEa. x. 
529), the meaning being, "Troy brought 
me forth not a stranger to you, nor is it 
the blood of a stranger (cruor, supply 
externut) that flows thus from the stein." 
See Jahn and Forbiger. But we confess 
that this interpretatiou appears to us forced 
and unnecessary. Maeaa lay uiider two mis- 
apprehensions: (1). that the voice was that 
of an inbabitant of the country, or at least 
not a Trojan, for such a onehe by no means 
expected to findburied there; and (2), that 
the blood came from a mere senselesa trunk. 
Polydorus, therefore, urges two reasons 
why he should abstain frorn further lacera- 
tions : (1), because the blood issued from a 
human being, and not from the stock of a 
tree: and (2), because that human being 
was his own townsman aud kinsman. 
Stipite is thus the emphatic word in the last 
clause, and the insertion of externus seems 
perfectly gratuitous. 

44. " Flee this land of cruelty— flee this 
coast of avarice," i.e., the soil and territory 
of this merciless and avaricious king. 

45. Homer represents Polydorus, who was 
the voungest son of Priam, as slain by 
Achilles iu a battlebefore thewalls ufTroy. 
The tragic poets, however, and especially 
Eurip. (Hec. 3 sqq.), whom Yirgil follows, 
couied the vtrsion here given. Polymnestor, 
king of Thrace, was married to Ilione, 
eldest daughter of Priam. Eurip. makes 
Hecuba tear out his eyes in revenge. 

46. Jaculis. Heyne prononnces this word 
ine dat. = i'/2 jacula, Le., excreverunt in 
arbores. But Wagner (whom Forb. fol- 
lows), appealing to 134, arcemqve qdtoUere 
tectis, prcfersto consider it in the abL, " by 
reason (or, by means) of sharp-pointed 
lances." 

47. Ancipiti — "double," arisingbbthfrom 
the appearance of the blood, and froni th.e 

64 



words of Polydoras. It may also mean 
i ing." 

n — accus. of eefebence or limi- 
tatio.v. Note L 228; iL 210 and 273. 
48. Obstiund — -'astonied stopd," Milton. 
■'. etc. The remainder of this liue 
is rejected hy Bothe as spurious, on account 
of its having occurred so recently, iL 774 ; 
but tiiis is no objection, else hundreds of 
lines might be struck out of Homer. 

And my fell of hair 
Would, at a dismal treatise, rouse and stif 
As life were in it— Shaespebe. 

50. Infelix — "unhappy," "unfortunate;" 
not on account of the destruction of Troy, 
and the adverse fortune which he at that 
time experienced, but because of the failure 
of his plans to preserve the life of his son, 
Polydorus. 

51. Threicio regi, Le., Polymnestor. Threi- 
cius is a very common form of this adj. with 
the poets, but it is not found in the better 
sort of prose writers ; for, in Cic. Off. iL 7, 25, 
Thraciis is read. 

52. The genuineness of the latter part of 
this verse is suspected by Wagner. Poly- 
dorus was sent away froui Troy by Priam, 
not at the beginning of the war when the 
city was first invested, but after the siego 
had coutinued for a long time. [A blockacUz 
was a plan of attack adopted much later 
thau the her-oic age. See L 469, note.] But 
he seems to have forgotten the worj 
furtim, 50, which would be useless ami 
inexplicable were the doubtful phrase ex- 
plaining the cause of the secrecy omitted. 
Even admittuig Wagner's objectiou, Ave 
ai-e to make great allowance, as he him- 
self in his Quaest. Virg. ofteu does for 
an unfinished poem, for poetic necessities,' 
and for the transference of the customs of 
his own day back to the remote heroic age. 
The sense is: Priam sent away Polydorus 
secretly (without the kuowledge of the 
Greeks), when he became doubtful as to the 
success of his arms, and saw that the city 
was !:ept closely blockaded (cingi—cinetam 

54. nes Agam — "the interest of Aga- 
memnon." 

oo. Fas omne abrumpit — "breaksthrough 
every sacred tie," particularly the rightg 
of hospitality. 

5tJ. Potitur. Tliis verb is occasionally 
declined after the third conjugation. 

57. Sacrafames maymean, lst, accursed 
greed, because sacra is used of what is con- 
secrated, Le., devoted to the infenir. 
or, 2d, e. 1, becanse sacra, liko 

the Greek ^"«.', means gieat, extensive. 
• inordinate at 

59. Re) tsic term, con- 

stantly employed by historians in speaking 
ing" a matter before the senale. 



B. IIL 61-08. 



NOTES ON TIIE /EXEID. 



13. III. CD-80. 



61. lnstead of linqui, souie books read 
Knquere, but the formcr is to be preferrcd. 
See Forb. in loc. 

Dare classibus austros. This is not an 
hypallage for dare classem austris, but is a 
naturai and regular expression, seeing that 
it depends on the icillofthe mariners whether 
the sails be spread to the icind or not. 

62. Instauramus— simply "perform," not 
renew, for no funeral rites had bcen pre- 
viously celebrated. 

63. Tumulo — not "for a tomb," but, as 
there was somewhat of a niound already, 
it is, "a large quantity of earth is addcd to 
the mound" whieh had already been formed 
by the action of the wind on the sands, 22, 
the cornel shoots catching and retaiuing 
objects driven upon them. 

Stant arae. Heyne thinks one altar only 
Is meant; but Forb., comparing 315, below, 
where Andromache erects tico to the manes 
of Hector, and EcL v. 66, where Menalcas 
vows two to Daphnis, suspects that twt> 
aiust be intended here also. 

64. Moestae—exhibiting tokens of sorrow, 
in an active sense. 

65. De more — " as custom required." Solu- 
tae crinem. See i. 480, and on the construc- 
tion, note i. 228. 

66. Inferimus — an appropriate verb as 
applied to libations of tcater, milk, wine, 
and blood, which together or singly formed 
usual offerings to the dead. From this verb 
inferiae is formed. Forb. 

Tepido lacte — icarm milk, newly drawn 
from the udder. Cymbia — long, narrow 
bowls, shaped like a boat. 




67. Sacri sanguinis, i.e., "of holy blood," 
1 lood of the eonsecrated victim. 

.; — "we lay to rest." Tl-.is 
is in accordance with the opinion of the 
ancient8, that the spirit remained in the 
tomb along with thc corpse until tlie body 
had been dissolved by putrefaction, (hence 
such phrases as manes elicere, excire, sepul- 
thrit) ; and that in the case of those un- 
buried, tlie spirits roamcd about until the 
raising of thc toinb, and the offering of the 

Supremum—mA to be taken as an adv., 
but as the acc. of the object depending on 
ciemus. This is thc inclamatio ot 
matio, which was performed three thncs — 
First, when the body was carried out of the 
house; second, when it had arrivcd at the 
pyrc; and, third, after theconclusion of the 
cereoaony and the finishing of the tumulus. 



A common fonn of this acclamaUo was, 
"ffave, i '." Withthiapaasage 

read carefully in a tcxt book of antiquitica 
the funeral ccrcmonics of thc Uonians. 

69. 1'rima fnics — m Spring, whcn thc 
weathcr bccanie favourable for navigation, 
and they could with coniidcncc vcnture out 
to .-ea— "as soon as they could have con- 
fidencc in the deep." 

70. Placata venti dant maria — the winds, 
by ceasing to blow, leave the seas peaceful. 

Lenis crepitans — lenis = leniter—" gentiy 
whispering." Forb. We feel inclined, 
however, to give lenis its full sense as an 
m//., for two ideas are thtta suggcsted, tho 
one of which scems necessary to modify th« 
other. 

Auster docs not mean the south uind, as 
that breeze woiud not be favourable to 
those sailing from Thrace, but is put for the 
wind generally. 

71. Dcducunt — "haul down," for the 
ships were dragged up on shore during the 
winter. 

73. On Delos, see Class. Dict., or Smith's 
Dict. of Geog. Medio ma.-i. i.e , "in the 
deep sea," as below, 104 and 270. Some 
suppose medio> is employed because Delos 
was considered the central islaiid of tlie 
Cyclades. 

74. This line is remarkable for the preva- 
lence of the spondee, and for the two exam- 
ples of hiatus, the first of which is excused, 
as it is in arsis, and the second as oceurring 
in a proper name. See Ecl. ii 24. 53 ; JEn. 
i. 16. 

Neptune was supposed to delight in the 
iEgean Sca, hence the epithet ^Egaeus. 
Matri, i.e., Doris. 

7-j. Arcitenens — "thearcher," ro^ocpopo;, 
i.e., Apollo. Pius is applied to liiin, on 
account of the gratitude he showed to the 
island of his birth. Any one wiU f.->sily see 
tliat this readingis much preferable bopritts. 

76. Myconoecehd. The various readings 
of this iine are too numerous to be specified. 
The meaning is, that Apollo bound Dclos 
to Myconos and Gyaros, as two itohlfasts. 
On these islands, consult Class. Dict. oi 
Smith'8 Dict. of Geog. The more common 
legend represented Delos as niade station- 
ary, in order to rcceive Latona previous to 
tlie birth of Apollo and Diana. 

77. Jmmotam — "finnly fixed," whereas 
it had becn fioating about before. Contem- 
nere ventos — "to despise tlie winds," as being 
now shcltcrcd by thcsurrounding Cyclades. 

70. Vcneramur — "we approach with 
tokens of worship ' 

80. Anius, a son of Apollo, and a most 
celebrated priest The union of the kingly 
and saeerdotal olliccs in thc same individual 
ia con.-istent witli Homeric thnea There 
is, doubtless, a complinicnt intenclcd to 
C5 



B. III. Sl-92. 



NOTES ON TIIE /ENEID. 



B. III. 04-103. 



Augustus, as chief civil ruler, and Pontifex 
Maximus. and an approval expressed of 
the.iunction. 
8i. Redimitua tempora. See i. 228, note. 

83. Hospitio. Thiel considers this as the 
all. absol, " therc being a right of hospi- 
tality between us."' Others take it as the 
dat. for ad hospitium, to lbrin a tie of 
hospitality. But it ia better to takc it as 
the abl. " in consequence of," by reason of, 
tlie right of hospitality formerly established 
between Anchises and Anius. 

84. Venerabar — "I approacbcd in ad- 
miration and with prayers." Vetusto — 
Macrobius thinks that this implies not so 
much the age of the temple as the fact of 
the immoveable, steady position of the 
island, whieh. being free from carthquakes. 
left the first erection still standing. 

85. ; - Give us. O God of Thymbra (see 
Class.Dict.),apermanent (sure) settlement.", 

87. Altera Trojae Pergama is explained 
by relliquias, etc. which follow. 

88. Quem sequimur. Ou the indic mood, 
cf. il 322, note on ii. 738, and iii. 367. 

89. Pater — ApolloDeliusis called TiJiTup, 
jictr c.rceUenre. Augurium is used cf all 
modes which the gods adopt to indicate 
their will to man, and liere means an oracle. 
Illabere — an idea constantly brought out by 
the pocts ; it may be translated. "Inspire ;'' 
'• Descend h)to with prophetic inspiratioa." 

91. Laurus — the bay tree in frontofthe 
tcmple of Apollo, sacrcd to liiin. Liminaque 
— the que is lengthened bv arsis. See note 
L308. 

92. Mons, viz.. Cynthus, at the foot of 
which was the templc Mugire is oscd pro- 
perly of a hollow sound procecding fxom 
subterranean regions (iv. 490). Heyne re- 
marks that this passage has reference to 
tlie Delphic oracle, and the way in which 
its revelations were made, since in it the 
wind rising frorn the cavern on v.-hich the 
Iripod wiis placed, caused a noise similar 
t.) tii.it herc describcd. 




Cortma — "a round dish," sometimes put 
i r thc tripod itsclf, (sce the woodcut,) either 



1 because it wa« Bupported on three feet, or 
because it was placed on thc tripod as a 

, covering. Adytis—thc inner part, the " Holy 
of Holies"— thc tCivrct. 

, 94. The oracle is ambiguous, as usual. 

! Dardanidae is thc most suitable epithet tc 
apply to thc Trojans undcr the circum. 
stances, as it pointcd to their ancestor Dar. 
damts, and his country Italy, to which they 
were I 

j 9o. Quoe — kadem. This is a good ex- 
ample to illustrate the construction of tho 
indejinite pron. quae followed by thc demon- 

| strative eadem, instead of the more common 
onc of the antecedent and relativc. When 
this syntax is met with, it is usually ex- 
plaincd as an involved aud intricate ordef 
of the rcl. and antecedent. but a little rc. 
flection shows that such is not the case. 
It is nnnecessary to do more tlian simply 
call attention to a most striking example of 
the construction in Acts xvii. 23 : " Whom 
thereforc you ignorantly worship, him de- 
clare I unto you." Who can fail to discover 
the vast advaatage to emphasis from this 
form rather than from the plain and every- 
day phraseology, " I declare him unto you 
whom ye ignorantly worship ;" or, "Ide- 
clare unto you him whom ye ignorantly 
worship." See above, 27. 

97. This and the following linc are a 
literal trauslation of the words ascribed to 
Neptune by Homer, II. xx. 307, 8. 

"Stjv ol oh 'Aiviixo fiiri Tputffffiv kvu.\u 
Ka.) trctiouv cr".?Bsj, roi xiv fiivintSt 

yivuvrcci. 

99. Mixto tumvau, viz., on aeeount of tho 
donbtful interpretation. 

102. Volvens monumenta — "ponderhig 
over thc ancient Iegends." 

Iu4. Creta Jovis— Jupiteris birth-place, 
Sec Creta and Jupiter in Class. Diet. 
Anchises was exeusable for niistaking tl)Q 
oraele. The argnroents advanced by him 
to prove Crete the place siir)iitied by the 
god are. the descent from the Cretan Teu- 
cer — Mount Ida — the worship of Cybelft. 
with the Corybantes and tl)e Idaean grovo 
See note on 7. above, and on TS6, below. 

10-3. Mons Idaeus. thc largest in the islanci, 
the <^.hertwo most notable being Li/ctus and 
Dicte. Ida is now called Psitoriti or S. Giove. 
Cunabula. "the cradle," "hrst home." 

106. Centumurbes. Hom.ll.ii. 649 callsit 
ikxtoutqXi;, but in the Odyss. he givcs 
the nnmber as ninetv. This discrepancy is 
irrged as a proof that the Iliad and Odyssey 
were not written by the samc person or per» 
sons. 

1 08. Teucrus— a transference of tf~e Gree.k 
form r-vy.po; into Latm lettcrs; tlv couimou 
fonu is Teucec 



B. III. 109-12?. 



XOTF.S ON" TIIE iENEID. 



H. III. 123-183 



According to the most ancicnt fablcs, 
Tcuccr was a native of the Trond, thc son 
of the rivcr god Scamander and an Idacan 
nymph. Latcr traditions represented hhn 
aa the son ofa Crctan noble, 8camander,and 
Idsea, a Cretan nymph. Compelled by a 
faminc to raigrate from his native island to 
Phrygia, in company with his father, he 
tliere married tlic daughter of Dardanus, 
Bcttlcd permanently in the couutry, and 
gave his nanic to the Trojans. 

Bhoeteas oras, i.e., Trojanas — so called from 
the promontory Rlioeteum on tlie Helles- 
pont. 

109 and 110. Virgil has again translated 
literally. See Ilom. IL xx. 216-218. 

111. Jlinc, ctc. "Hence (from Crcte) 
came the mother Cof the gods) who dwells 
in Mount Cybele (hi Phrygia) — thc brazen 
cymbala of the Corybantes, too, and the 
Idaean grove: — hcnce were derived the 
mysteries of her (Cybcle's) rites, and hcnce, 
too, yoked lions drew the chariot of their 
queen." The Corybantes are confounded* 
with the Curetes, though distinct from thern. 
Thc Corybantes (whose name, as well as 
tliat of the Curetes, was derivedfrom r.opo:, 
xovpo;, or from xopus) were the armed 
priests of Cybele, and worshlpped their 
cleit y with dancing, the loud din of armour, 
»nd the sound of cymbals. Cybele is ts- 
tigned two lions yoked to a car, in token that 
matcrnal affection cau tame the most savage 
natnres. 

115. Gnosia regna, i.e., Cretan, from 
Gnossus, thc principal townof the island. 

116. Xec distant longo cursu — aboct 150 
miles. Cursu, abL of measure. Adsil, "be 
propitious." 

118. A ris=ad aras, according to Ilcyne. 
Forb., howevcr, considers it the dat., and 
explains "victima* quae in aris concrema- 
rentur." He explains similarly Geo. ii. 380, 
Caper omnibus aris cceditur. 

119. Neptune is conciliatcd as god of the 
sea, prospectively for their voyage — Apollo 
as having given tlie rcspon.sc. A llaclc 
sheep is oifered to Riems, as the storm it- 
sc-lf is dark and gloomy, with its threatening 
clouds — a tehite onc to tlic zephyrs, as 

ng and mild. 
122. Idomeneus, son of Deucalion, and 
grandson of Minos, had led a band of Cre- 
tans to the Trojan war. On his return, be- 
ing endangered by a storm, he vowed 
to sacrifice to thc gods, if spared by them, 
whatever first met him on reachinghis own 
nousc. Meriones, his son, becamc the melan- 
choly victim. A pestilence having vMted 
the island some timc posterior to this, thc 
crime of Idomeneus was considered the 
causc, and hc was in consequence exilcd; 
■ <1 in thc Sallentine territory, in tlie 
tc«',aii ofltaiy. 

N 



123. IIo$le—An cnemy, vlz., to tha Tro- 
jans, for the Cretans, as we havo sceiu 
had poiie against Troy. 

121. Ortygia. Delos was so callcd from 
ofvu\, aquail, thcse birds aboundiiig in it 
at one poriotl. 

12-j. Nascot — thc largest of tlie Cyclades, 
most fuvourable for thc cultivation of tlie 
vine, and tliencc fablcd to liavc bccn the 
birth-placo of Bacchus, as it was tlic princi- 
pal seat of his worship, — hodie, Naxia or 
yaxo. Bacehatatn jugis, " whose sum- 
mits were tlie scenes of bacchannlian re* 
vels." Tliis is an instancc of the particip. 
of a deponcnt vcrb being used passively. 
Sce Geo. ii. 487. Uonusa, now Denusa, one 
of the Sporades, to tlie west of Patmos. Itii 
cailed ViricHs, not so mucli from the colour 
of its marblc as from the verdure of its fields. 

120. Olearos — (called afterwards Antl> 
paros, from its position west and oppositn 
to Paros), onc of the Sporades, and famed 
for its grotto. Paros, one of the Cyclades, 
famed for.its snowy white marble, cut in 
Mt. Marpesus, hence thc epithets niveus, 
nitens, fulgens, etc, applied by the poets. 
Hor. iii. 28, 14, calls all the Cyclades 
nitentes. 

The Parian, or "Arundel marbles," con« 
taining thc annals of Athens from b.c. 1581 
to e.c. 264, were cut on this marble. They 
were discovered by M. Dc Pierese, from 
whom they werc purchased by the Earl ol 
Arundel, and presented to the University 
cf Oxford. 

127. Cycladas — so callcd from being 
placed around Dclos, with that island a» 
the ce^tre. 

For concita, some books rcad consita-~ 
"tliicldy studded," but this does not agree 
well with sparsas. TransL, therefore, " they 
cruise through the straits, chafed by reason 
of thc many islands." The waves pent up 
in thc narrow channels had not room t<? 
expand, and gradually diminish in size, and 
therefore rose higher and boiled rnore 
fiercely than out at sca, rcndcring the navi- 
gation dangerous. Forb. shows that the 
common reading, consita, and its cxplana- 
tion, wotdd prove Yirgil guilty of a geogra- 
phical blunder of a very serious kiniL 

128. Vario ceriamine. Forb. considers 
vario as more properly belonging to clamor 
(enallage), to express the variety of manuer 
and of sound with which the sailors uttered 
their mutual exhortations. 

130. A puppi—" in the rear," and thu* 
favourablc 

131. Curduin. Sec abovc, 111. 

132. Optatae urbis— cither "eagerlylonged 
for city," or "of thc city whose site I had 
prcviously selected." 

1:::;. Pergameaia—&u adj.— the eity was 
called I'ergamum. 



B. IIL 134-151. 



XOTES COs TIIE .ENEID. 



B. III. 152-173. 



134. Amare focos, Lc, domiciUum sibi 
pamre etpriva 

ssran and others take thifl as 

., fortheir pro- 

tectiou. But Forb. looks upon it as the 

I > raise a eitadel by bufldi 
greater altitude than the private houses; 
the construction is similar to jaculis in- 
tresc er e , 46, abovc 

135. Fere Wagn. joins to skeo. Forb., 
however, would connect it with subductae, 
or rather apply it to 136 and 137 as weh. 
There would thus be an elhpsis to be sup- 
plied as follows : — "Jamquefere novacolonia 
in eo erat ut conderetur, cum,'' etc 

136. Connubiis — on the synizesis, connutjis, 
see note i. 2. 

1 G 7. Dabam— another instance of zeugma, 
Tabida — " causing to dec-ay" iu an actite 
sense. 

139. Satis— " upon the crops." The i^fw 
was a miasma. 

141. Sirius — "the dog-star,"whose rising 
is followed by the hot season, is put for the 

ich it was supposed to eaus 
ilis— this is another example of the proleptic 
the adj., on which. see note, ^n. i. 
03: ii. 736. ••Sirius scorches the fields, so 
der them bar?'en," 

143. Remenso — used passively — see above, 
125. note, and JEn. ii 181. 

145. Quam rinem. Virgil makes finis 

iometimes masc. and sometimes fem. See 

En. i. 241; iL 554. Gellius believes 

that the ear alone decided which fonn was 

fc> be used. l'nde=ex qua re. 

147. Terris. for in terris. the prep. being 
omitted very frequently by the poets. 

14S. Efngks diriim, Phrygiique Penates— 
iui instance of hendiadys (I» ^<» ^volv), 
the two phrases meaning the same set of 
deities, though the form of expression would 
^eem to indicate that different personages 
were intended. See note on 12, above. and 
;£ii. l 2 and 25S. Que is epexegetical, Le,, 
Jt so connects two phrases, more or lcss 
I from each other, that they coalesce. 
into one notion. See EcL iL S—umbras et 
frigora. and JEn. L 2. 

15L In somnis — "asleep;"but insomnis — 
"awake." The latter reading is preferred 
by Heyne, on accoimt of tbe two phrases, 
nulto manife-sti iumine, and, 173, nec sopor 
fUud erat, which he thinks inconsistent 
with a dream. But Jahn, "VTund., and 
Forb., adopt «';» somnis, interjr<reting nec 
sopor illud erat, "nor was it a mere empty 
dream," sed (173) coram agnoscere vultus — 
videbar. 

Jahn remarks, that the very imagining of 
the moonlight peering through the chink in 
the wali was manifestly part of a dream. 
Tideri, also, is a word properly used in 
dccaan 



152. Fen 'stras — l 'apertures" — inMriat 

'ibllS. 

154. Quod, etc— (id) hic canit — see note 
95, above, 

Sub fe,La, teduce, 

158. Idcm for iidem — used with great 
force after the double nos. 

ToUemus in astra. Servius and othen 
thought this a refereuce to the apotheosis of 
But Heyne, Tliiel, Forb., etc, ara 
of opinion that it simply denotes the greal 
height of power to which the Roman natiou 
would reach; and the following clause, 
imperium urbi dabimus, seems to confirm 
this latter interpretation. 

159. Moenia — Rome, not Lavinium, as 
the preceding Imperium urbi dab. shows. 
^Eneas was desired only to prepare a city, 
magnis — "for his great descendants"— a 
phrase which exactly suits Lavinium, as tho 
grandmother of Rome, through her daughter 
Alba. 

162. Cretae for tn Creta. The names of 
islands are sometimes treated, even among 
prose writers, as the names of towns. See 
note on Mn. i. 2. 

163-166. These verses are transfcrred frora 
JEn. L 530, where see notes. 

167. Dardan us was the son of Jupiter by 
Electra the wife of King Corythus. He laft 
Italy with his brother Jasius, and jnigrated 
to Samothrace, whence, on the death of tho 
latter by the thunderbolt of Jupiter, he 
passed over to Phrygia. He there married 
Batia the daughter of King Teucer, and by 
right of inheritance reccivedtheTrojan king- 
dom. From that time the Troad was called 
Dardania, and the Trojans Dardanidae. 

16S- Pater is to be applied to both Dar- 
danus and Jasius, as being patres,founders, 
of the race, and not on account of their great 
age. Somc however, have imaghied that 
pater is purposely applied to Jasius to sig- 
nify that he lived to a good old age, thereby 
contradicting that form of the legend which 
represented him as slahi by liis brother 
Dardanus, who would thus, as a murderer, 
be no very respectable ancestor for the 
Romans. 

170. Carythum — thetown near lake Trasi- 
menus, afterwards called Cortona-, a most 
ancient city of Etmria, Heyne understauds 
King Corythus to be here "meant, and not 
the city which was of his foundation. Cory- 
th us will in either case mean the whole dLs- 
trict of Etruria and Latium. 

171. Ausones was the Greek name for the 
most ancient inhabitants of Latium. Dictaea, 
Le.. Cretau, see 105. 

172. TMs line is in close connexion 
with 176, so that 173, 4, and 5, are paren- 
thetic The anacolouthon (see note -32n. 
L 237} suits well the violence of feeling of 
iEneas. 

173. Kecsopor — "norwas itamereempty 



B. lil 174.-188. 



NOTEfl OM THE /ENEID. 



li. III. 185- 203. 



dream," scc 1-31 In sopor illud—tt\c usual 
attraction of thc pron. is here ncglected : wc 
would expect ille. 

Ne'er waa dream so like a waking, 

aud so with shrieks 

She melted into air. Allrightcd nmch 
I did in thne eolkct myself, and thought 
That this waa so, and no shunber. 

Suakspeee. 

174. Velatat—Qidr fceads adorned with 
fillets. 

176. Supinas— with the palms upward. 
If they prayed to the sea gods, they stretched 
their hands towards the sea ; .if to the infer- 
nal deities, they extended them towards the 
earth. In Tendo we have another instance 
ofzeugma, ii. 258. 

178. Intemerata munera — "wine offered 
with purity of mind and piety of senthnent." 
Serv. "Pure, unmixed wine." Wagner. 
The adv. intemeratus is rarely used of things 
possessing substance, but always of affections 
or statesofmind; soii. 143, intemerata fides. 

Focis — •' on the hearth," because that* 
was the altar of the Penates. 

179. Facio certum — theprose form isfiacio 
tertiorem; "I certify"," "inform one of." 

Pando — "unfold," "explain;" ex ordine, 
"in the order of occurrence." 

180. Prolem ambiguam — the "doubtfuk" 
"iwofold genealogy," becausc the Trojan 
race could be derived both from Dardanus 
and from Teucer, the genuine parents. Ob- 
serve agnovit goveming the acc, and also 
the infin. as co-ordinate. 

181. Novo veterum errore locorum. For 
lengthened anuotation on this difficult and 
much canvassed passage, we must refer 
students to the commentators, contenting 
ourselves with the mention of that explana- 
tion which appears most simple and con- 
sistent with the context. As iEneas had 
fonnerly (13 sqq.) erred in his atternpted 
settlement in Thrace, having considered 
that a3 the land destined to him by fate, so 
now, a second time, he is forced to abandon 
his supposed kingdom, and again set forth 
ln quest of the ever-receding territory. He 
did not err, however, in his interpretation 
of the oracle, but hi his choice of pAace. 
Transl.: "He acknowledged that he had 
bcen led astray by a second mistake with 
regard to the lands of ancient celebrity" 
(in the history of the origin of the Trojans). 
The late Dr Moor (Glasgow University) 
suggested, "misled with regard to these 
ancient countries (Crete and Italy) by thc 
later voyage," Le., he confounded the voy- 
age of Teueer with the earlier one of Dar- 
danus. 

183. Cassandra — see vEn. ii. 246, and 
consult Class. Dict. Observe the alliteration 
Jn casu3 Cassandra canebat., C£ iEn. v. 866, 
and Geo. L 157 and 389. 



185. "Thatshe often spoU of Hcsperia, 
and often too of an Italian kingdom." 

186. Ad Hetperiae Utora venturos — ct 
note on 7. 

187. Crederet, moveret. Thc pluperf. tense 
woukl be more natnral according to oul - 
kUom. Sce Madvig, Znmpt, and BchmtU, 
on uso of imperfi subjunctive. 

188. Moniti, viz., by the Penates. 

. 189. Qpaates, "rejoicing." On the ovatic 
consult Ramsay's Antiq. 

190. Compare this line with the remarks 
made iu note on 181, marking the form oi 
quoque as strengthening the interpretation 
put upon novo. 

191. Trabe— put for the wholc ship, as 
often elsewhere. Cf. Hor. Od. L 1, 13. 

Currimus aequor. On this construction 
seenotc on ^n. L 07. 

192 sqq. Withthis dcscription of a tcin- 
pest. cf. Hoin. Od. xiv. 301 sqq. It sur- 
prised them when rounding Cape Malea 
(see 193). 

195. "Bringing darkness and a tempest 
— the water, too, grew dark with murky 
waves." 

196. Magna aequora surgunt — "thevast 
sea plains rise into billows." Volvunt mare, 
"cause the sea to swell." 

198. Involvere diem nimbi — "turned dav 
into night;" Le., "took away the view oi 
the sky, and the light, and the sun." 

199. Ingeminant, etc — "the lightning 
flashes burst incessantly from thc rivcn 
clouds." Cf. Burns — 

The lightnings flash from pole to pole, 
Near and more ncar the thunders roll. 
And Milton— 

The cloucls, 
From many a horrid rift, abortive pcurcd 
Fierce rain, with lightning mixcd. 

200. Caecis — Lc, " enveloped in dark- 
ness," so that we cannot distingnish wftcra 
we are, or whithcr we are going,— "dark," 
"dangerous." 

201. Negat. Nego means to u sap no. n 
After nec in the next lhie dicit is to be sup- 
plied from this word. Transl. : "Even 
Palinurus himself declarcs that he camiot 

distinguisli, and avows (dicit) that he 

does not remember (i.c, know) his course 
in the open sea," (media vnda). 

203. Adeo is to be closely joined with 
tres — " for three entire days of uncertainty " 
(incertos), or " actually three days." Wagn. 
doubts whether it ahould be joined to trcs 
or to incertos — " thus unccrtain." Ineertos 
means so dark as that the navigation was 
uncertain. Soles for dies is a common change 
of notion. Caecd caligine depends on in- 
certos and not on erramus. Such pleonasms 
arc frequent — so caecis in tenebns, Lucr. 
The cacophony arising from the close posi- 
tion of the syll. ca in the end of the one 
69 



B III. 1-06-2L6. 



KOTES ON THE J-LXIIID. 



B.III. 217-242. 



w-v.rJ and in the beginulng of next.has been 
arachreprebended. Tbusalso Doric\c\stia. 

bare," "di 
"display t>> our view." 

• ftimum, viz., from thc houses of 
llie inhabitants, a sight pleasing to the 
Trojans, as it showed that the Land waa 
aot waste and unpcoplcd. 

207. Calunt, Lc. "art lowered," for in 
shallows thcy propellcd thc ship only hy 
thc oars. 

Insurgimut rtmis — "we rise to thc oar 
stroke." This and the pbxase adaixi in the 
following hne expre&s with great force and 
distinctness the full strain of mind and of 
muscle put forth by each sailor. 

. ' rrunt — "sweep the dark blue sea." 
Torquent — " toss." Caerula — see note on 
iEn. L 310. 

210. On thc Strophades, Ilarpies. Phmeus, 
a.id othcr proper namcs, consult Class. Dict. 

:'ll. This line is vc-ry rcmarkable in scan- 
sion; not only is hiatus twice admitted, but 
tlie final sylls. of Insulae and Ionio are 
treated as in Grcek, i.e., oue of the two 
times ("jnome") of the long sylls. is re- 
jectcd before the uext word beginning with 
a vowel, and the remaining " time" thus 
represents a short syll., — otherwise, half. of 
L is thrown away. See Metrical 
Lndex at end of voL, and note 74, above. 

•213. Priores mensas. See Class. Dict 
undcr Harpuiae. 

213. Ira Jeiim — " manifestation of the 
lvrath of heavcn," "judgmeat of heaven." 

21G. Vir(ji::eiv->'(ia-um vultus,i.e., "though 
birds in shape of body, yet they had thc 
faces ot* women." The Lazger sized bats 
seem to have given rise to such descriptions; 
it is perhaps an admixture of the bat and 
the vi 




Sasft. 



217. Ventris prohuics — " Sordis tffusia. 
Vitavit ne dkerei btebcub." Serv. Tha 
filthycxudationsuitsbetterthevulturetribc, 

• .. pinguia — "fat." 
221. Capriijenum — an old adj. uscd by 

Pacuvius (534-624, u. c), and Attius (-394- 

G70. O. c.) 

Nullo cuslode — animals sacrexl to thc gmls 

were allowed to wander in the pasture 

without restraint and unguarded. 

223. In partem praedamqae, i.e., in par- 
tem praedae, by hendiadys. Sec nolc on 
148, above, aud i 2. 

224. Toros— scats of turf raised in tlie 
manner of couchcs. 

225. Subitae is much more cxpressire 
than the other rcading, sulito. 

227. Diripiunt — " they seize and dcvour." 
Deripiunl woidd mean "they carry off to 
some other placc." 

22S. Tvm=porro, "moreover/^notpoi^a, 
" thereafter." Obsen - e thc omission of tho 
subst. verb. 

201. Aris is consideredby Ileyne as equal 
to focis. But Wund. takes it in its proper 
aceeptation, "altar;" for at every feast a 
'portion was Crst prcsented to the gods. 
Virgil, therefore, as he had mentioned the 
first offering to Jupiter in 224, dismisses the 
subject briefly now, so as not to prove vcr- 
bose and tedious. Reponimus, etc. — " we 
relandle the fire on the altars." 

232. Ex direrso coeli=ex diversa parti 
coeli. See note 208, above, and ^En. i. 010. 

204. Tunc=hoc tempore — now whcn they 
made a sccond descent. Observe the changc 
of construction from capessant to gerendum, 
though both depend on th° same verb, edico 
Seo EcL v. 47; xi. 74; iEn. ii. 5; Geo. i. 25 
237. Tectos disponunt — latentia condunt, 
i.e., disponunt vt tegantur — et ita condum 
ut lateant "Wc have here two very remark- 
able examples of the proleptic use of the 
adj., on which see note 2En. iL 736 and i. 63. 

239. Speculd — ahighposition commanding 
an extensive view, '-a watch-tower;" but 
spcculum, "amirror." 

241. Foedare stands in apposition to proc- 
lia, as at Geo. iv. 554, stridere does to mon- 
strum. Wagner makcs thc infin. deper.d on 
tentant. 

Obscoenas— either "filthy and disgust- 

I ing" in appearance and in smcll, or "ill- 

omened," "unpropitious." Thcy are callcd 

volucres pelagi, as being grand-daughters ot 

Oceanus, 

242. Vim = ictum, "mark of violcncc." 
Tcrgo, Le., corpore. 

The elements, 
Of whom your swords are tempered, may as 

weU 
Wound thc loud winds, or with be-mockcd- 

.bs 
Kill the still closing watcrs, r.s diminish 
One dowle that's Lu my plume.— Shaksp. 



B. III. 244-201. 



NOTES ON TIIE iEXEID. 



B. III. 2C4-27&. 



244. Semietam (to bc pronottnced semye- 
tam) is tlie more approved reading, [nstead 
of * nusam. ln rt Unqtsmt we havo anotber 
remarkable instance of zeugma. 

246. Infelix vates — "prophetess of cvil." 
UtifTi itsutSr. Hom. II. i. 106. 

247. Pro caede — " as a retiirn for;" said 
Barcastically, "a pretty reward, lbrsooth, 
2br the slaughter," ctc. 

Bellum—biUuni. This rcpetition of the 
same word is called anaphora. 

248. Laomedontiadae. Thc name is ap- 
lilied to rcmind them of the treachery of 
Laomedon, and thus to taunt them with the 
bnpiety of the race from thc earlicst time 
down to the prcsent. 

241). Harpyias insontes. Bothc places 
thc adj. first, tlius restoring the reading 
which prevailed before Hcinsius. This 
ordcr Jahn, too, approves, as more accord- 
nnt with the practice of tbc poets m placing 
the adj. before its subst. But the order in. 
dicatcd above is preferred by Heyne, Wag- 
ner, and Forb., on the groond that the 
epithet, comiug after the caesura, acquires 
mure force by the necessary cmphasis m 
pronunciation. 

Patrio, L c., rvjhtful because granted by 
the gods ; or because insulae, and therefore 
oceanic. See above, 241. 
Cf. Hom. II. i. 297. 

252. Mihi praedixit. Jove was esteemed 
the supreme counsellor, and omniscient. 
His will he communicated to Apollo, and 
the iatter, in his turn, imparted the know- 
ledge of futurity to whomsoever be pleased. 

M Uuiia — "eldesL" Homcr keeps the 
Ilarpies and thc Furies distinct, Od. xx. 
77, but they are oftcn confounded by other 
poets. 

256. Jcmante-quam. In vil 112 sqq., we 
havc the fnlrilr.ie-.t et th;-* oracle, wbicb 
caused so mucb perplexity to tlic Trojans. 
Thc wbeaten cakes on which their otlier 
viands wcre in the first instance laid as on 
dishes, were devoured after the food which 
they hau bonie had becn consumed. Virgil 
has been censured for the introduction of so 
Kiily an incident into an epic poem ; but per- 
haps soine lcgend of Latium, bavmg this as 
ilBsnbject, suggestedthemention ofit here. 

257. A)nlc6os — prolepsis of adj. See note 
237, abova 

Deriguit — "ffose v.ith horror," 
" tlicir courage was prostrated," cecidtre 

Oliimi. 

261. Pacem — "pardon for thcir criines," 
says Heync. But Forb. intcrprets it "sue for 
its coininon signification, wbich be 
allcges is provcd by thc opposition bctween 
mis and ted preribus, togethcr witb 
'i U> .-qq. E.rpuscere is applicd with particular 
roferencc to precOms, but also has rebttion 
U> votis and r.rmii aa wclL Thcrc is tlicrc- 



forc a zeugma In tlie word. Sec JLn. L 79, 
and ii. 258. 

2t;4. Meritos honores — "praycrs," says 
Heyne ; " sacriliccs," says Wagn., with mora 
Bhow of reason. 

267J Di riperefunem — " to loosen thc land- 
fast witli all speed." On jubet with injin. 
consult tlie Gnunmar. Excussos laxart ru- 
dentes, anothcr bistance of prolepsis of adj. 
"Tounrarc/andlctgothesailrobes." Heyne 
accounts for the large share Anchiseshas in 
the managemcnt of affairs — lst, on account 
of the grcat revcrence paid in thc heroic age 
to seniority and to parentage; and 2d, bc- 
causc Anchiscs was wcll verscd in augury 
aud divination. 

269. Vocabat, insteadof the morecommon 
vocabant, for Virgil usually makes thc verb 
agrec with the last of a scries of subjects. 

270. On the islands here mentioned con- 
sult Class. Dict. Observe that thc last syl. 
of nemorosa is not lengthcncd before the 
double consonant z. 

275. Formidatus ApoIIo, i.c, the templc 
of Apollo, dreaded by mariners on account 
of the rocks on which it was built. Heyne 
thinks that the temple of the Actian Apollo 
at Actium is meant, and not that on Leucata. 
The mention of the games makes for this 
opinion, while the scuthern position of the 
promontory, and tlie site of the city in the 
northcrn part of thc island, militatc against 
the opposite view. Aperio, the word used 
for "coming into view," as abscondere is to 
recede firom sight. 

276. Parvae urbi. The Delphin com- 
mentator supposcs Leucas to be meant, 
but Heyne believcs it to bc Actiuin. The 
mention of this town, and of the sports, is 
no doubt made in compliment to Augustus, 
who establishcd (a. c. c. 726) quinquennial 
games, to commemorate his victory over 
Actony, 31 nc He foondcd, morcovcr, 
the town oi' Nicopohs. 

27S. Insperaid — witb reference to the 
dangcrs recorded ahora '" Tlie land wbicb 
we never expccted to rcach." 

^79. bustramur Jovi. There was a neccs- 
sity l'or cxpiatory and purificatory offcrings, 
in order that the gamcs might bc duly cele- 
brated But why, it is askcd, were tlicse 
offerings made to Jupiter rather than to 
Apollo, in whose honcur the festival was 
beld? Becausc, wben sacred ritcs wero 
performed in honour of any deity, Jupitcr 
was inyited in partem; and, morcovcr, cx- 
piatory and puriticatory sacriliccs wcrc pro- 
pcrly maile to Jupiter, as the avengcr of 
mujder, and of every crime for which atone- 
ment was to bc made. Heync. 

Incendimus aras totis — "we cause the 
altars to blaze, in fuliilment of our vows." 
i.e., we burn frankincense and victims c>n 
the altars. Cf. Hor. Od. i. 4, S, 1'uhar.M 
ardens cniT officinas. 



B III. 280-292. 



NOTES OX TIIE yEXEID. 



D. III. 294-310. 



2S0. Actta— this form is sometimes used 
for Actiaca, as at JEn. viii. 675; Ilor. Epist. 
L 18, 61. See above, 276 

Celebramus, which is properly applied to 
the gamcs, is, by a poetic liborty, referred 
to the place which is celebrated (crowded), 
by the large concourse of pcople assembling 
to take part in, or to view the sports. 

281. Palaestras. This word means not 
only the gymnasium, or place where the 
cxercises were practised, but also, as hcre, 
the gymnastic art, and the struggles of the 
combatants. The plur. number is used to 
suggest the various kinds of contests. Pa- 
trias — such as they were uscd to in thcir 
»wn country. 

Oleo labente — the oil with which the com- 
batants were anoiuted fiowing down from 
their bodies. 

282. Fvasisse, " to have safely passed by." 
See ii. 731. 

2S4. Sol circumvolvitur — "the sun by 
his revolution completes the year," i.e., the 
fourth after the overthrow of Troy. Gos- 
srau takes the verb as deponent, and others 
write separately circum volvitur, but the 
above explanation of Forb. renders the two 
latter modes unnecessary. Wakef. Lucr. 
i. 1028, thinks that the year is called mag- 
vus as appearing longer in its duration to 
exiles and wanderers. 

285. Asperat vndas glacialis hiems. Cf. 
Ilor. Od. i. 5, 7. 

286. Votive shields, inscribed with the 
name of thecaptor aud of the person from 
whom captured, were common gifts to be 
suspended in temples. The poet refers to 
the cclebrated shield which Abas, a most 
ancient king of the Argives, suspended in 
the temple of Juno, to be borne in proces- 
sion by him who should gain the prize iu 
tbe Argive games. Virgil feigns that this 
fihield was taken in the Trojan war from a 
descendant of the famous Abas, slain by 
yEueas. 

2S7. Postibus adversis — "on the front of 
the temple," Le., " on the doors facing you." 
Carmine, i.e., titido, epigrammate. 

288. Haec arma, supply dedicavit, orjixit, 
from the line above. 

291. Abscondimus, raresce?'e, 411, and 
aperire, 275, are nautical phrases, the 
meaning of which is obvious. See 275. 
Phaeacum arccs, i.c, the hills of Corcyra. 
The Phaeacians (who with their kingAl- 
cinous are celebrated in the Odyss. of Hom.) 
were the most ancient inhabitants of 
Corcyra (Corfu), having been expellcd from 
Sicily by the Cyclopes. Proten&s, "con- 
tinuing our course." Protenus applies to 
space; jvotinus to timc, but this distinction 
is not ahvays borne out by cxamples. 

292. Legimus — "we cruise along the 
coast of Epirus, and enter the Chaonian 
barbour," (portu for portui), i.e., Pelodes, 

72 



the lake on which Buthrotum (now Butrinto) 
wasbuilt. See Smitifs Dict. of Geog. sub. voc. 
Buthrotum. Epirus, i.e., r^u^o;, "the conli- 
nent," as opposed to Corcyra, by whose in- 
habitants the namc was first given to it. 

294. Occupat=accedit ad aures — reaches 
our ears. The verb is perhaps intended to 
convey the idea of engrossing the attention. 

295. On Helenus, Andromache, Pyrrhus, 
etc, see Class. Dict. Per is used for in 
vrhen speaking of an cxtcnsivc space, tlia 
individual parts of v.hich are prcsented ta 
the mind. 

29G. Conjugio is put for conjuge, as scep- 
tris is for regno. 

297. Iterum to be-joined with palrio-* 
" a husband, agaJh a countryman." Heyne 
would delete this and the preceding versc, 
because, if they be aUowed to remain, they 
render the question of JEneas, Jlcctoris 
Andromache, etc, 319, ridiculous. But 
-Eneas merely repeats, in 319, with distrust 
the report which he had heard, and which 
seemed to him incrediblc But even sup- 
pose he first heard the news from Andro- 
mache's own lips, it is to be remembered 
that he is here narrating the story to Dido, 
and may therefore be allowed to anticipate 
thc discovery he madc Weichcrt. 

299. CompeUare is in opposition to amore, 
for which construction see ^n. v. 638, ii. 
350, and i. 704, note. Casus — "vicissitudes." 

301. Cum is'by Wagn. preferred to tum 
as a reading in this place, for a reason 
which is urged m iEn. L 536, notc 

Sollemnes — not "splend'2" — but "custo- 
mary," "periodical," "annual." 

Dapes libabat—vras presenting part of th« 
food to the Manes aud Lares. Dapes (oui;) 
is said to be applied to the banquets of tlie 
gods, while epulae refers to those of meu. 
X°h (Le., honey with wine and milk) is the 
Grcek term. 

302. Falsi Simoentis — " the counterfcitcu 
Simois." A glance at the map of America 
is sufficient to supply numberless examples 
to prove the existence of a feeling similar 
to that which is here exhibited by Helenus 
and Andromachc. 

303. Cincri, scil. Hectoris. 

304. Manes vocabat Hectoreum ad tumu- 
lum, by a common inversion for Hectoris 
Manes voca 1 at ad tumulum. 

Inanem — a cenotaph. His tomb was at 
Troy. 

305. Geminas aras. See above, 63. 

306. Arma, Lc, armatos — men armcd in 
Trojan fashion. Amens — " bewildered." 

308. Deriguit, ctc. — " she bccamc para- 
lysed while beholding mc" 

309. Labitur — " she falls," "faints;" 
longo tempore, i.e., post longum tempus. 

310. Ad/crs, scil. te; verus 7iuntius »1 



1. IIL 313-329. 



NOTES ON THE JENEID. 



B. III. 330-339. 



tui — are yoa fhe rcal person whom your 
appearance announccs ? Vera/acies mcans 
the appearance of a living man as opposed 
to the apparition of a spectre. 

313. Furenti — " to her frantic with griof." 

314. Subjicio, vvo(oa.X/.aj, "reply." Ilisco, 
" I stammer forth." The word is ap- 
plied, principally hy the comic poets, to 
those who open thc mouth with an intent 
to speak, bnt being prevented by grief, or 
fear, or some other violent feeling, from 
continuous enunciation, utter worda hi a 
broken and abrupt manner. 

315. Extrema — "dangers," "difBculties." 

316. This line is a reply to Andromache's 
question, 310. 

318. Excipit means he (or it) "takes ap 
in succession as one of a series;" or, " to 
take up what has fallen." See also 332, 
below. Dejectam — " depressed," "cast 
down," as from hope, etc Excipere is 
therefore well opposed to it. Digna — be- 
coming thee and thy former rank. 

319. Eectoris, scil. vxor. The worcfs 
filia, iixor, etc, are often omitted before the 
gen. See Geo. L 138, and JEn. \ii. 36, and 
consult the Grammars. 

Servas. This verb is used as ahnost equal 

to l.abere. Bofvkdmivfor^X^' 9 - "Are 
you, Hector's Andromache, now the spouse 
of Pyrrhus ?" Wagner considers this as an 
cxclamation of sorrow at her lot, rather 
than a question. See, however, note on 
297. 

Pyrrhin\ The e of the enclitic particle 
ne is frequently elided, more especially in the 
comic poets. 

Althougb JEneas had referred in the 
mildest manner to her state of concubinage, 
by using connubium, the terni for lawful 
wedlock, yet Andromache is forcibly re- 
minded of her servile condition, as she 
manifests by her attitude. 

321. Priameia virgo, Lc, Polyxena. To 
understand the referencein thisline andthe 
following, consult Class. Dict. on Achilles, 
Paris, and Polyxena. Uaa felix — "singu- 
larly fortunate." 

324. Tetigit cubile. Cf. Hom. H. L 31. 
%iv«$ uvrtciojcoc-j. 

325. Diversa. Sce above, note 4. 

326. Stirpis Achillwe—" the son of Achil- 
les," viz., Pyrrhus. 

irvitio enixae — "toilingin slavery," 
but better, " bearing children in Blavery." 
Pausanias relates that she bore to Pyrrhus 
three sons, Molossus, Pileus, and* Per- 
gamus. 

328. nermione, daughter of Helen and 
Menclaus, and therefore grand-daughter of 
Leda. Sec Class. Dict. on these v, 

329. Wunderl. would make the que after 
famulam couple secutus (est) to transmisii. 
Bat Wagn. and Forb. interpret it thus, 



il famuIo me dedit. tt qtttdem me ipsamfam* 
ulam" — "gave to Helenoa, a alave, me 4 

slave too"— a slave like himself. I/abendani 
— " to be possessed." 

conj higis — " his be» -othcd 
Wife, v.lio was WTested from him." 

331. Scelerum Fvriis, i.c, the Furies— "he 
aveogbra of meu'8 crimee. Orestes haJ 
slain hismother, Clytaemncstra. 

332. Excipit— " surprises." The verb r is 
used properly of attacking wild beasts from 
a place of ambush, but it is frequently 
transferred to men. See 318, notc 

Patrias aras — an altar erccted by Neop- 
tolemus at Delphi to his father Achilles as 
a hero. The enormity of the deed is en-= 
hanced by the circumstance that ifwas 
perpctrated at the altar, which was looked 
upou as the asylum of the wretched. See 
Sln. i. 349. 

333. Pars, sciL Epirus, which Neopt. 
had added to his paternal Phthia. 

Reddita. This verb is morc than simple 
dare. It means to give up to one that 
which is, in some sense, his right, or that 
to which he may have established some 
clairn. Helenus, as the son of a ling, might 
expect that, after faithful guardianship of 
the interest of his royal master, he would 
come in for some share of the kingdom at 
the death of the latter. 

334. The Chaones, whoderivedtheirorigin 
from the Pelasgi, were much more ancient 
than Helenus and Chaon, but Virgil takea 
every opportunity of glorifying the Trojans, 
by connecting them with names famous in 
history or in legend. Chaon is said, by Ser- 
vius, to have been a brother or acquaiat- 
ance of Helenus, and so attached to him 
as to have sacrificed his life to save that of 
his friend — in grateful reraembrance of 
which the prophet-son of Priam called 
after him the district of Epirus under his 
nde. 

336. Pergama Iliacamque arcem—a.nothev 
instance of epexegesis, on which see ^En. i. 
2, 569, notc 

337. Bmmann finds fault with this line, 
on the ground that Andromache ought to 
have known what winds woidd bring JEnenu 
from Troy to Epirus, and, to obviate the 
difficulty, has recotrrse to a conjecturalemen- 
dation. Heyne shows that there is no diffi- 
culty.forAndromacheismerelyaskingwhat 
i3 the cause of his coming ; was it a storm 
that forced him, or was it fate, or the direct 
interference of some individual deity ? 

339 Quid puer Ascanius? Superatne? et 
vescitur aurd, quae tibijam.Troja. . * * * 
This is the reading and punctuation ofWagn. 
and Forb., who, from one MS., adopt guae 
for quem, the more common lection. The 
lines have caused great variety of opinion 
among the learned, but it would be incon- 
sistent with the naturc of these "notes" to 
73 



B. III. 341-360. 



NOTES OX TIIE vEXEID. 



B. III. 362-874. 



foUow tlic critics in thcir voluininous com- 
mentaries. We thereforc merely give tlic 
explanation of thctwo distinguished scholars 
iust named. " Wliat of the boy Ascanius '? 
Does hclive': and docs she breathe thc vital 

air who to you whcn still at Troy?" but 

licrc a look or gestureof iEneas indicates to 
Andromache that Creusa is no morc, and 
ghe abruptly terminates her inquiry after 
thc mother to return to the boy. See For- 
bigers more lcngthy notc. 

341. Cura=cksiderium, "longing." Thc 
two following noble lines arc suggcstivc of 
thc sentiment that he will be more incited 
to glorious deeds who keeps in mind beforc 
liiin that he is the son of an illustrious 
father. 

343. Avunculus — " Uncle," by thc mo- 
thcr's sidc, for Crefisa, mothcr of Ascanius, 
was sister of Hector. 

344. Ciebat—ciere, or cire, Creek x-tvtTv, 
nieans to excile, call fortl'., — thc verb is= 
tdebat, " uttered." Incassum (from Supinc 
oiCarec), "in vain." 

346. On aclfert, sce notc 310, abovc. Suos, 
' his countrymen." 

348. Multiim, used advcrbially. Lacrimas- 
fundit=Lacrimat, to which multitm is with 
entire propriety joined. Cf. such phrases as 
multum differre, muUumfaUi. 

350. See above, note 302, on the names 
introduced here. Scaeae, properly the left 
hand gate ; the name of the principal gate 
of Troy mentioned by Homer. 

351. Itwas customary among the 1'omans 
for men returning home aftcr a long absence 
to embrace and kiss the door-posts of tlieir 
houses. 

354. Aulai— old form of gen. for aulae. 
The in usually placed after this word is 
oinittedby Forb. 

Libabant pocula Bacchi, i.c. they poured 
wine in libations from cups. 

355. Paterasque tcnebant, is to be con- 
nccted witli Ubabant. so tliat the sense will 
bc, — "they offered libations, hokling gob- 
lets." 

357. Tumidus is an adj. ttpplied to Auster 
from the effect of thc wiml — "Tlie south 
wind, which causes the sails to swell." 
Carbasus (plur. Carbasa) is properly a kitld 
of flax first found in Hispania Tarraconensis, 
but is applied to anything madc thcreof, as 
garments, sails, etc. 

359. Trojugena — Trojan-born "(Troja- 
gignoj, interpresdivum, Lc, vates, "Medium 
of communication between the dcities and 
mortals." 

360. Observethe veryremarkable^/^Ha 
insentis, which is appliedin a somewhat dif- 
fercnt seuse with each of the govemed ac- 
cusatives, and must in eacli be represented 
by an appropriale English verb, thus — " who 
feelest the inspiration of Phoebus; who tfll- 



dentande.il thc indications of the tripod and 
of the laarel of Apollo ; who canst read tlic 
stars, and interpret the language of birds, aa 

well as thc omens of the fieet wing." Apollo 
is called Clarius, from tlie town of Clarvs, 
near Colophon in Ionia, where he had a 
far-famcd temple and oraclc On Augurs, 
Oracles, etc, consult Ramsay's Anliq. Tlia 
following cut represents the tripod or stoo! 
on whicii the Pythian priestess at Delphi 
sat to annoimce the will of Apollo. 




3C2. Prospera religio, Lc, prophccy or 
rehgious rite, indicating good fortune : witli 
thls phrase, cf. above, 246, infelix vates. 
Omnem cwsum, i.c, all the voyage that 
remains. 

364. Repostas=remotas. 

367. Obscoenam famem — either "dreadful 
lumger," like dira, 256; or "foul," "loath- 
some," as it compels people to eat disgust- 
ing andnauseous thiugs (Ileyne); or=male 
auspicata, malo omine praedicata, viz., by 
the Harpies, the obscoenae rolucres (Schbrach, 
approved by Forb.) 

37o. Paeem — "favour," "good-will." 

Resohit — " unbmds." When ui the act 0? 
sacrificing, thc head of the priest was bound 
with a vitta. or infula, which, however, 
was takcn off beforc he proceeded to declare 
tlic will of hoaven — the hair being allowed 
to fly loosely about See woodcut, ii. 224. 

372. Suspensum — "7iorrore turbatum'' 
" awe-struck." Multo is, in Wagner*B 
opinion, equal to vehementer, to be joined 
with suspensum. It seems more natural, 
however, to refer it to numine, to indicate 
" tlie present majesty of the deity, in aU his 
glory, in his owu tcmple," asif (be the 
phrase quotcd without profanity) his 
"glory filled the housc" 

374. The following prophecy of Helenus 
is founded on that of Circe, Hom. Odyss. 
xii. 37 sqq. Thc parenthesis begms with 
nam and ends with ordo. The wliole pas- 
sage may be thus translated: "Son of a 
deity; — for thcre is distinct ground of confi- 
dence that you are traversing the dccp 



B III. 877-38G. 



N0TE8 OX TITF. .T.Xr.ID. 



a III. 



nnder vo common xutpice* (majoribus aus- 
friciis, i..\. Jupiter himaelf, and no mferior 
deity, being yourguideand protector): In 
Buch a way doea tlie king of the goda 
arrange tlie decrees of fate, and regulatc the 
circling changee of events: sucli a seriea of 
stancea is in procesa of fulfilment : — 
I shall relate to you,'" etc. This translation 
wfl) Baffidently explain the meaning of 
ta fides, axid mqjor. awp., , whicti two 
iatter worda Forb. had previonsly inter- 
preted, "auspices grcater tlian usually are 
allottcd to mankind ; " now, however, he 
takes thein in tlie sense above given, which 
Wagn., in hia Bmaller cdition. also approves 
of. The force and use of nam are best secn 
by taking it and its clause after the apodo- 
sis, i.c., after 377, 378, and after expediam 
diclis of 379. It has particular reference to 
tlie two words tutior and hospita. 

877. Hospita, "friehdly," (Heyne) — 
"strange," "foreign," (Forb.) 

879. "Fo* the Tarcae prevent Helenus 
from knowing the rest (i.c, of thc foundiAg 
of Rome, andita future greatness), andSat- 
urnian Juno forbids them (the Parcae) to tell 
liim more." The common reading has a 
tomma after scire, thus making te, undcr- 
6tood, the subject of this infin. ; but Wagn. 
temovea the punctuation mark, and makes 
fftlemtm the subject of the verb, because if 
Virgil had not wished Helenum to be the 
subject, he would (to avoid ambiguity) have 
written prohibent te; and, moreover, gue is 
never joined by our poet to the second word 
»f a clause unless when a prep. precedes 
(Sub pedibusque, Ecl. v. 57), or in tlie words 
namque and jamque. Bryant proposes to 
remove the worda from fari to the end of 
the Une to avoid the difiiculty; but tliis ia 
unnecessary, forwhen the subjeci is cbanged 
(from Parcue to Juno) in the two clauses, 
so may the object (Helmnm and Parects). 

88L To apenon leokfng at the map of 
Italy and Epirus, it wonld appear that the 
shorteat route for /Eneas to have pursued 
woidd have been to crosa thc narrow part 
ofthe Adriatic, and so to traverse the pcn- 
insnla ovcrland to Latium; but from this 
course Helenus dissuades him, advising 
ratlicr that he should sail ronnd Sicily 
(Trinacria unda), and thcn plongh tlie 
Ausonian (Tyrrhenian) main. or that part 
of tlie mare inferum which ia between the 
Tyrrhenian and lonian seas, i.c, the parte 
aronnd the fretum Siculum. 

allitera- 
tion, on which consult notc 1^'J, above. 

a poetic verb, 
nnd meana "to render flCxible," and then 
"tobend." There is generally an idea of 
tiilTicuUy hnplicd. 

336. Infcrni lacus, i.c. Avcrnus ™Aeptos, 
Ihe " birdle^s," bccauac birds wcrc said to 



bc unable to fly acrosa it witii Bafety) It 

oned one of thecntrancea toOrcua. 

on account of thc pestiferoua exbalationa 

which it scnt fortli. It was situated betweeu 
Cumac and Puteoli, and is now callcd Laqo 

Insula Circae Aeaeae — " thc island of 
Circac from Aea," a town in Colchis. This 
island was Bupposed to lie ncar Cape Cir- 
m Latium, anotion which the poet 
adopts. Onthepropernamea consult Class. 
Dict 

387. Componere is more tlian the simple 
ponere, i.c, condcre. It containsthe ideaof 
pcacc and tranqnility enjoyed during tht 
building, which idca <«/«fartherstrengthens; 
or, perhapa, it refera rather to the legal and 
municipal regnlationa made after the com- 
pletion of the walls and houscs. 

389. Tliis prophecy is repeated, with a 
alight alteration, at viii. 42 Bqq., and its 
fulfilincnt given at viii. 81 sqq. Ad undam 
jluminis secreti — " on the bank of the stream, 
at a scquestered part of its coursc" 

391. The number of the yonng reprcsents 
the years during which Ascanins was to 
reign, and the colour of them refers to the 
name of the city, Alba. 

394. Consult 255, above, in the prophecy 
of the Harpy Celaeno. Observe mc=et nc. 

395. Viam — "a way of escapc" 

396. //«5, hanc — these words are used as 
if the speaker wcve pointinc/ to Italy, on the 
opposite side, nostri aequoris, Le., the 
Ionian and Adriatic seas. 

398. Cuncta moenia — "all the cities" — 
"malii Oraiis" "evil-disposed Greeks." 

399. Locri, i.c, the Epizephyrii, in Brutii , 
they were a colony of the Opnntian Locri- 
ans, whose chief city was Naryx, or Xary- 
cium, oppositc Enboea (Xcfrropont). The 
por-t followg the logend which makesibesn 
Locriana the companlona of Ajax Oiica:-, 
who, wlien their fleet was shattered on thc 
promontory Capharcus, and thcir leadei 
Irilled, wcredrivcn to Brutii. 

401. Lyctius, i.c, Crctan, from Lyctus, r\ 
town of Crcte, near ML Dicte. On Iilo- 
meneus and Philoctctes, see Clasa Dict. 

TransL: "Here (i.s) that sinall (citj-) 
Pctelia, supported by (or built on) tlic wall 
(which was the work) of Philoctetes, th<j 
leadcr from Heliboea." 

403. Steterint is from sislo — "shall have 
come to a stand," 1; ahall bave anchored." 

404. In litore, viz.. at thc town, Castrum 
Minertae, aa ~>'->\. bIiows. 

I 405. The covering of thc head during 
aacrince, tbeobject ofwhich is Bxplained in 
407, Livy (i. 7, '■',) allegcs to be an Alban 
custom. Thc Grccks nncovcred thc head. 

Velare is by somc ealled thc historic in- 
fin. But Wagn., Jabn, and Forb. considcr 
it the pass. impcr.=au act. impcr. witli * 
7a 



B. III. 40C-420. 



NOTES ON TIIE yEXEID. 



B. III. 421-442. 



pron. Thus velare comas=-veIa le comas (as 
to your hair), or vela tucis comas. Ou the 
rites and ceremonies of the Romans in re- 
ference to sacrifice, consult Ramsay"s Antiq. 
40G. In honore deorum — "whilst sacri- 
ficing to the deities; " or, "whilst worship- 
ping." See Geo. iiL 4SG. 

409. Casti, i.e., dutiful to thc gods, and 
watchful against acts of impiety; "upright 
in life." 

410. Digressum — "departed," viz., from 
Italy. 

411. Claustra angusti Pelori, i.e., angusta 
claustra Pelori—" the narrow strait of I'e- 
loras," properly, the barriers (rocks) rchkh. 
ai the promontory of Pelorus (Capo diFaro), 
approach so near as to narrow the sea. 
Rarescent, shall rise dimly on the sight, Le., 
when they shall appear scparate. or open 
on the view, so that you can distinguish 
Ihem, and recognise a channel between; 
for to marincrs at a considerable distance, 
Sicily and Italy appeared to be joined, and 
it was only a close approach which provcd 
them to be divided. 

413. To nndas supply dextras from the 
preceding dextrum. 

414. It was a common opinion among the 
ancients that Italy and Sicfly had once 
been joined, buttha*t an earthqiiake (rv.ina) 
had rent them asunder. This tradition 
gains some credit by the evidencc of geolo- 
-'-:«»? to the nature and outward confor- 
mation of the rockson each side of the Strait 
of Messina. The cliffs on each side of the 
Strait of Dover present like points of resem- 
blance. 

415. Aeri, Le., temporis. 

416. Protinus is to be jomed to vna— 
" continuously one," "one continent" 

417. Tenit^medio = in medium — "be- 
tween." 

419. Diductas=disjunctas — "disunited." 

420. On Scylla and Charvbdis. see Class. 
Dict. The rock of Scylla (ScigUo), about 
200 feet high, was on the coast of Cala- 
bria, near the town of Scylaceum, and 
contained caverns, into the rugged crevices 
of whieh, the wator, rushing with impetu- 
osity. caused the dreadful sounds and fan- 
tastic shapes that suggested to the poets 
the monstrons form and savage nativre of 
the destructive Scylla ; there were smaller 
rocks around, which, perhaps, gave a rude 
representation of a human figivre. Tra- 
vellers have stated that a current setsin to- 
wards the rock, carrying with it any object 
exposed to the influence of its stream. 

Ckaryb&s (obsolete Z&v, or X u ' vu > 
huco, and foifidsw, sorbeo) is a whirlpool of 
the Fretum Sicidum, near the entrance to 
the harbour of Messina ; or it is rather, 
perhaps, the raging billows of the strait, 
caused by the pent^up waters beinglashed 



by a sonth wfnd, and driven against tho 
precipitous cliffs of a rocky coast, thus 
causing an eddying motion, and a variety 
of currents, caleulated to sink, and, as it 
were, suck in, the ships which are unfor. 
tunate enough to get witliin its maelstrom. 

421. Ter, for aliquoties, as at iL 792. 

422. Abruptiwi =profundum — "into its 
deptlis," "the i 

423. Erigit — '■ tosses," "flingsup," pro- 
jicit in altum. 

425. Exsertantem. This frequentative 
verb is very rarely found. 

427. Pistrix — this word ia otherwiso 
written pristrix, and pristis, wbieb last is 
prefeiTed as the name of a ship, derivcd 
from her ■xu.pu.trvfiov, the sea monster 
Pristis. 

428. Commissa caudas— "joined as to tho 
taiis," Le., "having the tails of dolphina 
attached to the bodies of wolves or dogs." 

With this Scvlla of YirciPs, comparo 
Milton P. L. Bk. ii. C50. 

429. Lustrare metas, "toround (or double) 
the Capc of Pachynus" (Capo Passaro), the 
southern point of SicUy. 

430. Cessantem — "leisurely," procceding 
slowly and cautiously. Circumfiectere— 
this word is derived from the phrases of 
the race course, in which it was a nicety to 
tirrn closely round the meta without scrap- 
ing it with the wheeL 

432. Canibus caeruleis — "with her black 
dogs;" tliey were called lupi before, 428, but 
a veiy slight knowledge of natural history 
will suggest a justification of the poet in his 
variation of the expression. 

433. Prudentia=p>rovidentia, "foreknow- 
ledge." Gossrau. 

435. Proomnibus, "mplaceofallotiiors." 
"aa an equivalent to all others." Prat 
(bcfore all others) is another reading, pre- 
ferred by Hand, Tursell. iv. p. 5S1. 

437. Primum — before the other deities. 

438. Cane vota. Yows were conceived in 
a fonnula called carmen, hence canen 
is properly used of the repetition of this 
form. See Hor. Epist. ii. 1, 138. 

Libens, means vcith readiness, perfect tcill- 
ingness, r.either sparingly nor 'remissly. 
Dominam, Vurvonuv. Helenus hints. so far 
as he is allowed, at the intrigues of Juno, 
against which iEneas has to guard, viz.. tho 
sform, in Bk. L — the love-match with Dido 
— and the burning of the ships, v. 604. 

440. Miitere — "thou shalt be conductcd" 
by heaven's guidance. 

Italos. Observe the want of thc prep., 
and consult note, ^En. i. 2. 

441. On Cumae, see Class. Dict. So 
Romanam urbem for Romam. 

442. On Avemus, see above, 3SG, note. 
The lake is called Divinus, Le., sacred, bc- 



I). III. 443-151 



T^OTES ON TIIE JENF.ID. 



B. III. 430-171. 



cause connected with the Infernal rcgions 
and their deities. 

Sonantia silcis— "sounding amidst the 
woods." The epithet is tranaferred to 
Arerna, instead of being applicd to the 
tcoocls, for as a lake is spoken of and not a 
river, tlie niore natural sense would be, 
li Avernus among the sonnding woods." 
The lake is called in Geo. iv. 493, Averna 
stagna, aud the idea is that of a clark and 
Btill sheet of water, cxhaling pestilential 
vapours from its putrid surface, notions 
qnite opposed to sounding billows and 
moving waves. 

443. Insanam, Le., "inspired," pknam 
deo. Sub ima rupe, Le,, in the cave. 

444. Notat, i.e., literas; nomina, Le., 
verba. Instead of the tvro finite verbs, 
canit and mandat, coupled by a conj., we 
should rather expect the particip. of the 
one and the indic. of the other. This fable 
refers to the days of most remote antiquity, 
wiien leaces served for paper and caves for 
houses. 

44G. Digerit t» numerum — ''she arranges 
in order," i.e., in the order in which the 
events are to follow one another. 

448. Tenuis ventus, Le., even so light a 
breath of wind as is caused by the opening 
of the door. 

450. Deinde responds to the preceding 
cvm, as dehinc in 464, below, Xopostquam. 

452. Inconsidli — this adj. is used here as 
M unadvised," Le., "without procuring ad- 
rice," a sense which it bears in no other 
place. It usualiy means either one tchose 
ivlvice is not taken, or one icho acts rashly and 
vrithout counsel. Sibyllae — see Class. Dict., 
and consult N'ebuhr'9 Rom. Hist, vol. L, on 
tlie Sibyiiine pooka. 

453. Dispendium, which is the opposite of 
campendium, is properly (1) "expense," (2) 
"damage," (3) "loss." Mora means timc, 
which is wasted by delay (morando). The 
senge, therefore, is, " Eet not the loss of time, 
however much, be to you a matter of so 
prct t consequence * * as to prevent you 
from approaching the prophetess," etc. 

454. Increpitare means cither to rouse to 
action, or to "reproach;" both senses are 
liere oombined. 

455 Sinus, your sails; secundos, filled with 
& favouriog breeze. 

457. Ipsacanat — " request that shc sing," 
or " lc her of her own accord, and at her 
own pleasure, sing," which sense ofdesiring 
the 8tfojunctive contains. Some editors, 
however, remove the period after poscas, 
and conuect canat with it through ut, under- 
gtood. 

458. hla tibi, etc. The prophecy of the 
Sibyl may be read at aSn. vL 83 sqq. 



459. Observe thc copulativc que used In- 
stcad of the disjunctive conj. 

464. Gravid — the last syll. lcngthened by 
arsis. See note, iEn. i. 308. 

466. Ingens argentum — see note, JEn. L 
640. Dodonaeos, "such caldrons (lebctas, 
eithcr caldrons for cooking, or lacers for 
washing the hands) as are iu the temple 
of Jupiter at Dodona." Heyne. Wagn. sus- 
pects that Virgil borrowedthe epithet fi-oni 
some Greek poet who had heard that Helenus 
had settled at Dodona. These lebetes wera 
hung up on the oaks of the sacred grove at 
Dodona, and by their sound, when beaten, 
the priests prophesied. 

467. Loricam consertam hamis, etc. — a 
coat of mail made of bone or metal plates, 
fastened together with small chains, these 
chains being three-ply, and of gold. Others 
make it, " each third thread being of gold." 
The woodcut shows this Lorica in its 
fmished state, and also (on a large scale) 
the mode of fastening two plates together 
bv the wires or hamiT 




468. The Conus and Crista are seen hi 
the accompanying illustration :— 




469. Arma Keopt.—se& abovc, 333. Sua 
=convenientia, Le., "appropriate." 

470. Equos — horses, for which Epirus 
was CamedL Duces — Heyne understands 
this word to mean grooms, but Wagu. and 
Forb., with morc reason, interpret "pilots," 
as Dionysius relates that ^neas actually 
receivcd such from Helenus. 

471. Remigium — "a band of rowers." 
Heyne and Gossrau interpret, " thc equip- 

77 



B. III. 473-483. 



NOTES ON THE ,ENEII>. 



R III. 484 



mcnt of oars" — apparatus remorum, be- 
cause in the Homerictimes rowers were not 
tlaves, but the heroes themselves. But Wagn. 
remarks tliat the mention of oar-bladea is 
too trivial in connection with tlie splc.aid 
gifts of Helenus; and adds, farther, that 
Virgril does not always bring .orward thc 
customs of the Homeric thnes, but s»'»*ti- 
tutes those of his own day, (see i. 469, l.ute,) 
ns even the word supphre, which (with *«p- 
plementumj waa a word commonly used iu 
tlie military affairs of the Romans, bere 
bidicates. 

Socios — armis. Thc word simul ahows 
that by. socios tlie remiges (rowers) just 
mentioned, are not meant, but those who 
had been the associates of yEneas since his 
departure from Troy. Arma, therefore, 
does not mean oars, but armour betier than 
they had with thein, their own having been 
necessarily mucb damaged by exposure, 
v:ant o/care, and otbcr causes. 

473. Ferenti vento, a-'A[j.oo <p*^, "an im- 
pelbng breeze." 

474. Multo honore, i.*e., verbis honorificen- 
tissimis. 

475. Anchisa. On tbe various modes of 
declining this word, consult Gram. and 
Dict. 

476. Bis— "twice;" once recently. and 
once on thc destruction of Troy by Her- 
cules, on account of the perfidy of Laome- 
dou 

477. Tlanc arripe — "make for this in 
your sbips ; " direct your ships towarda 
this. 

478. Praeterlabare for praeternavigare, 
hut the usage is very rare. It is used of 
the course of a river, .En. vi. 875. 

482. Transl. : "And with no iesa care 
Andromnche, moved to sorrow at tho last 
moment of our departure, presenta garmcnta 
embroidered witb athread (literally l woof) 
of gold, and most especially (ti=et maxime) 
a Phrygian chlamys forAscanius — nordoes 
she fall sbort of the bonour due hhn (As- 
canius) : moreover. sheloads him witli gifta 
of the loom, and thus addresses him." 

4S3. Picturatas. Virg. is tbe first writer 
Inoum to use thisword (oxpietus; it became 
commonafterwards. however. Heynedoubts 
vrhether these robes were wrought in the 
loom or with the needie, bntWagnerthinks 
that the latter is more likcly. frum the men- 
tion of textilibus donis in 485. below, and 
from a passage whichoccurs in Silius, vii. 80. 

JSublemine,i.e..subtegmen,fvomsubhxime>i. 
as tela from texela. 6n the art of weaving. 
consult Ramsay's Antiq. The subtemen, 
ueft, cr icoof, was the cross thread whicb 
paased alternately above and below tlie 
warp. It is nct driven closely up to its 



place, but oidy loosely mserted in thc illus- 
tration. 





i ^ 












<B 


m = 




iiiiiiiii 










=-;S*^=-Z JH 


, .. . , - . 
■■■■ iiii 


;:; 












:::: :::: 
















~\]f f : 






























s 


1 








% 



484. The chlamys waa a Grcek upper 
robe worn in war, in hunting, and in jour- 
neying. Women and boys also wore it. 

Nec cedit honori. This claose has greatly 
pei-plexcd cominentators, and ils genuinc- 
ness has been often doubtcd. We ^-liall 
simply enumerate somc of thc many ex- 
planations of it which have been offered, 
withont entering into the arguments of those 
wlio propose or support each: — 

lst. Nor does sbe do dishonour to the 
dignity of his rank (lionori) \\\ the numher 
and value of the gifts offered; Le., she be- 
stows such gifts as he merited. Servius. 

2d. She is not behind (i.e., less sparing 
than) her husband in the noble gifts sh« 
presented — reading honore, and supplying 
Heleno. Scaurus, Heins., and Bothe. 

3d. She does not give way to (yield be- 
fore) tbe honour (the beauty and value) of 
the gifts presented, or the laudatory exprcs- 
sions used, sciL, by Helenus to >Encas and 
Ancbises. Heyne. 

4th. Chlamys, nnderstood, bcing nom. to 
cedit; nor docs it (the chlamys) yield to tbe 
bcauty and value (honori) oftheother gifts, 
Lc, nor is the chlamys inferior in beauty 
and value. Wagner. 

5th. Honori=honorato, by a Graecism, 
Nor, although a slave, does she (inhergiftsj 
fall sbort of (her busband) the houourcd 
(priest and king). Thiel and Henry. 

Cth. Non cedit (doms) honori (Ascanto 
debito), i.e., she suits her gifts (and more 
espccially the Phrygian cloak. to whicli thcsc 
words have particular referenee) to the rank 
of Ascanius. Forbiger, following Scrvius. 

Of tbese, 1 and C are perhaps moflt worthy 
of noticc. Tlie passage is onc which Virgil 
would doubtlcss have altered, bad liis life 
becn spared to rcvise his work. 

The woodcnts represcnt tlie ciilainys: the 
first, aa it appeara on tlie wearcr. and tho 
second, as in thc fold. For a dctailed de- 
scription, sec Rich's Companion to the Lat. 



F. IIL 466-4ML 



NOTES ON THK «JNELD 



B. III. 407-51' 



Di"t. and Greck Lcx.; or Sinith'8 Dict. of 
Antiu. 




486. Accipe et haec. Wagn., in his larger 
edition, had found fault with et, because we 
have not beeu told that Ascanius recoived 
any other gifts from Helenus. But, in his 
smaller and more recent edition, he ap- 
proves of Forbiger's explanation, viz. : — 
" Besides these gifts which Helenus has 
priven you (all), do thou, O boy, acccpt 
thcse also from Andromache." 

487. Longum — "lasting," for he had ex- 
perienced it when a child, at Troy. 

488. Tuorum — " of your relative ;" tlie 
plur. used as sing., on which see uotc, 2En. 
i. 4. 

489. Super is used adverbially, and the 
tubst. verb is undcrstood = sola superstes, 
"sole surviving." 

490. Sic ocuhs, etc. This is translated 
firoin Hom. Odyss. iv. 149. Observe the 
zeujtna inferebat. 

491. Astyanax, son of Hector and Andro- 
mache, was said to have been thro-\vu from a 
high tower of Troy, and thus killed. 

493. Vivite felices—a. usual mode of bid- 
ding farewell. Fortuna peracta, i.e., you 
have exhausted the calamities which fate 
had appointcd, and have now reached your 
dcstiny. So parla quies, 495, below. 

. 4'J(>. Semper cedentia retro — these words 
have reference, no doubt, to the words of 
Helenus, in 396, desiring iEneas to sail 
round Sicily, iustead of crossing Italy over- 
laud. 



•!:i7. Ejfigiem X<<n(hi—sec abovc, 349 gqq. 
499. Minus obvia — " less exposcd." 

502. Cognatas urbes, Le., Rome and Bc- 
throtuin, to which, in the time ofVirgil, a 
Koinau colony was sent. Forb. disapproves 
df Heyne'a idea, that tlie poet meant to 
flaiter Augustus by a reference to Nico- 
polis, Avhich tlie cmperor built after the 
batue otActiam (31 B.C.), and iu which he 
placed Acarnanians, with thc privilegc ol 
frce citizens, thc city being, at the same 
time, pronounced cognate witli Kome. 

503. Epiro, Ilesperia — the prep. in is 
omittcd. 

505. Ea cura, viz., to makethe two citics 
one Troy iu affection. 

506. Ceraunia, or Acroceraunia(*s^«f vaj), 
from their lightning - attxactikng heiglit. 
Juxta is sometimes put after its case, cven 
by prose writers. 

"507. Brevissimus, — "shortest," aboul fifty 
mile3, vndis=per undas. 

Italiam. On the omission of the prep., 
see note, JEn. i. 2. 

508. Opaci umbrantur, i.e., "are shaded, 
so that they become dark," by the proleptic 
use of the adj., on which sce note, ^n. il 
736. 

510. Sorliti remos — either "having de- 
cided by lot who should abide at the oara 
during niglit, and Avlio enjoy sleep ; " or, 
"being wearicd with rowing, which wc had 
performed in turn." 

512. Orbem medium (coeli), Le., the 
zenith. 

Nox horis acta, i.e., perhoras acla, decur- 
rens, nearly cqual to horis exactis. 

514. Explorat ventos. The pilot properly 
examines the state-of the weather about 
midnight, at wliich time the wind changes, 
or rises, more especiaUy on the coast, where 
the sca and land breezes alternate, on ac- 
count of the varying degrces of heat in thc 
atmosphere. 

Captat auribus suggcsts the liahtness of 
the breeze, the dircction of which it rc- 
quired an effort to discovcr. 

516. On this line, see tlie notes, iEn. i. 744 

517. Oriona — see Class. Dict., and notc, 
^En. i. 536. Armatum auro — x,f V(I "- f a -> be- 
cause, says Servius, " et balteus ejus et gla- 
diui clarissimis Jingitur slellis." 

Virgil, in liis enumeration, conjoins stars, 
not that thcy rise and set together, but bc- 
cause some of them prognosticate changes 
of wcather, and others cau be seen only 
in a clear and calm sky, from which 
latter Palinurus auticipates a favourable 
voyage. 

Thc line is spondaic, as wifl be at once 
discerned. The antepenult of Oriona is 
somctimes long (as here, and at 2En. L 535), 
and somctimes sliort (as at Ovid Met. viiL 
207) 

7» 



B. III. 518-535. 



NOTES ON TIIE ^EXEID. 



B. III. 53S-551. 



518. Constare— " arc composed and tran- 
quil." Coelo, i.c, tn coelo. 

519. Dat signum, viz., with a irwnpet, not 
with a torch. Castra, scil. navalia, nautica. 
It is thus uscd, iv.604. 

520. .4/as — ".the wings," i.e., in nautical 
bmgoage, u the clews." The metaphors 
taken irom the flight of birds are so often 
applicd to .ships, and vice versa, that it is 
nnneces&ary to do more than simply call 
nttcntion to the fact. So Scott, in speaking 
of the cagle, says, 

She spreads her dark sails on the wind. : 
While Byron, describing the course of a 
ship, says, 

Swift flcw the vessel on her snowy wing. 

582. The Trojans land at Castrum Miner- 
vae (531), ■ near Hydruntum (Otranto), 
Where tlie ■ shore is iow and soft ; hence 
humiiem. 

524. The repetition of Italiam expresses 
the great delight of the voyagers on its first 
appearance. Cf. Xen. Anab. iv. 7, 24. 

525. Cratera, i.e., poculum induit corona 
— "crowns;" but where, says Heyne. did 
they procure the flowers ? 

527. Stans in puppi — the poop, where the 
images of the deities were. This is not to be 
confounded with the fa.p£tTr l y.ov> "figure- 
head." See Ramsay's Antiq. 

528. He invokes the deities of the sea, as 
the element to be traversed, and those of 
Ihe air and the earth, as the sources whence 
Btorms arise. 

529. Secundi. The adj. here lias espedal 
force — much more than an adv. would have 
had: it is not simply, "blow favourably," 
but "be favourable to us, and blow as will 
best suit our course." 

530. Crebrescunt — "freshen." Portus, 
sciL Veneris, not far from Hydruntum, a 
town of Apulia, where those sailiug for 
Greece were wont to embark. It is now 
called Porto Badisco, and is not far from 
Castro, the ancient Castrum Minervae. • 

531. In arce Minervae, i.e., in the mount 
where was a temple of Minerva, built by 
Idomeneus. 

533. Portus, etc. The harbour was 
formed by two lines of rocks running out 
into the sea from either side of it, and so 
bending towards cach other, hi a circular 
form, as to makc a natural breakwater, 
defending the haven from the force of the 
billows which. came 4rom the east, (Ah 
Euroo fluctu). The adj. Euroiis ia found 
only here and m Priscian, Perieg, 871 ; tlie 
usual form is Eoiis. Forb. 

535. Ipse latet—eithcr (1,) It ■ (the har- 
bour) lies cahn and sheltered ; or, (2,) It is 
concealed from the view of those approach- 
ing, by the arms of rock which ruu out into 
the sea. 



536. Turriti scopuli — "the rocks shaped 
like towers," flinjr their arms into the sea 

'(with a gradual diminution In the height of 
the part exposed above water, decrtscunt), 
forming a pier on each aide. 

Templum refugti. When the traveller' 
were at a considcrable distance from Bhore, 
the temple appeared quite near tlie sca, but 
as they approached, it seemed to rccede, 
because it was placed on high ground, antl 
theslope of the hill betweenit and thc shore 
was gradually uncovered to view. 

537. Primum omen. The Romans werc 
particularly obscrvant of the first omen 
whieh presented itself after their landing in 
a country. 

• 540. The colour (white) of the horses was 
a propitious- omen, and as horses are used 
both hi tvar aud peace, Anchises concludes 
that there will be icar, which, however, will 
terminate in a treaty favourable to the in- 
terests of his family. 

541. Curru, for currui. 

5-14. Armisonae — this adj. is found no- 
where but here, and in one passage of Claiu 
dian. Forb. 

546. Praeceptis=ex praeceptis. Maxima, 
i.e., tanquam maxima, "as the most import- 
aut." 

547. Argivae Junoni — either Juno favour- 
ing thc Argives, or Junc who was wor- 
shipped at Argos with particular veneration. 

549. Cornua — properly, the knobs on thc 
end of the yard arms. Obvertimus, sciL 
pelago. The cut will explain the mode of 
furling and unfurling the sails. The anten- 
nae, or "yard anns," are here seen covered 
with. the sails (velatarum). 




551. The legend that Tarentum was found- 
ed by Hercules is doubted even by Yirgil 
himself in the phrase si rera estfama. The 
name is said to be derived from that of. 
Taras, a son of Xeptune. See Heyne, Excurs. 
xiv. Hercules was at least the tutelary god 
not only of Tarentum CTaranto) but also ol 
aU tliat regioa. 



B. III. 552-567. 



NOTES ON THE .KXEin. 



B. III. .-,60-591 



Historical records state that thc town was 
founded by the Parthenii under Phalanthua 
about 700 b.c. 

552. The templo of Juno Lacinia on the 
promontory Lacinium next appears. Thia 
cape, now callcd Capo delle Colonne, from 
the remains of thc pillars of the temple, is 
about six miles from Croton, on the east 
coast of Bruttium. 

5-53. Caulon, or CauJonia, anothcr town 
of Bruttium, founded by the people of Cro- 
tona, and afterwards called Castrum Vet- 
rium (Castro Vetere), about twenty miles 
south of Scylaccum (Squillace). 

Xavifragum — so called on account of the 
frequent and severe storms which occur 
between the promontories Japygium and 
Cocintus; for those who havc visitcd the 
coast say that it is not rocky. 

554. On .<£tna, consult Hughes' Mod. 
Geog., art. 47 ; and Class. Dict. 

5-35. In this and the following Iines we 
have some of the symptoms which precede, 
or accompany a volcanic eruption— the 
l-oaring of the sea, the moaning of the earth, 
the irregidar currents, the sudden rising of 
the water, and the upheaving of thc sand. 

556. Voces, scil. maris, fractas ad litora, 
le., "ofthewaves breaking on the shore 
with a loud roaring noise." 

558. Nimirum doesnot here implyderision 
or ironv. but is equal to sine dubio, " of a 
truth."* ' 

Haec illa — "this that wc noio see, is fhat 
Charybdis which Helenus formerhj spoke 
of.'" The wordfl in italics indicate the 
peculiar force of the pronouns haec and illa 
in this place, as well as m many others. 
Consult the Grammars. 

560. Eripite—" rescue ns and our ships 
from danger." Observe the omission of the 
acc. 

561. Ac and atque are frequently nsed by 
the poets, and by later prose writers, for 
quam after corhparatives. 

562. Rudentem proram — "the creaking 
prow," as it was pressed upon by the force 
of the waves. 

564. Curvato gurgite—" thc swollen and 
bent ridge of the wave." It is the Homeric 
xvprov xdfix. "VVith this whole passage 
compare Hom. Od. xii. 201 sqq. 

565. Desedimus — other readings are de- 
tidimus, discedimus, and descendimus. Wagn. 
shows that the perf. of desido is desedi, as 
possido h&spossedi; andthatthe perf. desedi 
does not essentially diSer from the prcs. 
sedemus, so that it is rightly connected 
with thepres. tollimus. 

567. In rorantia astra, as in lambitsidera 
(574), wc have an allowable hyperbole. 
The particip. rorantia, after a verbof seeing, 
Is uscd for tlie infin. by a Greek construc- 
Hoa 



569. On Cyclopes, 6ce Class. Dict Ob- 
serve the dillerence in tense iu reliquit and 
aUabimur, which, however, is no irrc.^u- 
larity, but Is requlred by the naturo of tlio 
circumstances described. 

570. In the following description Virpril 
is largely indebtcd to Lucretius, vi. 691 
sqq., and Hom. Od. ix. 136 sqq. Virgil, 
however, differs from Homor as tothe part 
of Sicily inhabited by the Cyclopes, and in 
somo other points, on which sec Heync, 
Ipse, "ofitself." 

572. Prorumpit, in an act. sensc, "dis- 
," "casts forth." The measure of 

these lines, and the frequent repetition of 
thc lettera r and t, liave been remarkcd as 
particidarly well suited to add to the horror 
of the scene. In Homer's time there doca 
not seem to have beenaneruption of iEtna, 
but the mention of the Cyclopcs' caves 
seems to imply that some had previously 
occurred. Pindar is tlie first writer to 
mention distinctly an eruption of tlie moun- 
tain. In YirgiTs thne several took place — 
in thc years b.c. 49, 44, 38. 

573. Turbine piceo et candente faviUu, i.e., 
with volumes of smoke mixed with embcrs 
and ashes. 

576. Liquefacta saxa, i.e., molten rocks; 
kcva, flowing hi streams; the Homeric 



There stood a hill not far, whose grLsly 

top 
Belched fire and rolling smokc— Milto>\ 

578. This is iu accordance with the wcll 
known opinion of the ancients, that the firo 
barsting forth from iEtna proceeded from 
the mouth of some monster which had been 
struck with lightning, aud buried beneath 
the mountain. Enceladus, one of the giants, 
is the monster mentioned. '• Typhoeus, 
Typhon, and Briareus, arc variously.stated 
as the buried giants. 

Semiustum. To be pronounced by syni- 
zesis semjustum. See above, 136, and i. 2. 

580. Flammam, viz., that breathed forth 
by EnceladuB. 

583. Immania monstra, " the awful phe- 
nomena," monstrosinn phaenomenon. 

584. "Nor (by reason of the darkness) 
can we sce what cause produces the roaring 
noise." 

585. Aethra, {ulfya.) is the bright cleav- 
ness which is observed in a cloudless sky. 
It is therefore used for aether, i. e., the 
higher and purer region of the atmosphero, 

587. With this line, cf. Hom. Od. ix. 144. 
Intempesta means " unseasonable for en- 
gaging in any work." See Geo. i. 247. 
' 589. Humentem umbixim, sciL noctis, 
which, on account of thc dew, was calkd 

591. Nova— " strange." Cultu rcfers to 
81 



B. III. 593-608. 



NOIES OX THE iENKID. 



IJ. III. 609-C37 



Iho clothing and extornal appearance of the 
pcrson. 

593. Dira iUuvies— the subst. verb is 
omitted, as it frequently ia. 

•594. Tegumen—his garments wcec pinned 
I ngcther witb thorny prickles: at (lor sed), 
'•but," cefefa (for ad cetera, or t'« ceteris), in 
■tther particnlars, cg., voice, features, man- 
ncr. and the rags of his clothes. 

595. Et=et qtiidem, "and moreovcr hav- 
ing the armour of his country in which 
cquipped lie had been sent to Troy." Virgil 
makes a difference between tlie Trojan and 
Grcck armour, as is seeu above, 300, and 
ii. 389. 

599. Testor— "I adjure, or bcscech you," 
z=obtest&r, "implore." 

C00. Spirabile lumen — Lumen, light, is pnt 
for the air, the conductor of light, "vital 
air." 

C01. Tollite vie (aciL in navem) — " take 
uie away with you." Terras — on thc acc. of 
place whither, without a prcp., sce note, 
JEn. L 2. 

C02. Scio — to be scanned as a n»onosyll. 
(see i. 2), " I acknowledge." 

Dandis e classibus. The Gc.tile adj. 
Danais is here nsed as a possessive: so 
Dardana arma, ii. 61S ; scc i. 273. Classes 
«vas used of the different parta of an army 
rmbarked on ship-board, but the more an- 
cient Romana applied the tenn classis to any 
army, the idea of the sliips being left out of 
consideration. 

G04. Nostri sceleris may mean either my 
ijuilt, or our guilt, Le., the guilt of thewhole 
nation. 

G05. Spargite-=diteerptum spargite, i.e.. 
"Rend me in pieces, and scatter my frag- 
ments over the sea." On the syntax, see 
note iL 736. 

606. Pereo. Obscrve the final syll. length- 
ened by arsis. See above, 4G4. Xote also the 
hiatus before hominum, on which see iEn. 
i. 1G. 

Hominum, " of men," with emphasis, as 
fcpposed to wild beasts, the severities of 
weather, andthe inonstrous Cyclopes thcm- 
selves. 

607. Volutaus, scil. se as in iEn. L 234, 
tolventibus (se). 

COS. Haerebat. On the construction of this 
,vord consult the Dict. and Grammar. 

Qui sit means o/ uhat character, na- 
ture, etc,, aperson is: — Quis sit means ichat 
is his name. Qui is therefore the appro- 
priate word here, since it was of more 
importance to the Trojans to know some- 
thing of the condition, nature, and origin of 
the man, rather than to be informed of his 
name merely, which could convey but little 



Wagncr, Kritz, Zumpt, and othcr gram- 
marians are set forth and drscusscd with 
great ability and clearneaa. 

609. Deinde, etc., "and fartlier, to rtate 
openly and fully (fateri) what vicissitude of 
fortune afflicta iiim." 

61L Praesenti pignore, "with a confi- 
dence-inspiring (or efficaciona) pledge of 
faitli," like thc plirases praesens auxilium, 
remedium. 

C13. On the form of the gcn.. UUxi, sce 
note, JEn. i. 30 ; and ii. 27-3, 47G 

614 Thia episode of Achaemenides U 
Virgil'8 own invention, to enable him to 
bring in Homer's storj- of thc Cyclopea; 
Ovid, wlio follows Virgil, is the only othcf 
author that makes mention of him. Thcre 
is, howcver, an anachronism in thc story, 
for Ulysscs visited the Cyclopcs in the be- 
ginning of his wanderings,"and JEneas much 
latcr. Heyne. 

Patria in the hne above is not an adj, 
but a subst. in apposition tolthaca (Theaki). 

Nomen, sciL mihi est. Genitore, sciL 
natus. 

615 Fortuna, viz , my humblc condition. 
G17. Immemores, sciL mei. Cf. Hom. OtL 

ix. 453 sqq. 

CIS. Dum Unquunt — deseruere. Observe 
dum jomed with a prea. tense, fullowed by 
a perf.^ which indicatcs a time now past. 
See Geo. iv. 5C0, Canebam dum Caesar 
fidminat. 

Sanie and dapibus are ablatives of quality, 
as vestes superbo ostro, iEn. i. 639. 
. G21. Nec visu facilis — " no one can look 
upon him, or address him without terror." 

C24. Resupinus — stretched on his back on 
the floor. It seems. to be more than 
merely bending backwards so as to curve 
his body and direct his face upwards, though 
thia is a common attitude with mcn puttiug 
forth tbeirutmost exertion in lifting an ob- 
jcct preparatory to dashing it down again 
on the earth. The giant Polyphemus did 
not require such straining with pigmies. 

629. Sui, Le., of his peculiar character of 
craftiness. Personal prons. are often thus 
used to express somc characteristic of an 
individual. 

The epithet Ithacus, apphed to Ulysses by 
Virgil and Ovid, has always reference to 
his cunning, as Saturnia (Juno) impiies 
cruetty, and Dionaea (Yenus) affection. 

G30. Simid for simidatque. 

631. Per antrum is stronger than tn antro, 
as it suggests the idea of great length ex- 
tending throughout the cave. 
- 634. Sortiti vices—'- each having allotted 
to him his part of the duty." 

636. Latebat. The heavy eyc-lashcs, the 



information of consequence. See Ecl. i. 19 shaggy eye-brow, and the hideous forehead, 
for a fuller notice of the pohit, and consult are all plainly set bcfore us by this single 
" Scottish Educational and Literary Jour- word. 

nal," vol. 1L p. 320, where the opinions ofl 637. Argolici cUpei — a Grecian shield 
62 



B. III. 639-6G5 



XOTES OS TIli: .l.M.II». 



D. III. U67-67& 



which mu roand (and not Bqaai 
lonpr), and covered thc whole body. 

Phoebeae lampadis—" the orb of thc sun ;" 
rcferring only to the shapc and size, not to 
the brightness. 

639. Tlie prevalencc of dactyls, and the 
frequent clisions of this linc, witn the ab- 
rupt break off in the next, dcpict forcibly 
the haste and exciternent of the speaker. 
Tlie word rumpite, too, is more suitable 
here than soloite wonld have been. 

641. Qualis Polyphemus claudit, i.c, qualis 
quaniutqtu est Poh/phemus qui ckiudit, or 
quttm claudit. 

646. Deserta lustra domosque — "thc de- 
lert haunts and dens of thc icild beasts." 

647. Ab rvpe is joined by Ilcyne and 
Henry with Cyclopas, to cxpress that the 
Cyclopes wandered about on the rocks. 
Rut the sing. rupe is opposed to this. and 
the more natural construction is to connect 
the phrase with prospicio. 

648. Tremiscere is again used transitively 
at xL 403, with an acc of the object Sae 
aiso viiL 669. 

653. Addixi — " have wholly given myself 
up to." The word is used of gladiatora and 
others, who abandon themselves entirely to 
the power of another; or perhaps to the 
addictio of debtors. 

656. Vastamole — "of huge size," abL of 
quality. Gossrau remarks that the slow 
movement of the measure, and thc homoio- 
tekuton (siinilar ending) of the lines, suit 
well the vast size of the monster and the 
slowness of his gait. 

658. This line is composed with wonder- 
ful skilL The spondees, the equal cffisuras, 
the frequent elisions, and the harsh sounds 
of the words, most admirably express fche 
nature of the monstrous Polyphemus. 

659. Truncapinus—'"& piiie tree lopped 
of its branches, (bonie) in hLs hand, dirccts 
him, (eum, understood) and steadies his 
steps." It is almost unnecessary to refer to 
the well known passage of Milton, P. L. L 
284, which will occur to every miud — 

His spear, to equal which the tallest pine 
Hewn on Norwegian hills, to be the mast 
Of some great ammiral, were but a wand, 
He walked with to support uneasy steps, 
Over the burning marle. 

661. Mali. Some copies read tnalis, 
which Wakefield prefers. This line is filled 
up in some editions by the words de collo 
fistula pendet, a sillv and unsuitable addi- 
'tion. t 

662. We have here another instance of so- 
caHedhysteronproteron, (ucrtpot vpo<rzpcv), 
on which see note, Mn. iL 353, aequora venit, 
tliongh anterior in time to tetigit fluctas, 
being nevcrthcless put aftcr it. 

"163. Inde—" from it," i.c, the sea. 
665. Medium is not to bc taken literally— 
O 



it meane nmply "out atsea," or "the open 
*;i." as above, 73, etc 

667. «SVc merito is to be joined to recepto 
supplice: "Who had so deserved as that 
he should be takon under protection,"— 
qui sic (hoc, id) meruerat ut reciperetur. 

668. Etproni, etc, "and bcnding fbrwarA 
(to the stroke), we sweep the sea plain 
with stNlggling oars." 

669. Sensit,scil.sonitumremorum. Sonitum 
vocis, Le., the voice of thc sailors engaging 
in the cekusma; foralthough tbeycnt tlic 
cable in silence (taciti inciderintfuncmj, yet 
now, when out somc distance to sea, there 
was no neccssity tbr farthcr refraining, 
especially as the " oar - plash would suffici- 
ently mdicate to the giant the position of tlie 
fugitives. Thus Wagn., Rurm., and Forh. 
But Heyne takes vocis=soni (nsvoces pelagi, 
556), the sound of the oars, or of tuc water 
struck by the oars ; an interpretation which 
few will- approve of. 

Flectere vestigia is a more usual cx'*-e— 
sion than torquere vestigia. 

670. Dextra affectare, i.c, "to try U- 
grasp," " to reach, to lay hold of, (the ship) 
with his right hand." Most copies read 
dextram, after Servius ; but this could only 
mean, "to grapple the hand of a person." 

671. Kec potis, etc "Norwhilst he fol- 
lows (sequendd) is he able to equal the speed 
of the Ionian billows " which bore on tho 
ship. Cf. iEn. x. 248, ventos aequante sagitta. 
It is not to " bottom the sea," as it is usually 
explained, after Heyne. The Ionian sea 
washes the east coast of Sicily. 

672. Every schoolboy will here anticipate 
us in quoting Shaksp. JuL Caes. 

Have you not made an universal shout 
That Tiber trembled underneath her batiki 
To hear the replication of your sounds 
Made in her concave shores ! 

673. Contremuere. Most editions rea^ 
inlremuere, but Wagn., SiipfL, Gossr., ana 
Forb. adopt the former, since contremiscera 
means to tremble with a great commotion, 
while intremiscere signifies to tremble with 
a less violent movement. The addition oi 
omnes farther confirms the adopted reading. 

Penitus — "far iniand;" not only thc 
coasts, but the inland regions. 

674. Immugiit — a verb properly applied 
to subterranean sounds. See above, 92. 

676. Compknt. This is auother instance 
of the construction synesis, or ad intelkc- 
tum, explained in note, JEn. L 70, which sec 
The proper subject is the smg. noun genus; 
but this word, taken in conjunction with 
Cyclopum, suggests a plur. to the mind of the 
poet, who accordingly writes compknt. Col- 
lective nouns are, it is true, construed with 
either sing. or plur. verbs, but our present 
example is more than a simple collective. 
Cf. Geo. iv. 378, and consult Wagn.Quaest 
83 



B, III. 678-634. 



NOTES ON THE JENEJD. 



B. IIL 637. 



Virg. viii. 4. Observe that ruit is sing., 
describing the general and confused rusn 
of a mass towards the shore, but compkntla 
plur. beeause the Cyclopes stand out in their 
individuality when ihey Une thc shore. 

G7S. Aetnaeosfratres — the other Cyclopes 
dwclli.ig round iEtna, and aa it were 
brothers in savage nature and external ap- 
pearance. The adj. does not mean "huge 
as JEtna." 

GSO. Aerius rs an adj. oommonly applled 
to objects which tower into the air. aa trees, 
mountains, and citadels. 

Quercus, the oak sacred to Jupiter ; cu- 
pressus, the cypress, to Pluto or Duina 
Infera; so next line, alta Jovis sylva, 
lucusve Dianac. 

681. Constittrunt. The penult of this 
form (3d plur. perf.) is v«y frequently 
ehortened by Virg., as at Eci. iv fl, etc. 
In constittrunt we have an instance of the 
frequentative perf., wliich (like thc Greek 
aorist) equals solent consisterc. Many e*. 
amples of it are foiuid in the Georgics, but 
it is sufficient to refer to Geo. i. 49. lllius 
immensae ruperunt horrea messcs, wherc 
r"perunt=rumpere solent. The meaning 
may be thustraced: — They hare m formcr 
thnes burst; and when the same circum- 
stances recur, they are found even now to 
bursf ; therefore we are justihed in cou- 
cluding that they will still conlinue to 
bursL 

GS2. TransL : " Keen tcrror drh 
headlong haste to loosen the sheets (ex- 
cutere rudentes) for any quartcr, and to 
spread our sails to (any) winds (that are) 
favourable (for escape "). Anthon. 

6S4. This and the two following lines 
are rejected by Wagn. and others, on the 
following grounds: — lst, That it is absurd 
here to repeat the mjunctions of Helenus 
called to memory by the Trojaus, above, 
558. 2d, That the words leti discrimine 
parvo afford no suitable sense, however 
twisted; and 3d, That the phrase lintea 
dare is a **•! Xiyouivov m VirgiL (Le., 
is found only in tliis one place). The 
first and third of these obiections Forb. 
thinks of no force ; the seeond he disposes 
t>f by his explanation of the passage, which 
Ve content ourselves with giving, while we 
pass over the " thousand and one" inter- 
pretations offered by other commentators: — 
The injunctions of Helenus warn us that 
both courses between Scylla and Charybdis 
(whetlier cruising along the right hand 
shore we approach Scylla, or sailiug elose 
to the left we near Charybdis;», esse parvo 
discrimine leli, Le., are little removed from 
destruction — will easily kad to death and 
destruction — miiess we steer a course ex- 
*ctly in the middie (and as ihis is very 

m 



| difficult for IM to do), we determinc to sail 

I back again. 

| It is with grcat diffidence that, in the 
midst of the failures of lean:ed men In cx- 
plainmg this almost impracticable passage, 
we vcnture the followhig suggestions: (i,) 
We punctuate with a comma after Ihleni, 
mter, taaAparvo, and with a semicolon after 
enrstts; thcn, considering monent as used 
absolutely, in the sense cf "act as a wam- 
ing to us," and inter as placcd after its case, 
I ; 1 utramque in apposition to ScffUam 

•nd Chanjbclim, and vimm in apposition to 
mtramque. The translation would then run 
ttms : " On the other hand, the injunctions 
oi Helenus warn us (what fate we may ex- 
pect) if the ships do not hold a steady and 
onvecring com-se (exactly) between Scylla 
»nd Chaiybdis, each of them a way leading 
to death, with but slight differencc," Le., 

jeither, there being but a slight difference In 

[ngaid to the certainty of destruction ; or, 

I' with but a small (narrow) track safe for shipa 
■eparating them; (therefore) "we deter, 
mine to sail in a retrograde course" (cithcr 
«p tiie Ionian Sea again, or back to the har- 
.Mer of the Cyclopes). See Geo. ii 34o, 
| where inter occurs in a different line from 
tts case. (2,) Put a comma after Charyb- 
\dim, and a semicolon after cursus; then, 
I as quum and si are often throicn foricard 
into a clause instead of heading it, let 
ns Bnppose ni, a compound of si, Bimilarly 
| '. and translate as follows, making 

cursus thc nom. to teneant and viam the 
accus. aftcr it:— "On the other hand, the 
injnnctions of Helenus warn us against [or 
of] Scylla and Charybdis if our course 
were not to hold steadily thc exact middle 
of tlie way betwecn the two, with a hair- 
breadth separation from death." This mode 
supposes an aposiopesis after Charybdim, 
which Virgil would likely have supplied 
in a revision of the poem. (3,) Put a comma 
after Cbarybdxm aud parvo, and a semi- 
colon after cursus, and take parvo disa i- 
mine as the so-called ablative absolute, tho 
whole line being parenthetic: — " On the 
other hand, the injunctions of HeJenus warn 
us of Scylla aiid CharybdLs, theie being but 
apetty barrier (defence,orsafeguard) against 
destruction [viz., the narrow track safe for 
ships] between the two ways, unless tho 
ships hold a steady (middle) "course." For 
discrimen thns used, see ^Sn. ix. 143, 
Fossarumque morae, lett discrimina parva. 
On via mortis, see Geo. iii. 482. See also 
x. 511. 

Tenere cursus means to hold right on our 
course; nottoveertotheonesideortheother. 
687. Ab sede Pelori. The places off 
which winds blew were called by tiie poets 
their homes. On Pelorns, see above, 41L 
Missus, "seut" by the kind interference of 
the gods. 



8. IIL 688-702. 



NOTES ON THE ^ENEID. 



B. III. 703-717. 



688. Yivo saxo. See notc, ^En. i. 167. 
Saxo is an "abl. of the material." 

689. Pantngiae. See Class. Dict. for this 
and the following names. The mouth of the 
river is hemmed in, on both sides, by rugged 
rocks; "vivo taxo" a natural bulwark of 
rock. 

Jacentem — low lying — almost on a level 
with the sea Servius. 

690. This and the following line are con- 
Bidered spurious by Wagn , forfour reasons: 
lst, Since Homer (Od. ix. 105 sqq ) relatea 
that Ulysses sailed from the country of the 
Lotophagi to that of the Cyclopes, tnese 
places could not have been previously 
visited by Achaemenides, nor could the 
latter have gone very far from the place 
where he was concealed. 2nd, The words 
comes infelicit Uliii are pointlessly repeated 
from 613. 3d, The word retrorsum is a tL-raZ, 
Xiyeptter, and foreign to epic poetry. 4th, 
The Codex Wittianus has not the* versea 
emhodied in the text, but appended on the 
margin. From these considerations he con* 
cludes that the lines were added by some 
grammarian of later days. Hildebrand, 
Feerlk., SiipfL, Gossr., Forb., etc, agree 
with Wagn. in holding tiie verses suspected. 

692. Sicanio sinu, i.e., the bay which 
formed the Portus Magnus (Porto Mag- 
giorej of Syracuse. On other names see 
Class. Dict 

697. Jussi, viz., by Anchiscs, whom we 
have hitherto seen take charge of auspices 
and reiigious rites. 

698. Exsupero—praetervehor, u I^s^s\iY" 

700. Radimus, " we scrape," " we shave " 
(literally), Le.,' we sail close by. It may 
mean, we rub upon th^ sunken rocks of 
Pachynus. But compare the phrase radit 
iter liquidum, applied to the flight of a bird. 
The verb is used of rivers flowing past, and 
touching a place. 

70L Camarina numquam concessa mo- 
veri. The legend is, that on one occasion 
the lake near the town beinsr partially dried, 
a pestilence arose from the maiana, and that 
when Apoilo was consulted as to the total 
drainage of tbe marsh, he replied /t"J *nu 
Kctiia.pivctv, i,xttfrTOf ykp i/uiutf' The 
inhabitants rejected the advice of the god, 
irained off the lake, and freed themselves 
rrom the plague; but the enemy thereby 
gained access to the city, and thus tho 
Camarinaeans werepunished. Virgilrepeats 
tlie story, not as a matter of fact, nor as 
coming from iEneas, but rather as an em- 
bellishment of his own. 

702. Cela — see Class. Dict Immanis is 
commonly understood as applying to the 
town Geta, because it had beon the rewdence 
oft>Tant3. But the more feasible mode is to 



the fact that one of thc coins of Oflla had 
upon it an ox with a human face. This was 
emblematic says Forb., of the character of 
the river, cahn and serene on the surface, 
butviolent an<l dangerous by the eddiesand 
wliirlpools in its dcpths. A paonm of Ovid 
(Fast iv. 470) lendi ■trength 1 1 this idea, et 
te, vorticibus non adeunde, Gela. Observe 
that Virgil gives the final a of Gela tlie 
Greek quantity, Le., long. 

703. Acragas — Agri<rentum (Girgenli), 
situated on Mt Acragas. The fertiiity ot 
the soU, and the great trade with Carthage, 
made it a wealthy and luxurious city. Tha 
inhabitants reared horses for the Olympic 
contests, and Theron of Agrigentum is one 
of those celebrated by Pindar in his Epini- 
cian Odes. 

Quondam = postero iempore, and not 
" otim." 

Magnanimum — this is the only adj. whosa 
gen. plur. is contracted by Virgil here and in 
vi 307. lViserum, iEn. vL 21, Ls not a gen. 
plur., but the neut. sing. thrown in paren- 
thetically a3 an exclamation. 

7(1-5. Se/inus — a well known town of 
Sicily, whose neighbourhood abounded wkh 
wild r-alms. 

706. Vada dura saxit "Lilybela caecis. The 
promontory of Lilybaeum (on the west of 
Sicily, now called Capo Bt>eo) extends three 
miles into the sea; it3 rocky body being 
covered by the water to the depth of ab«ut 
three cubits. Hence there are vada (shal- 
lows) whose bottoms, being fonned by the 
rocks (taxis caecis, i.e., latentibus) of the 
promontory, are dura. 

707. Drepunum, or Drepana (Trapanf) 
north of Lilybaeum, and near Mt. Eryx 
The coast is called iUnetabUis, on account 
of the barren and sandy soiL almost devoid 
of vegetation, which environs Drepanuin. 
Servius, followed by Schirach and Thiel, 
considers the epithet suggested to ^Eneas by 
the recollection of the death of his fat.ier. 

710. On the death of Anchised cunsult 
Heyne, Excurs. x^-iL He rcmarks the 
skid of the poet in disposmg of the saga- 
cious, far-seeing Anchises, before the ar- 
rival of iEneas at Carthage, and his intimacy 
with Dido. Other ancient writers (and 
among them Cato, as Servius testifies,) 
allege that Anchises reached Italy along 
with JEneas, but it would have been un- 
suited to VirgiTs purpose to adopt this part 
of the legend. 

71-5. Ilinc. ^Eneas thus retnrns to the 
point which is indicated at iEn. i. 34, Vix e 
conspectu, etc 

716. Unus — the only one speaking 
amidst all the others listening. 

717. Pata divim, Le, the even 
pointed. by the gode referring to all thing.- 
which had befallen the Trojans, and noi 



join it vnlhfluvii, nnding an explauation in I to the oracles and prophecies o|ily 



to 



B. III. 718. 



STOTES ON TIIE .EXEID. 



13. III. 713. 



Renarrabat — by relating -svent through 
them again, as it were ; or as rc often means 
duty, or /ulfilling an expectation, this verb 
may signify '•narrated in conformity with 
his engagement." Cf. ii 3, Infandum 
Regina jubet renovare dolorem. 

718. Fine Jacto quievit. Wund., to 
ivoid the apparent tautology, interprets 
iitievit, "he retired to sleep;" so that, 
aioreover, tlie contrast will be more distinct 
between the end of this and the commence- 



' ment of the following book. At, however, 
expresses contrast in itself, and marks, suffici- 
ently, tnmsition from onc subject to anothcr. 

! Interpret, therefore, with Wagn. and Forb., 
" He fiuished his recital, bccause he had 
come to thc end of his story;" an explana- 
tion which the real naturc of the so-called 
nbL absolute fully justifiea But perhaps 
Virgil intcnded to imitatc Homcr in thc 
close of Bk. i. aud opening of Bk. ii of tlie 
Iliad, which sec, 




{POLTFHBnro.-- Antig. (.Vlkt <**a/K-ac«v] 



=! OM TIIF. /ENEID. 



r.. iv. t 




[Dido Sacrificixg.— Vcttkan Manuscnpt.] 



BOOK FOURTH. 



ARGUMENT. 

Dir«o having become violently enamoured of iEneas, consults her sister Anna on her cir- 
cumstances, and by her is advised to consent to marriage with the Trcjan prince (1-53). 
Dido's feelings further described (54-S9). Juno consults with Yenus ; both agree to the 
union now so much desired by Dido, Juno devising a plan fcy which to bring it about 
'80-128'). The queen proposes a hunting excursion, which accordingly takes place; but 
<yn7t all are earnest in the pursuit of the game, a vioient thcEderstorm is sent down by 
Juno, causing the hunters to fly in different directions : iEneas and Dido, however, acci- 
dentally take shelter in the same cave (129-172). Soon after this event, Jupiter, roused 
by the remonstrances of Iarbas, sends Mercuryto ^Eneaswith an authoritative command 
to leave Africa and make for Italy (173-278), which order the son ofVenus prepares to 
obey (279-295). Dido immediately suspects the intentions of ^Eneas, and expostulates 
with him, but in vain (296-449) ; and, accordingly, being unable to bear up against her 
grief, she determines to die (450-473). Concealing her purpose from her sister, she erects 
a huge pyre, and pretends that it is intended for the celebration of magic ceremonies, by 
which she mav be enabled to shake off her affcction for ^Eneas, and to forget him alto- 
getber (474-521). Her grtef now mcreascs to frenzy; butby this time ^Eneas has weighed 
Bnchor, and stands out to sea in thc middle of the night (522-583). In the morning, Dido, 
maddened by the sight of the Trojan ships in the distant oflmg, breaks out in a paroxysm 
of love-sick sorrow, and imprecates calamitics on her once cherished guest (584-C29) : 
and ha-ving dismissed all her attendants, she slays herself on the pyre (630-705). 



1. At. See note on last line of Book iii. 

Cura is often put by the poets for amor. 

3. Multavirtus difllrs from magna virtus, 
in that the former denotes merit (excellence) 
often exercised, and proved by many deeds, 
while the latter aigniries a virtue surpassing 
other virtues by some cspccial excellence. 
Jahn. Valour, high birtli, personal avpear- 



ance, and the charms o/ conversatioi, are 
the four causes exciting Dido to love, 

4. Multits honos — either the great glory 
of the nation, orthedistinguishedparenta;je 
\ of ^Eneas, son of Venus. 

Observe that infixi agrees with thc sul.tt. 
; nearest to it, rntitu», and is not put In tho 
neut gender, as might be czpected. 

87 



B. IV. 7-13. 



XOTES OX TUE AZSEID. 



B. IV. 16-35. 



7. Aurora js pat«for thc morning timc, 
and for ;ill affairs performed In it, and thus 
we liave lier passing over the earth and illu- 
minating it (lustrabat). Phoebea lampade, 
i.t., by tlie sun, by the figure tapeinosis 
(i.c., loicerwg, or.deteriorating), as gurge» 
is put for the sea. Lustrare mcans primarily 
to purify — hence from the practices of the 
priests in going round the city preparatory 
to puriiication, it came to mean to encom- 
pass, traverse, haunt, etc Here it is equal 
to i/histrare or collustrare, as at 607, below. 

8. Unanimam — "mostlovmg." 

Friends fast sworn, 
Whose douUe bosoms seem to wear one heart. 
Shakspere. 
Adjectivesderivedfrom an//»?/,sarewritten 
in two ways, either is, e, or us, a, um. Virgil 
ii^es, in preferencc, the nom., dat, acc, and 
abl. sing., and the nom. andacc plur. of the 
is fonn; and the nom. (neut.), gen., and acc 
sing., and the dat and abL plur. of the us. a, 
um, form. Euphony seems to have decided 
for unanimam here, to avoid a similar end- 
ing in unanimEX. and so;weil Male sana, 
Le., visana, /u,a.ivB/u.'ivr,. 

9. Virgil has been praised for introducing 
a sister as a confidant rather than a nurse, 
as the Greeks usually did. In this he fol- 
lows Apollonius Rhodius. 

Insomnium, in the sing, is said to mean 
sleeplessness, while the plur. Ls more parti- 
cularly applied to frightful and distressing 
dreams. 

10. Novus seems to be put for eximius. 

11. Qi/em sese oreferens! Le., quaii oris 
habitu incedit — quanta est in ejus ore dig- 
titas. 

Quam forti pectore, et (quam fortibus) 
armis! Armis is said to be from armi 
(the shonlders), not from arma (armour). 
because Dido is speaking of the external 
appearance of the inan ; in confirmation of 
which opinion iEn. xL 644 is quoted. We 
confess, however, that, looking at the adj. 
forti, and considering the instigators of 
love mentioned in 3 and 4, we are more 
inclined to the common interpretation, 
"deeds of arms." 

12. Equidem—' 1 !, for my part" This 
adv. is most frequcntly found with the first 
person, which secms to lend some strength 
to the opinion that it is = ego quidem. 
Wagn. derives it from e mtensive (as E- 
Castor) and quidem. Persius and others 
use it with the second and third persons. 
Eum is to be supplied before esse. 

13. Degeneres means those who can boast 
Of no ancestors, as well as those who have 
fallen away from thc virtue of their fore- 
fathers. It is here used in the former 
sense = ignoble, loic. So metus degener, 
Lucan: clamor degener, Seneca. Cf. Hor. 
Od. iv. 4, 29. 



Quibus=quantis. See above, 11. 

16. Ne=ut non. Jugali vinclo — "thcnup- 
tial tie ;" the reference is to beasts of burden 
attached to one yoke. 

17. Primus amor, etc — "My first love 
deceived me, so as to baffle me (in my pros- 
pects of happiness) by the death of my hus- 
band." 

18. After pertaesum fuisset supply me, 
and consult the Gram. on the construction 
of impersonal verbs. On tcedae, consult 
"Marriage Ccremonies," Ramsay's Antiq. 

19. Instead of potui we might expect a 
subj. mood, but the indic. expresses mucb 
more distinctly the detennination of pur-. 
pose which Dido at first avowed. Potui 
succumbere, at non succumbam : possem suc- 
cumbcre, si res itaferret. Wagn. 

Culpae — a sin against the memory of her 
former husband. Roman women were 
commended for being iiniviral. 

21. Sparsos, Le., conspersos. Fraterna 
caede — with a parricidal act, viz., in Pyg- 
malion slaying his brother-in-law, Sy-. 
chaeus, Mn. L 347. 

22. Hlc. Santen (ad. Ter. Maur., p. 252) 
alleges that Virgil makes hic short only 
twice — here and at vL 792. 

Labantem impulit, Le., impulit ut labaret. 
' 24. Prius—antequam, A similar pleonasm 
is found in the Greek vrpiv, vrpi» n. In- 
stead of ante some books have sancte, which 
is a conjecture of Markland's. 

26. Erebus — a god of helL Noctem pro- 
fundam, Le., the deep abode of the Infin, 
where there is always night. 

28. There is particular force in the plur. 
amores. So odia, irae, me*us, etc Consult 
Gram., and see i. 11, note. 

30. The mention of these tears at once 
shows the great poet, and the skilful deline- 
ator of hmnan feeling. While Dido wishes 
to appear constant and rigid, and uninflu- 
enced by love, the gushing toars betray that 
her mind is labouring with, and even waver- 
ing under, the concealed passion, Ileyne. 

31. Refert, Le., respondet. Luce, " than 
life." 

32. Sola — " as a widow." Perpetua ju- 
venta depends on moerens. "Will you be 
preyed upon by sorrow throughout the 
whole period of your youth, and de«pise 
marriage." 

34. Id, "that," viz., whether you con- 
tract a new marriage or no. Cinerem, sciL 
Sychaei. Manes sepultos for manes scpul- 
torum, for whcn the funeral rites were 
duly performed to a dead body, thc shadc 
was supposed to be peaceably "laid," 
though it walked the carth until that time 
in the same shape as thc living man, yet 
witliout substantiality of form 

35. Esto refers to" what follows rather 
than to what precedes. 



H. IV. 36-55. 



NOTES ON THE jENEID 



B. IV. 56-75. 



In aegram is suggested thc reason of her 
despising former Miits (mariti torproct), as 
well as an excuse why shc should now, 
after so long a time, listen to the solicita- 
tions of iGneas, whom she loved. Flectere 
aliquem = flectere animum alicujus, wliieh 
latter is the usual phrase, the other being 
poetical. 

36. Libyae dcpends on mariti — "suitors 
of Libyan origin." 

Tyro, i.c., a Tyro, thc "ablative of 
origin," as qui Caerete domo, x. 183. Cn. 
Matius Cremona, i.e., Cremonensis. Iarbas, 
king of the Maxitani in Numidia. 

37. Africaterra. All names of countries 
were originally adjectives. So Itala terra. 
Wagner supposes dives triumphis to refer 
to .**ie corvstant wars among the tribes of 
.Africi» 

4:». Gaeturae urbes. The Gaetnli werc a 
barbarous tribe hvmg south of Numidia. 
Part of them were nomad in their habits, 
and part lived in huts. which Virgil digni- 
fies by caUing urbes. On the construction 
urbes — genus, see i. 339, note. 

41. Infreni — "riding without bridles." 
Cingunt, scil. tuum regnum. Inhospita 
Syrtis^-The Syites, major and minor, on 
the north coast of Africa, were dangerous 
shallows and quicksands. But it is the re- 
gion on the coast near these that is here 
meant, with its savage hordes. 

42. Deserta siti — "thinly inhabited by 
reason of the drought." 

43. Barcaei, the people of Barce, a city of 
Cyrenaica. But the poet speaks by antici- 
pation, for this town was much later in its 
origin. 

45. Juno is mentioned either because she 
was the great deity of the Carthaginians, 
or, aa Wagner prefers, because she presided 
over marriage. 

47. Quam urbem, i.e.. qualem, quantam 
urbem—quae regna, quanta, quam potentia 
regna. 

60. Tu, emphatic; the pron. is tisually 
expressed when advice or precepts are 
given. 

Litatis. On the meaning and syntax of 
this verb, consult note, iEn. iL 118. 

51. Indulge hospitw, i.e., be frequent and 
liberal in acts of kindness towards your 
guest. 

52. Desaevit, not "ceases to rage," whicb 
would be inconsistent with the next line; 
but de gives to saevit an intensive force, 
"rages furiously." 

Aquosus Orion. The rising of Orion was 
^aid to bring rain. 

53. Non tractabile, i.c., saevum, aspcrum, 
vrocellosum. We call that tractabile which 
ire can easily employ to our advantage, 
and non-tractabile, the opposite. 

55. Solcit pudorem is not to bq taken in 
a bad senae, but simply means " overcame 



hcr kecn feeling as to what was bccoming 
to the memory of lier husband." 

56. Delubra — per aras — to all thc temples 
and the dillerent altara placed througliout 
the city. 

57. Bidentes properly mcans $) 

two years old, and the name is either a cor- 
ruptiou of biennis, or is compoandad of bi 
(bis), dens, from the vulgar notion tliat 
slieep at that age had two tceth paiticularly 
prominent. 

58. Legi/erae Cererl As agriculture im- 
proved, civilization increased, and principles 
of law and equity began to be established 
and acknowledged : lawful marriages, too, 
were mstituted, and hence the invocation to 
Ceres. Slie sacrifices to Phoebus and Bac- 
chus (Lyaeus, Avaios, Liber), as deities for- 
merly worshipped at Carthage. 

60. Tlie following particulars are not to 
be considered as relating to different sacri- 
fices from those mentioued in 57, 8, 9, but 
as indicating more minutely the part which 
Dido herself took in the rites. 

61. Inter media cornuafundit. This was 
the form of dedicating the victim to the 
gods — a custom derived from the Egyptians, 
as Herodotus testifies. 

62. Aut is rather copulative than disjunc- 
tive here ; at least, it does not distinguish 
between circumstauces. but times. 

Pingues arae — altars on which many 
victims were slain. Spatiatur expresses 
slow and dignified movement. 

63. Instaurat diem donis, i.e., diem celebrem 
reddit sacrificiis — multa sacrificia offert — 
"she crowds the day with offeilngs." 
Wund. 

64. Infaans expresses the greatest eager- 
ness in her search into futurity. On the 
E.rtispices, see Ramsay's Autiq., p. 331. 

Spirantia — " still quivering," "palpita- 
ting." 

65. Vatum, either Hxtispices generally, or, 
as Gossrau thinks, Dido and Anna\ the 
amateur diviners. 

66. MoUis Wagn. "take3 as the acc. 
agreeing with medullas (in the sense of 
unresisting), since it would be too weak a 
word to characterise the burning passion of 
Dido. Est — " eats." 

70. Cresia — Cresius, or Cressius^Cretensis. 
Heyne remarks that capra would bc more 
suitable than cerva; for, on the authority 
of Solinus, he alleges that Crete abounded 
in wild goats, but was devoid of stags. 
Pliny, however, contradicts Solinns; and, 
besides, the comparison to a cerva is much 
more suitable than to a capra. 

74. This passagc has called forth from 
Heyne and others the greatest admiration, 
on account of the consummate skill displayed 
in the description of a scene so delicate. 

75. Sidonias opes — either " the wealth she 

«9 



B. IV. 79-90. 



NOTES ON TIIF. -EXEID. 



R. IV. 91-121 



bad brought from Sidon," Lc, Tyrc. or "the 
resourecs of this colony of Sidon," Lc. of 
the Phoenieians. With 76, cf. Hor. Od. 
iv. 1, 35. 
7!». Fendet ab orc — "hangs on the lips." 
«0. Peerlkamp andGossrau think that 84 
and 35 should conie in after 79, on the ground 
that. independent of the indelicacy it would 
bc on Dido's part, it is not likely tliat JEneas 
woald allow bis son, so uudously watched, 
to remain all night in a strangcrs house 
away from responsible guaruianship. But 
scc notcs on 84. 

81. Lttna • premit lumcn fsvum) — " the 
moon pales her light." Cadentia sidera — 
sec uote, JEn. iL 9. 

82. Vacua— '■ desc-rtcd," Le., aftcr thc dc- 
paiturc of hcr guests. 

StraH» relictis (1), Wagnerinterprets, "her 
widowed couch ;" in his smaller euition, 
liowever, ho approves of Forb.'s reading. 
(2), Heyne'8 cxplanation is, — Nowsherises 
irom her bed in hcr rcstlessness, and soon 
again returns to that which she had left but 
the momeait before. (3), The most natural 
intcrprctation is that of Servius (followedby 
Forb.) : After the guests have departed, she 
lays herself down on the couch lately ocv 
cupied by ^Eneas, deriving some consolation 
from thereflection that she presses thc same 
cushion which her lover had newly quitted. 
Strata is used sometimes of a convivial 
eouch, e.g.. Ovid, Met v. 34. The similar 
passages of Ovid (Epist. x. 51, and xv. 149) 
fully sanction explanation 3. 

S4. The imagination of Dido was actively 
in play, and pictured toitself JRneas in the 
most pleasing circumstances ; it is alleged, 
therefore, thatthisfondiing of Ascaniuswas 
likewise performed only in fond recollection. 
The whole passage, and more especially 
the words absens absentem auditque, videtque, 
seem to requirc such an explanation as that 
given. 

Grcmio — "lap," (quasi geremium, from 
■jero). 

87. Propugnacula—" the defcnces of the 
:it_\ - ," geuerally, or, because portus is mcn- 
tioncd iu immediate connection with it, 
tnoles in the sea to break the triolem 
tcavesfor the dc/ence o/ the harbour, ui time 
of peace, and as a barrier in the time of 
war. 

59. Murorum minae, Le., the walls of 
Ihreateuing altitudc. Sec i. 102. 

Machina — (1), "Machines of war," 
Wund. (2), " Scaffolding for building the 
walls." (3), "Towers plact-d at intcrvals 
along the wall," Wagn. and Forb. Tbe 
phrase acquata coelo is applied to this last 
only, with any propriety. 

9*0 sqq. The machinations of Juno to 
detain JEneas in Carthage, and prevent his 
lettlement in Italy. 

Peste, sciL amoris 

90 



91. Famam,\.c.,ruram famae, "aregard 
for her reputatioii." 

92. A dgreditur means "addreues'" with- 
out conveying any idca of over-reacliing. 

regiam rcro, etc. said ironically. 

94. Kutnen, sciL cst. Some copics have 
nomcn, but the best MSS. numcn. Puer, 
Cupid. 

96. Adco is joined by Wund. and Wagn. 
to fallit, as if it wcre "nec adeo hebes sum 
ut me fallat." Forb. would join it to me, 
"nordocs it escapc metA lcast," howcver 
you may endeavout to deccive otbers. 

98. Quo, scil. tenditis — " to what lcngth 
will you go in (this) so keen a contest" 
Some books read tantacertamina, a conjcc- 
ture of Heinsius. Thicl would BUpply opu$ 
to govcrn certaminc. 

9!>. On Quin (= qut non) with the 
indic, sce Zumpt, § 542, Madvig, § 351, 
b. obs. 3. 

100. Exerccmus. Another xcugma, the 
verb being applicable to paccm, but not to 
Hymcnacos. 

Habes, tota, ctc See above i. C73 sqq. 

102. Ccmmuncm — common to Juno and 
Venus. Paribus auspiciis. "with equal 
authority," our divinity as tutelary deities 
being cqualiy excrcised and reverenced 
There is a reference to the mode of confirm- 
ing authorityto a Homan magistratc 

104 Dotalis — as the dowiy given to 
iEneas with Dido. On the ceremonies of 
marriage consult Ramsay's Antiq. 

106. Italiae regnum, that is, the promised 
kingdom bi Italy. 

107. higrcssaest, "begar," sciL diccre. 
110. Feror incerta fatis. I am kept in 

suspense as to (or in ignorance of ) the fates. 
Fatis is the abL depending ou the combincd 
notion, fcror-incerta ; the usual phrase »* 
incertafatorum. Feror expresses the con- 
tinuance of hcr doubt. Veuus meets Juno 
with her own armour, dissimulation. 

114. Excepii — "replied," — "for he who 
follows another in conversation takes up, a9 
it were, that which has gone beforc" 
Forb. 

115. Mecum, Lc. mcus, or mihi, as oftc-n 
" That task shall be miuc"' 

117. Vcnatum. On tlie syntax of th* 
Supine sec Madvig, § 411. Coosult alsc 
Zumpt, § 153, note. 

119. Crastinus Titan (Lc, Sol) cxtulit 
ortus, for, Crustinus TiVtn extulit sc ortu — 
oritur. 

Retexerit — " unveiled." 

120. Xigrantem — either " darkening " 
other ohjects, or "rfar/i in itself." 

121. Alae — eitlier the bands of horsemen, 
(on alac as a miiitary ter.n, see Eamsay,) 
t« hem in ^he wild beasts aud drive them 



B. IV. 125-131. 



NOTES ON TIIE JENEID. 



towardfl the netfl; or, tlic feathcrsfastencd 
o/i cords, with whlch thcy cncircled the 
prey. Trepidant would thus mean thc 
Uuttering of the featlicrs in the wind. 

Indaginc means "a series of toils or 
nets." 

Saltus mcans apart ofaforest not thickly 
set with trecs, i.e., such a place as would 
afford casy passaga TIius iri Cses. B. Gall. 
viL 19, saltus paludis (quoted by Henry), 
mcans those dry parts of the marsh by 
which one could pass over. The meaning, 
thcn, according to Hcnry, is, " They sur- 
round tlic open part of the wood with neis, 
so that the beasts might not be able to 
escape from it to the thickets." 

125. Adero, i.e., as Juno Pronuba. On 
Hymenaeus, consult Smith's Class. Dict. 

128. Repertis — (1) discovered, detected, 
by her (Venus) ; Seivius and Peerlk. (2) 
Devised by Juno; Wund, Heyne, Gossrau, 
and Forb. Ridere is more usually followed 
by an acc., but cf. Hor. Od. iv. 1, 18, riselit 
tnuneribus, and Sat. ii. 8, 83, ridctur fictis 
rerum. Forbiger is inclined to look upon 
these cases as datives rathcr than abls., and 
Mimlar to risit olli, v. 358 

130. Jubare, sciL Solis. 

131. Retia rara — "wide-meshed nets." 
riagae — the nets of coarser material 

and smaller meshes. The word properly 
means the ropes by which the nets were 
stretched. 

Fcrro — abl of material. The venabu- 
lum, or hunting-spear, had a long and 
broad iron head, as seen in the illustration 
below 




A net \% repreaentcd in the 

wooiicut. 



ibjoined 



B. IV. 132-139 



r% 




132. Massyli—a people of the east part 
of Numidia proper. The word is equal tc 
Afer. 

Ruunt — another instance of zeugma, the 
word referring to retia, plagae, venabula, 
equites, and canes. 

Odora — " keen scented." The word does 
not appear to be found elsewhere. Vis may 
mcan either " a numerous keimel of strong 
dogs," or it may be a mere circumlocution 
like /5/>j in Greek. Lucrctius ha&fida canum 
vis, and Hor. (Epod. vi. 6), speaking of dogs, 
says, amica vis pastoribus. 

133. Cunctantem — "lingering," viz., at 
her toilet. Cf. Tcr. Heaut. ii. 2, 11, Kosti 
viores mulierum, clum moliuntur, dum 
comuntur, annus est. 

135. The frenum, or bridle, included the 
bit, headpiece, and reins. 




137. Sidoniam — sometimcs SidGniam. 
(«En. xi. 74; Ovid Met. iii. 129, etc.) On 
the chlamys consult 2En. iii. 484 ; the lim- 
bus or ornamental bordcr will bc seen in tlie 
woodcut there, and also one kind offlbttla. 

138. In aurum: Her hair was collectcd 
into a knot or xpufiuXos, and fastened with 
a golden jibula, clasp. On thcse parts of 
drcss consult Ramsay's Antiq. 

139. The fibula here spokcn of is a clasp 
fastening the belt with which her tvnic i* 
girt about her waist. Various kimis of 
fibula arc represented in the following cut9 

91 



B. IV. 141-154. 



NOTES OX THE JSNEID. 



B. IV. 155-174. 




141. This comparison of iEneas to Apollo 
and of Dido to Diana, is worthy of careful 
observation. 

143. Lijciam— Pataris or Patara, the chief 
city of Lycia, was situated on the Xanthus, 
not far from the sea, and contained a temple 
of Apollo, second only to DelphL Here, on 
account of the greater mildness of the cli- 
rnate, the god was supposed to spend his 
winter (hence the epithet hibeinam), while 
in spring he migrated to his matemal Delos. 
Thus he is called by Hor. Delius tt Fa- 
tartus Apollo. 

146. Cretetque. Observe the force of the 
arsis m lengthening the final short syllable. 

Dryopes — aPelasgic tribe, inhabiting part 
of Thessaly, aud afterwards part of Doris, 
called from them Dryopis. 

Agathyrsi — a Scythian people of Euro- 
pean Sannatia — the epithet picti seems to 
mean that they painted or tatooed their skin. 
By the mention of this people, the poet ap- 
pears to indicate simply that nations from 
themost distantand uncivilized parts of the 
world flocked to worship the Delian god. 

Fremunt — "dance whiie they sing." 

147. Jpse is expressed because Creles, 
Dryopes. etc., come betwcen. 

148. Fingens, Le,, comans, ornans. In 
statues of Apollo the front hair is scrupu- 
lously arranged. lmplicat auro, i.e., sur- 
rounds it with a golden diadem or fillet 

149. Ibat — enitet. The poet uses ibat as 
a historian, i.e., not as consistent with the 
context, but in reference to his own time ; 
enitct. in the pres., is, however, immediately 
Bubjoined, and is to be taken as co-ordinate 
with inftitiindjungit. 142. YVith tela sonant 
cf. Hom. IL i. 46. 

152. Dejectae — "having cast themselves 
down," "having bounded down." Wund. 
oxplains "driven down by the hunters." 
but Wagn. argues that wild beasts are said 
dejici, not when they are driven doicn, but 
when they are transjtxed and slain by thc 
Bp .-tsman. Cf. ^En. v. 542. 

It4. Transmittunt campos, i.e., trans- 
currunt. It is similar to the phrase mare 
tr«nsmittere y the reflexive pronoun being 

92 



umitted. Virgil borrowed from the Lucre- 
tian phrase (ii. 329) equites transmitlunt 
tnedios campos. 

155. A«mina glomerant, Le., 80 collect 
themselves as to form herds. 

160. See JEn. L 124. 

162. Passim, i.e., without order. 

164. Tecta means shelter of any kind— 
roeks, caves, treus, etc. Amnes, Le., tor- 
rents causcd bythe rains, nimbus commixlu\ 
grandine. 

166. Prima, either " primeval earth," or 
for 1'rimum— "firat of aU, Earth and Juno 
gave the signal, and tuen (tum) the 
nvmphs ululant ,•" Wagn., Gossr., and 
Forb. Tellus was one of the deities pre- 
siding over marriage, and properly so, as 
being " the producer and uourisher of all 
things." 

Some have conjectured Furtae et Tellus, 
since the Furies presided over unfortunave 
marriages ; but they would not be rightly 
conjoined with Tel-us and Juno. 

On the pronubae consult Ramsay. 

107. Consrius connubiis (on scansion seo 
L 73 and iii. 578)— the latter word is in the 
dat., by which case conscius is followed, even 
in Cicero. Some read connubii, contrary to 
the best MSS. This is different from the dat. 
oftheperson following consaus, on which see 
Kritz. Sall Cat 22, 2. The lightning-flashes 
as marriage torches, and the melancholy wail 
of the mountain nymphs as bridal songs, are 
but ill-omened introductions to the new 
alhance, Milton has been accused of imita- 
ting this passage in his description of the 
convulsions of nature when the "mortal 
sin original " was completeu. 

Earth felt the wound, and nature from 

her seat, 
Sighing, through all her works gave signs 

of woe, 
That all was lost. 

And again, in reference to Adam's trans. 
gression — 
Earth trembled from her entrails, as again 
In pangs. and nature gave a second groan : 
Sky lower'd, and mutfring thunder, some 

sad drops 
TYept. at completing of the mortal sin 

originaL 
170. Specie — "a sense of propriety ;" 
fama — " a regard to reputation." 

173. For the description of Fama, Virgil 
is indebted to Homer, II. iv 440 sqq., which 
see. Rumour is called "Offfftx, or #^1 
by the Grceks. 

174. For malum qua TYagn. reads malnm 
quo. Forb. retains qua, and thus para- 
i.hrases : Fama, qua non aliud malum 
majore viget tnobilitatt ct celerius vires 
acquirit. After ullum there is a colon in 
njost editions, but Forb. omits it 



B. IV. 176-190. 



NOTES ON TIIE ;ENE1D. 



i3. IV. 193-214. 



176. Parvametuprtmo. Fcarful of con- 
totatlon at firet, Ramour is qulet, and seeks 
retircment, crouching os it werc through 
dread, and contracting hcr body. After a 
little she gaius confidencc, and boldly shows 
hcrself. No ono will be at a loss to appre- 
ciate every point of this dcscription. 
. 177. Solo, abl. of so/mwi— "the ground." 

178. Fataa is rcprescntcd as of the race 
of monsters — the daughter of Terra, and 
sister of Coeus and Enecladus. Terra is 
said to be "enragcdat the gods," because 
they had hurled the Titans, her offspring, 
to Tartarus. Consult Class. Dict. and 
Xeightley's Mythology. 

180. Pernicibus, froni pernix — Tcis (per 
nitor), "struggling right on," Le., "perse- 
vcring," "untiring." 

The feuthe rs attributed to Fama repre- 
sent the succcssive retailings of a rumour, 
cach person reporting, adding his plume, 
and thus hasteuing the flight of the mon- 
ster; and the eyes bexeath the feathers 
indicate that while Fama sees all persons, 
she is seen by none. 

184. Coeli medio terraeque — "between 
heaveu and earth." The poets often use 
medius with the genitive, for inter. So 
Cass. B. G. L 34. 

186. Custos — carefully watching *that 
nothing should escape her. 

190. Replebat gaudens et canabat, Le., 
gaudet replere et canere. In words so op- 
posed as facla and infccta the conj. is 
usually oinitted, e.g., nolens volens — digna 
indigua, etc. But here the poet has re- 
ference to men who rejoice to hear any- 
thing which they can retail, and are easOy 
indueed to add new and groundless fabri- 
cations whiie they repeat the original story. 

191. Elsewhere, when Cretus is used, the 
abl. follows without the prepos. Gossrau 
thus distingnishes between the phrases: — 
He says "crctum ab aliquo=esse oriundum 
— crelumaliquo=natum, ortumesse." Some 
editions omit the prepos. Viro for marito. 

193. Fovere hiemcm luxu, is an unusual 
mode of saying "se luxufovereper hiemem." 

Wyttenb. thinks that the conduct of An- 
tony and Cleopatra afforded to Yirgil tliis 
suggestion. 

194. Hegnorum, Le,, the one of Carthage, 
the other of Italy. 

195. DiJTundit in ora, Le,, spargit per ora 
— longe lateque divulgat, '•' publisb.es far 
and wide." 

196. larbas, king of the Maxitani jn 
Numidia, who had given permission to Dido 
to settle in his territory, and who had un- 
successfully sought hcr hand. The name is 
gometimes written Hiarbas. He was the son 
ofJupiter Ammon (or Hammon), whosetem- 
ple in an oasis in Marmarica was long cele- 
brated, and will be remembered in connexion 
with the history of Alexander the Great. 



198. Caramanfide, i.e., I.ibyca. The 
Garamantcs were a pcople of ii land Africa 
above Gaetulia, inhabiting a consklerable 
portion of the district now callcd Pexxan. 

200. Centum aras— see^En.L 416. Fosuit, 
used as a Greek aorist. Wund. Forb. ac- 
counts for thc variation of tense by saying 
thatlarl-as hadconsecratcd thc "ever-burn- 
ing" fireat thetime whcn he introduced the 
worshipofllammon intoNumidia before all 
the hundred temples were completcd. The 
plirase vigilem ignem will remind all of tha 
worship of Vesta. 

201. Excubias aeternas — in apposition to 
ignem, to cxprcss the object of Iarbas, ut 
essent excubiae aeternae. 

202. Solum et limina. Heynemakesthesa 
words the accus. depending on sacraverat. 
But Wagn. and Forb. take them as nom., 
the substantive verb to which they are sub- 
ject being omituucL The epithet pingue re- 
fers to the great number of victims slaugh- 
tered: and limina sertis floreruia to the 
numerous festivals, during which the tem- 
ples were adorned with garlands. 

203. Amens animi. So in Geo. iv. 491 
we meet victus animi, and at 310 of same 
Geo., trunca pedum, The genitive denotes 
the part affected, wbether it be of the 
general nature of man or of his body. 

204. Media intcr numina — "before the 
images of the deity." or simply "in the 
temple," as the god was supposed to " fill 
the house" with his presence, and to be 
cognizant of acts done in all parts of it. 
Munera was read, says Servius, for nutnina. 

206. The tone of this address, breathing 
Lmpietyand audadty, is in keepingwitb the 
stem and fiery temperament of the Africans. 

Maurusta — "Moorish." Mauri, or Mau- 
retani, was a general name including a 
number of nations, of which the Maxitani 
were one. 

207. Epulata — "after feasting," when tho 
libations were made. Libat nunc — this is to 
remind Jupiter that it was the influence of 
Iarbas that made the Maurt worship him, 
whereas they had not done so previously. 

Lenaeum hunorcm, Le., honorem vini — 
vinum in Jovis honorcm effusum. Lenaeui 
— an epithet of Bacchus. See Smith's Class. 
Dict. 

208. Compare the impious address of 
Timon in Lucian, Tim. i. The sense is this: 
You do not seem to behold these things; 
for, if you behold them and do not take ven- 
gcance, then do we groundlessly dread you. 

209. Caeciignes,i.C.,vani,inancs. Heyne. 
Cacci, qui non urunt. Gossrau. Caeci — 
"blind in aim," i.e., wliich do not strike 
those whom they ought to strike. Wagn. 

210. Inania murmura — the acc, not the 
no»?. Murmura — thundcr; inania — un- 
availing to terrify the wicked. 

214. Jiepulit. Observe the first syll. long. 
93 



i;. IV. 215-229. 



XOl ES ON TIIE MSBW. 



a IV. 231-209. 



homfnum, i.o.. ut dominus, Iio-totyi',. 
Rlie rejected me as a husband (tnaritus;, 
Lmt JSneas she baa received as a tnastcr. 

•J15. ///c Paris— "that well known (no- 
torious) effeminate Paris;" or, "thatadttl- 
terotts Paris." Like another Paris, he has 
taken away frorn me iny betrothed wife. 

Scmiviro. The Romans in Virgil's time 
held the Phrygians Sn contempt for their 
eilcniinacy. 

216. Moeoniabordered onPhrygia. Tlie 
vtltra, orcap, was a common head-covering 
among many Asiatic nations ; it was fas- 
tened below the chin by ribbons. which 
partly covered tlie jaws and tcmples, a9 
neeu in the woodcut beneath. 




217 Subnisus montum. Ou the con- 
«truction see note L 228, and ii. 210. 
Quippe is expressive of strong irony. 

222. Alloquitur. Last sylL lengthened 
by arsis. 

' This commLssioning of Mercury is bor- 
rowed from Hom. Od. v. 2S sqq. 

On Mercury consult Smith's Class. Dict. 
and Keightley's Myth. 

225. Exspectut — "lingers." Datas urbes 
— see JEn. L 25& 

227. Observe the oblique form of narra- 
tive rarelv fuund in epic poetry. See be- 
low, 289, 294. 

228. liis — once from the attack of Dio- 
mede, Hom. II. vi 311, anu seeondly from 
Achdles (by Neptnne's interference), II. 
xx. 291. Heyne. To this latter instance 
Wagn. objects that Neptune did it of his 
own accord, and not at the instigation of 
Venus. He proposes, therefore, three other 
explanations: (1,) The second rescue of 
^Eneas referred to was on the occasion of 
the buming of Troy. Of this Thiel aud | 
Forb. approve. (2,) Tliat Venus rescued i 
.Eneas from the Greeks, tirst at the storm- 
ing of Troy, and afterwards during his 
voyaging through their states. (3.) Tliat 
the tv.-o overthrows of Troy are understood 
In confirmation of this he coinpares iii. 47C. 

J'ir,dicat=vindicavit ct ndhuc vindicai. 

229. Gravidam imperiis. (1,) Whieh 
shall produce many illustrious commanders. 
(2.) Which shall cmbrace under its sway 

94 



the entire gtobe. (Bnt this, says WumL, 
would 1) . as thc same Idea is 

stated in 231). (3,) Which has produced 
many powerfol nations, to be subdued by 
.Lncas. This last explanaUon is adopted 
hy Wund., Wagu., and Forb. 

231. Proderet = propagaret, tamtqudm 
auctor stirpis. Latum orbetn mitteret sub 
leges — a confottnding of Ameas and Augus- 

oded as acompliment to the lattcr. 

232. Accendit, sciL eum, suggested by 
ipse following. 

235. Spe, inimica. This is almost a soli- 
lary instance in heroic poetry of a mono- 
syllable placed in arsis with a hiatus. the 
long quantity of the vowel being preserved. 
The primary (Triemimeral) caesura, and the 
great emphasis on the word itself, may ex- 
cuse the license. See ^En. L 10 ; Ecl. ii. 53. 

23C. Ausoniatn prolem — the offsprinpr in 
Ausonia (Italy), with an Ausonian woman, 
viz., Lavittia. 

Et afternichas a negative force; or rather, 
the latter clause is sojoined by it to the for- 
mer, as that both coalesce into one negative 
enunciation. 

Lavinia, The first syll. is herc, as L 2, and 
elsewhere. long; but Laviniura, the na:ne of 
the citv, has the a usually short, as at ^n. 
i. 258, 270, etc, 

237. Xaviget .'— "Sail hemust," with par 
ticular qmphasis, forming, asit does, a wln>le 
foot, and the first word of the line. 

Hic nuntius — "Let this be our message," 
or " Be thou our messenger of this man- 
date." 

239. Talaria — either the " sandals pro- 
vided with wiogs," or the "fastenings," so 
that the wings themselves will be under- 




B. IV. 242-256. 



NOTES ON THE A 



B. IV 3SJ7-276 



stood as attached to the hecls, i 
in thc foregoiiig woodcat 

•24-.'. Virgam — the cuduceus. SeeMythoL, 
Kelglitley. 

243. Miltit— "condncta." Thc Grecks 
called bim vi%po<roft<To$, toiu.t&.7o$- 

•-'44. Lumina morte resignut. Thcse words 
have caused great difficnlty to commcnta- 
fors. We Blmply enumerate tlic principal 
explanations : (1,) Ile relaxes their eyea 
in death ; resignare having thus the same 
meaning as solvcre. Heyne aud Forcell. 
(2,) He opens again thc eyea of the dying 
when oii the point of death, i.c, hc recalls 
thedyingtolife. Wagner. (3,) As Mercury 
gives and deprivesof sleep, so he agatn seals 
Iheeyes in the,sleepof death. Jahn. (!,) 

Mercury, tlic ■4 / ^Z°' ro f / ' 7ro '' opens the cyes 
ofthe dead whom he ia about to eonduct to 
Orcus: for the shades in the lower regions 
are represented as secing. Henry, followed 
by Forbiger. 

247. The story of Atlas, son of Japetus 
and Clymene, tunied Into a mountain*by 
Perseus, and compelled to bear the world 
pn his shoulders, is weH known. Mercury 
alighted on the peak (apicem) of Atlas, as 
being higher ground, preparatory to his de- 
soent to the plain. The epithet duri is ap- 
plied on account of the toils of Atlas, and 
thc -jircumstances recorded in 249 sqq. 

240. Pinifer is not to be interpreted too 
liicrally ; it is a general epithet of moun- 
isins iu the poets. 

252. Nitent — "poising himself." Cyl- 
lenius; he was bom on Mt. Cyllenus, in Ar- 
cadia. Cf. Milton, in IiLs description of the 
descent of GabrieL 

254. Avi — a Meruus, or some sucli fish- 
nunter, which soai - s at a considerable height 
above the water, and, after marking its prey, 
swoops down upon it with the violence of a 
hurricane. 

256. The authenticity of this and the two 
following verses is doubted by almost every 
eommentator. The following are among the 
objections urged: (1,) 257 is absent from 
some MSS., 258 from most, while in others 
257 is placed after 253. (2,) The lines are 
vcry tame, insipid, and rugged. (3,) The 
fiomoioteleuton, volabat and secabat. (4,) 
The asyndeton (want ofconjunctions) in the 
verses, and the extraordinary connexion of 
the words litus arenosum ac Libyae ventosque 
tccubut. But, besides these, Wagner puts 
fbrward others : — (1,) The words terras inter 
coetumque, which imply high flight, ill ac- 
cord with humilisjuxta aequora of the pre- 
ceding line. (2,) The reference to Mer- 
cuiy's mother and grandfather is spiritless, 
and ill placed. (3,) It is absurd to extend 
the eomparison through so many lincs, 
when the eubject is a trivial affair, espe- 
ciaily as Virgil uees havd aliter only in 



similes where dignity and grandenr arecon- 
Bpicuons. Wagner farther lmagmet, that 
Bome urammarian added the linea lesl the 
reader might snppose that un simitt» in 206 
might be interpreted literally u if Mer- 
cury werein shapeof a bird; and I 
was appended lcst the tutject should be 
wanting, while 257 fbund a place in the 
text t<i cxplain circum Utora, circum 
scopulos of 254, 5. 

267. IJtus arehosum ac Libyae. Tliis 
Wagner takes to be the truc reading, the 
interpolator liaving inserted uc in thc third 
placc, for ac litus arenotum I.ibyae. Others 
write ad, and others omit altogether. 

25S. Muiu, tlie mothcr of Mcrcury, was 
onc ofthe Pleiades, the daughter of Atlas 
and Pleione. Thc Ronians callcd tho 
Pleiades, Yergiliae. 

260. Tecta hovuntera — buildhig a ncw 
private mansion for himself. 

261. Conspicit. Atque. Tliis is Wagner's 
pnnctuation : a semicolon ia usually placed 
after conspicit. Wagner asserts that this 
particle, utque, when placcd at the begin- 
ning of a sentence, expresses amazemcnt at 
some miexpected circumstance. It liere 
indkates the astonishment of Mercury at 
the dress of iEneas, and the total change of 
his manncrs and charactcr. Stellatus, viz., 
on the hilt and scabbard. 

faspide — four syllables. 

262. Laena — ^Xa?v« was a pcculiar kind 
of woollen cloth, wth a long loose nap, 
not made into any particular shape of robc, 
but used as an outer hap in various forms. 
SeeRamsay's Rom. Antiq. Ardebat=spkn- 
debat. 

Murex — a shell-fish which supplied a 
purple dyc. It was found in large quan- 
tities at Tyre, on the coast of Laconia, and 
other places. See v. 205. 

264. Telas— "the warp." Dido had intcr- 
woven, here and there, "fine threads of 
gold." See iii. 483. 

265. Invadit— "angrily addresses." Tho 
word is characteristic of the specch of 
Mercmy, and indicative of the tenor of what 
is to foUow. 

269. Torquet refers to the revolution of 
the earth on its axis, for Virgil was aware 
Terram circum axem se summa celeritate 
convertere et torquere, Cic. Acad. iv. 39, 
123. 

276. Spesheredis Iuli — debentur. Wagner, 
comparing 236, Ausoniam prolem, thinks 
that he has caught Virgil "napping." 
Forbiger defends the poet by saying that 
he is here correcting himself, justly think- 
ing that at this very time, when iEneas 
was held in the chains of Dido's love, 
Ascanius would naturally bc of more 
concern to him than any offspring to be 
derived froui a new marriagc in Italy. 

95 



B. IV. 277-294. 



2C0TES ON THE .EXEID. 



B. IV. 297-31L 



277. Mbrtaks vitus rehquit — "vanished 
from tlie sight of men." He had assumod 
niortal shape to enable iEueas to see him, 
but now he " divests liimself of his human 
form." Goasr. 

283. Ambire, Le., odire cum gratia, et 
quasi per ambages. It is like our phrase, 
"to get round a person," though perhaps 
different iu origin, 

Quae prima cxordia sumat — "How 
is he to open the matter?" 

285. Atque is objected to, as it is alleged 
there is no connection between this and the 
forcgoing lines — (indeed, 285, 6 have been 
discarded by some editors as returning in 
viii. 20, 21, ar.d as being omitted from some 
MSS.) — and atqui and utque have been pro- 
posed as emendations. Wagn. and Wund. 
defend atque, the latter suggesting that 
Heu quid agnt, 283,=mcertus cst quid agat, 
to which (incertus est.) dividit may be 
naturally connected by atque. 

Celermm does not mean celeriter, but is 
to be taken rather as an epithet of the mind 
whose thoughts and decisions follow one 
another in the quickest succession; tlms we 
say " as quick as thought." The Homeric 
phrase oidv^ix» pippnpt>£tv, is here trans- 
latc-d. 

287. Alternanti — "wavering," "hesita- 
ting," deliberating now this, now that plan. 
The nse of aliernare in this sense is almost 
unique. 

Observe the peculiarity of 
poetic diction. Without making known the 
sentcntia. we arc at once informed ofwhat 
the principal agent does. 

Ou the namea Senjestus and Serestus see 
note, y£n. i. 611. 

Mnrsthea — Gk. accus. See Gram., undcr 
Gk. n juns of decL, iL 

289. Classem aptent, Le., jubet (suggested 
by vocat) ut aptent. Aptent — "equip," 
with oars, sails, and other gear. 

Cogant socios. This is a kind of hysieron 
proteron (see note, iEn. ii. 353) — "having 
collected their companions they should 
equip." 

2>iae rebus sit. This order of words 
(rather than quae sit rebus) is preferred by 
Wagu. and Fo;-b. as improving the rhythin 
of the verse. 

291. Quando is not a word of time here, 
but of circumstance=<?w0722'a/?i, or quando- 
quideiru 

293. MoUissima — "the least painful to 
Dido." Aditus — " opportunities of conver- 
sation." 

Quis rebus de.rter tnodus, Le., quis 
tnodus e.v variis modis rei gerendae sit de.r- 
s. •• What mode of action was best 
sujted to the carcamstaiices." 

Ocius, sciL dicto, as more fully at L 142, 
itius dicto. 

96 



297. Krccpit, sciL auribut, sensibus, Le., 
animadvertit. 

298. Omnia tuta timens. Forb. had for- 
merly interpretcd, "fearing everything 
though safe," or " fearing evcrything even 
when safe;" but he now agrees with Dr 
Henry in explaining it thus : " Fearing this 
vcry thing that all things are safe," i.e.-, 
fearing that this too great good fortune 
cannot long continue. 

Eadtm Fama — "that same Rumour" who 
rcported to Iarbas the arrival of iEneas. 
She is called impia, becanse she reports 
without cessation falsehoods no less than 
facts. 

Furent\ — eithcr as above, 69, "like 
one maddened," or by anticipation alluding 
to her frantic conduct after the departur6 
of JEneas. 

300. Inops annm, so inops rationis (Stat. 
Theb.), inops consilii (Livy). 

30L Bacchatur — "runs about wildly 
after the manner of the Bacchantes." Tlie 
more ancient triennial orgies ( , rpnTr,pix.d.) 
of Bacchus, introduced into Greece by the 
Thracians. are here alluded to. Tliey were 
celebrated on Mt. Cithaeron by the The- 
bans. with all the wild and boisterous 
enthusiasm of savage life. For fuller in- 
formation, consult DicL of Gk. and Rom. 
Antiq. (Smith). 

E.rcita commotis sacris — "ronsed at the 
opening of the rites." The sacred imple- 
ments. vases. tlvjrsi, and even the statue of 
the god, were seized and carried forth hy 
the worshippers. 

302. Thyias—adis, 0vi<*S (Qwj—a, Bac- 
chante. 

Baccho audito. The cry " Io Bacche " 
being heard. Thiel understands, "when 
the voice of Bacchus himself, encouraging 
the worshippers. was heard." 

Stimulant — urge her oo in haste to Mt. 
Ctthaeron to the ceremonies. 

303. Nocturnus—noctu. Adjs. are often 
used thus for advs., as matutinus, viii. 465. 
Vespertir.us, Hor. Sat. iL 4, 17. So also 
v^'0J, r/ipio;, x,tii'o:, etc. 

306. Sperasti tacitus decedere, for sperasti 
te tacttum decedere, a not unusual construc- 
tion with the Latin poets, in their fondness 
for imitating the Greeks. 

308. Nec moritura tenet, i.e., retinet. Thc 
sense is, Nor does my death, which is suie 
to happen if you depart, detain you. 

310. Aquilonibus — put for the winds gen- 
erally, though Dido would naturally uame 
tliatwind which would be adverse to the 
voyage c>f „Eneas. 

311. This is an argument. a m ' 
you were going to Troy still in i - 

you would not set out amidst such dangers; 
- ought you to set saO for a foreign 
laiid, where no home is prepared for you. 



B IV. 314-335. 



NOTES OX iTIE ^NEID. 



B. IV 336-350. 



314 Per dexlram — by the right hand, 
which wc liave joined in huspitality. On 
the form of oath, see -<En. U. 142, and Soph. 
PhiL 469, vrfo; H»i ai Tctrpo;, etc. Te is 
governed by oro, 319. 

Miwl nihil— nothing but tears and 
prayera. This line refers as wcll to whot 
follows as to what precedes. 

318. Domus labentis—de gente Didonisin- ' 
telligendum, ve! potius de Didone ipsa, quae 
hic noram, gentem regiam conditura est. 
Forbiger. 

320. Having reterred to personal favours 
and private considerations, she now turns 
to the troubles and difficultics which iEneas 
nad brought on her, and wliich he can alle- 
viate, or remove, by remaining at Car- 
thage. 

Xomadum tyranni — "kings of the Numi- 
dians:" Iarbas is particularly meant. The 
name Numidae, Sallust, Jug. 18, derives 
from Xomades, Le,, the shepherds — pastoral 
tribes, from vopo;. Niimidia is called Xo- 
mas by MartiaL 

32L Infensi Tyrii. Either Tyrian nobles 
had been rejected when seeking her hand, 
or the generai body of the people were dis- 
satisfied that they are made subject to 
Jtaaaa, a foreigner. 

323. Cui deseris me — shortly for cui relin- 
quens me deseris. Moribundam, Le., morit- 
turam per te. 

324. liospes — hoc nomen de conjuge — How 
much bitterness of reproof do these words 
convey ! Cf. iL 678. 

32& Quid moror. These words have 
reference to moribundam, 323. The mean- 
ing is, •• If I am to die, why do I delay to lay 
hands on myselr before Iarbas or others of 
my enemies destroy me ?"' After an supply 
rnoror from the foregoing. 

326. Gaetulus is put for Afer generally, 
since Iarbas was king of the Maxitani, and 
uot of the Gaetulians, as we have seen. 

<nscepta fuuset. This verb usually 
applies to the act of a father in taking up liis 
children, in token of his wish that they 
should not be exposed, but savcd. It thus 
means to rear, to educate, and k not to be 
confounded liere with concipere. Cf. Ter. 
Andr. ii. 3, 27. 

330. Capta ac deserta is a stron<_' phrase for 
" abandoned by you." Capta is supposed by 
some to have reference to the dreaded cap- 
tivity by Iarbas, but this seems quite irre- 
concilable with tlie foregoing lines. Gossr., 
finding the difficulty ofcapta insurmountable, 
rejects 526-30 altogether. Capta, however, 
seems to mean " taken in," "outwitted," 
" deceived." 

i.c., dolorem. 
1'romentam, scil. de me, that is, 
you have conferred muny favours on me. 

Elksa, or Elisa, was the proper name of i 



Dido, which lattcr term is said to mean a 
wanderer. 

336. Regit— the common reading is regel. 
On this Wagn. remarks that dum witli the 
fnt. si<_rnirtes contiiuiance of time, vrithout 
i being assigncd ; but with the pre- 
sent it denotes all the tirne that ehipscs up 
to the end of a period whose duration is 
Bxed 

837. Pro re=pro re nata, Le., considering 
the state of affairs. Furtum is anything 
aon^ in & clandestine manner ; the idea of 
"adesire to deceive" being necessarily im- 
plied. 

339. Praetendi taedas, ie., I have never 
put the name of marriage on our relation- 
ship. 

Ilaec foedera, "such engagements," viz., 
as those of marriage. Aut after nec becomes 
ncgative. 

341. Meis auspkiis. These words are sel- 
dom employed in reference to the affairs of 
an individual; the signification is trans- 
ferred from public matters, morc especiaily 
from the consuls and generals of the armies, 
gui aut suis aut alienis auspiciis res gerunt. 
The life of ^Eneas was hereafter to be regu- 
lated according to the will of the gods or 
the Fates, and therefore alienis auspkiis. 

342. Urbem Trojanam colerem, Le., "I 
should havc built a new city on the ruins of 
ancient Troy, and now be inhabiting it, 
taking a delight in paying yearly honours 
to the Manes of my friendV' Reliquias, 
the Manes, as translated; not the sepulchres, 
which i3 Heyne's opinion. Wagner under- 
stands it as the city itself. The variety o\ 
tense in colerem and posuissem will be easUy 
explained. There is a zeugma in colerem 
which is applied to reliquias and urbem in 
different senses. 

344. Mann, pleonastically, as is often the 
case when words of art and industry aro 
spoken of. So ore or voce after verbs of 
speaking. 

34-5. Grynium, or Grynia, was a town of 
Aeolis, famed for a temple and oracle of 
Apollo. 

346. Lyciae sortes — ApoHo's oracle at 
Patara in Lycia. See above, 143, notd 
Capessere — "to make for." 

348. Detinet, Le., so delights and interests 
you that you cannot leave it. 

350. Quae invidia, Le., by what fceling of 
envy are you influenced, so that you do not 
wish us to settle in Italy ? Thiel remarks, 
that the metre is well suited to the sense 
— the quick movement of invidia est 
( — v v — | ) followed by the slow and 
deliberate enunciation of the long mono- 
syllables, et, nos, fas ( — | — I — j ), 
with the rcnewed camestness in extera, 
( — v v j ) all contribute to givo the words 
87 



B. IV. 353-373. 



NOTES ON THE .ENEID. 



B. IV, 375-392 



full power, aiid brblg out the feeling iii all 
its force. 

353. Admonet, viz.. that I should go to 
Italy and found a uew kingdom. 

354. Capitis. Capttt is often put for the 
whole person by a weU known imai 

Ilor. desiderium tam cari capitis. 

357. Vtrumque caput, i.c., both yourself 
and me. Not ^ncas and Aseanius, afl 
Bome interpret: nor Jupiter and Mereury, 
as othcrs would havc it. 

359. Hausi—^I drauk it iu with these 
v. iy ears." Bo Hor. Od. ii. 13, 32, haa 
bibcrc auribus. and Iiry xxvii. 51, oculis 
luribusque gaudium kaurire. 

362. Aversa. i.c., obliquis, torvis oculis. 

364. Luminibus tacitis (ipsa taccnt) — 
wlth eyes which silently gave expression to 
ncr indignation. 

Sic accensa— roused farther to wraffa by 
thc survey of him. 

On this wholepasaage Schirach rernarks: 
" Imaginc to yoursclf the face of a person 
silently surveying another, the eyes slowly 
journeying from head to foot, and as slowly 
returuing to the point whence they started 
ou their tour of inspection. The v/hole 
passage is most beautiful, but these few 
verses carry off the palm from all others, 
since thcy depict the scene with that truth- 
mlness to naturc which ouly the highest 
l>oet can represent." 

366. Cautibus and horrens are clearly con- 
neeted in sense and syntax. Horrens= 
arduus, for it means both " horror-caus- 
ing" and "sharp-pointed," which latter 
sense it retains in cldcr Enghsh; thus 
Miltou, "Horrent aiins." 

367. As Mt. Caueasus was inhabited by 
wild and savagc tribes, the Bornans, when 
they wished to represent a person as un- 
civilixed and roug/i, said that "He was bom 
at Caucasus." 

Hyrcania, near Caucasus, lay between 
the Caspian Sea, Media, Parthia, and the 
river Oxus. 

368. Quid dissiviulo — " Why do I with- 
hold my rage?" i.c, " "Why do I not burst 
forth with the full force of my resentmeut ; 
he cannot injurc or insult me more than 
he has doue?" The change to the third 
person in ingemuil, etc., is strongly iudica- 
tive of her grief and passion and pretendcd 
contempt. 

369. Fletu UafletuL See Ecl. v. 29. In- 
gemere and ingemisco are usually followed 
by a dat., but in Ecl. v. 27 by an accus. 

371. Quae quibus anteferam, Le.. quibus 
durioribus haec tanquam leniora antepo*- 
nam: Hcyne and Forb. Others refer the 
phrase to the order or plan of narrative, but 
this is not good. On the double interroga- 
tion consult K-ritz, Sali Cat xlvh. 1. 

373. Ejectum lilore, i.e., n litvs, as in 
lii. 135, subductae litore puppcs. 

98 



375. The brevity and abruptness aro 
eharacteristic of the confused and excited 
mind of Dido. In Amissam classem thero 
is contained a bitter reproof, that shc had 
been the means of saving that vcry fleet in 
wbich he was now about to sail for ltaly 
and abandon her. 

376. To nugur Apollo and Lyciac sortcs, 
supply from 381, jusserunt Italiam pctcrc, 
for intcrprcs (messenger) applies only ta 
jcrt. There is strong irony throughout, 
and horrida is especially emphatie. Hor- 
rida jusza is interpreted by some, "orders 
which one woidd shudder to disobey." 

379. Scilicet — strongly ironical, implying, 
of course, that she gave no credcnce to hia 
statements. See 2En. iL 577, aud Ter. And. 
L 2, 14. 

Quietos — this word has reference to the 
Epicurean doctrine, that tlie gods "securam 
agere f?'ra7«." See Hor. Sat. i. 5, 101. 

380. Neque is seldom doubled in Virgil, 
as here. It is better suited than nec to ex- 
press transition, but it is a weaker ncgative. 
See Geo. iv. 9 ; JEu. viiL 316. 

381. Observe the three imperatives with- 
out a conjunction, I, sequere, petc. 

Pete regna — she insinuates that desire to 
rule is the main cause of his departurc. 

382 Pia numina. As the deities were 
themselves reckoned pii, so she beUeves 
they will defend mortals who are pii, and 
punish those who are impii (void of natural 
affection and ungrateful) and perjuri. 

383. Hausurum supplicia — "drink the 
cup of punishment to the dregs." Haunre 
is used of those things whieh, whether tliey 
be good or evil, we bring upon ourselvcs by 
our actions; Wagn. £>i<h — Greek acc. 

384. Atris ignibus — "Like one of tha 
Furies, I shall everywhere meet you, and 
hold out smoky torches before you;" that is, 
[poetic imagery being removed,] a bad con- 
science, on account of thc crimc committed 
against me, will torture you, and the imago 
of the injured Dido will haunt you. 

Thus Wagner in his larger edition. In 
his smaller, however, he changes hisopinion, 
and explains as follows: " With the smoke 
and fiame of my funeral pile, as an evil omen. 
I, absent, willpersecuteyou, thoughdistant." 
This interpretation suits better 661 sqq., 
as well as line 385, et cum frigida, imme- 
diately following. Other explauatious we 
deem it unnecessary to give. 

385. Anima seduxeritartus, forthepros&ia 
aiumam ab artibus sejunxerit. 

387. Manes is used for the place of spirits. 
Haecfama, Le.,fama hujus rei. 

388. Medium sermonem abrumpit, i.e., she 
put an end to farther conversation by not 
waiting for the reply of iEueas : breaks oll 
the conversation before it was finished. 

392. Marmoreo thalamo, i.e., ii t thalamvm 
marmoreum, marmore ornatum. 



B. IV. 393-4 16. 



NOTES ON THB .KNKII>. 



U. IV. 417-4SO. 



393. Pius JEneat. I'ius, because more 
attentive to the will of tlic gods. and the 
intcrests of his son, than to the wishea of 
JUido andjiis own inclinations. 

397. Incumbunt, scil. vperi reflciendarum 
navium. 

399. Frondcntes remi and infabricata ru- 
bora refer to the same thing, viz., tlie 
branches and shocts with thc lcavcs still 
nnstripped, and tho steuis nnfaahioned. 
Infabricatus is among thc a.-7ra.\ Kiyopivx. 

401. Migrantes—ct ruentes, i.e., ruentes vt 
migrantet (jestinare) solent. Cernas — " you 
may perceive (if you wish)," a poetic ex- 
pression for cerneres. 

402. Wagner writes vehtt and not veluti, 
nlleging that veluti and uti arc never writ- 
ten in Virgil, except bcfore consoiiauts. 
Veluti cum = ai oTt. 

403. Iliemis mcmorcs. Cf. Ilor. Sat. L 1, 
35, "magniformica laboris * * haud ignara 
ct non incauta futuri." 

404. It aymen — et convedant. On thc 
variation in the number of these two verbS 
with thc common subject agmen, consult 
note, M\\. iii. G76, and i. 70. The verb con- 
rectare is said to be found only hcre and Li 
Tac Hist. iii. 27. Calk anjusto,—c£ Geo. L 
380. 

406. Agmina cogunt. This is a military 
phrase applied to the duty of those who 
nrought up the rear, and prevented the 
soldiers from straggling or from phmdering. 

407. Moras is for morantcs, as opus for 
operantes formicas, by a well known poctic 
usage. Thiel quotes a most appropriate 
example from Ter. Andr. ii. 3, 21 — uxorem 
his moribus dabit 7temo, i.e., homini sic 
morato — " to such a character." 

Fervet — "glows." This verb is usod to 
exprcss activity "and quick motion, since 
these produce fervorem. On tlic two forms, 
fervere and fervere, see Geo. L 456; on 
stridere and striderc, Geo. iv. 262 ; and on 
fulgere and fulgere, iEn. vi. S27. Sce 
below, 409. 

408. Quis sensus — "by what name am I 
to call that feeling," according to the dis- 
tinction laid down between qui and quis. 
8ee note, M\\. iii. 608. 

411. Aequor misceri. Wund. interprets, 
of tlie movements and the din of many 
individualt engaged in labour. 

413. Ire in lacrimas for descendere ad 
lacrimas—" to have recourse to tears." 

414. Animos=iras, or it may be opposed 
to supples, and be equal to tuperbi spiritus, 
the pridc of the qucen altcrnating with the 
weafmeaa of the woman. 

416. Properari, nsed impersonally. Thc 
coinrnon editions have a semicolon aftcr 
cirevm, tnit Wagn. punctuates aftcr litore (;) 
m-ikiiij.' - um mean cx omnibus, 

oyiccirca sunt, locis. 



417. On carbasui, see note, ^En. iii 967. 

419. *S7 potui — si=n, or wcnn in Gennart 
and ifl to be translated, ",S'('nce I have becr 
able to anticipate (sperare=ejspectare), (set 
298, omnia tuta timens) my present grief, 
greal aa it is, 1 shall be ablo to bear it too." 

423. Molles aditus et tcmpora, Le., you 
were the only onc who knew to discem the 
propex time whcn he was most affable. 
" You alone knew the soft approaches to 
the hcro's heart, and the seasonable moment 
to enforce them." Galbraith. 

424. Hostem-^odiosum virum. Heync. 
Thiel takes it as equal to hospitem, which 
was the original signification of hostis. 

426. Aulis, in Boeotia, 'whcre the Grecian 
chieft, liaving assemblcd with thcir forces, 
prcvious to their dcparture to Troy, bound 
thcmselvcs by an oath not to rcturn tiH 
they had captured the city of Priam. 

427. Patris cinerem revclli. One of the 
most heinous of all sins, in the eyes of the 
ancients, was to disturb the ashes of tho 
dead. Thc poct, perhaps, makes reference 
to the story that Diomede carried away the 
ashes of Anchises, but afterwards returned 
them to JEneas, when hc had been plagued 
for violating and retaining them. This cir- 
cumstance, however, could not have been 
known to Dido at thc time, but the poct, 
we have seen, does not avoid anachronisms, 
if the subject be suitedto embellish lus work. 

433. Tempus inane, i.e., a season during 
which their relationship and close intimacy 
should bc partially suspended, and an easy 
transition made by her knowing merely 
that JEneas, though not on terms of former 
friendship, was still near, and hi Carthage. 

435. Veniam=gratiam, beneficium. 

436. This vcrse has given much trouble 
to commentators, the opinions of some o.f 
whom are enumerated underneath. (1,) 
And if you confer this favour upon me, I 
shall remember it gratefully so long as I 
live, and repay it abundautly at my deat?>; 
Heyne, Jahn, and Siipfl. (2,) And if you v.ill 
confer tliis favonr upon me, you will testify 
that it has bcen abundantly repaid at my 
death, i.c, that I have bestowed much morc 
apon you than you havc upon me; thua 
Wagn., whodoes not agreethat morte meana 
durirtg my life untilmy denth. (3,) Henry 
reada cumnlnta, and, reierring to the worda 
of .Eueas, 360, Desinc mequetuis incendere 
teque querelis, explains as follows: — "In 
deferencc to the wisli of /Eneas, I shall ceaso 
to woxryhim with complaints and entreaties. 
(i.c, remittam — I shall slaoken in my re- 
monstrances), although by his departure 
death is prepared for me, as it were, mani- 
fold (cumulata morte)" (4,) Forbiger inter- 
preta Bimply, and, as appeara to ua, correctly, 
" And if you perform tliis service for me, I 
Ehall repay it 'haudsomely at my death;" 

99 



B. IV. 437-462. 



NOTES ON THE ^NEID. 



B. IV. 464-486. 



hinting probahly at the snccession to the 
kingdom or some otlier benelit. 

437. Fletus — cntreaties accompanied with 
tcars. 

438. Fertque refertqu e— u bQMS again and 
again." Kut "bears to JEneas, and back 
from hirn to Dido." 

439. Tractabilis audit, ie., ita audit ut 
tommoveatur. 

440. Placidas expresses the general cha- 
racter of the disposition of ^Eneas, which it 
is the poefs duty to extoL 

Deus— the deity, divine influence — no 
partictdar god being signified. 

442. The poets associated cold, snow, ice, 
and other inclemencies of the weather, with 
the Alps, as here Alpini Boreae signifies the 
north wind blovring from the Alps. 

443. For altae some copies read alie, but 
the former has the authorityof the bestMSS. 
Altae consternunt isequal to ita consternunt 
Ut altae sint. 

448. The suitableness of iheYrordtunditur 
In this place will at once be recognised; u is 
buffeted," "lashed." 

Heyne puts a period after curas, but a 
semicolon is preferable, since a very close 
connexion exists between this and the fore- 
going line. 

450. Faiis, sciL suis. Convexa coeli—see 
».310. 

453. Turicremis. This is a word borrowed 
from Lucretius ii. 353. 

455. Obscocnum — "foul," " disgusting in 
appearance;" or here rather "ill omened," 
"poitending misfortune." Cf. Geo. L 470. 

456. Heyne remarks that this verse is 
admirably adapted to inerease the horror of 
the scene. "We novr despair of the life of 
Didowhen we find herpertinaciouslysilent 
on the subject of her death, even to her 
dearest relative. Thus are those determincd 
on suicide wont to act 

457. Templum — the shrine dedicated to 
the shade of Sychaeus. 

De marmore, Le., quae dempta est de rupe 
marmorca. 

459. Velleribus niveis — Vellus properly sig- 
nifies wool shorn from the sheep, and hence 
anything made thereof, nsfiilcts and bands, 
which are here meant 

400. Hinc, "from this temple." 

462. " And the solitary screech owl, sitting 
on the house-top, often wailed with death- 
toreboding cry and protracted her long- 
drawn notes into a plaintive song." The 
lubo is a bird closely reaembiing the noctua, 
and receives its name, Uke our cuckoo, from 
the sound made by it Virgil is the only 
wrHer who uses the word as feminine. This 
kind ofowl was lookedupon bythe Eomans 
as a death-boding and inauspieious bird; 
and did any one of the species fmd its way 
into a liouse, the members of the family 
exerted theinselvea to catch it, and nail it to 

m 



the door, in ordcr that its suffenngs might 
exbaust the calamities which its approach 
predicted to the honsehold. 

464. Fiorum is the reading of Wagncr, 
Siipfl., Gossrau, Forbiger, etc, instead of 
priorum. Fius is a common epithet of 
prophets, and secms more suitable than 
priorum, which the simiJarity of the first 
sylls. otpraeterea and praedicta may havo 
led a copyist to write. 

469. Fentheus, son of Echion and Agave. 
and successor of Catbnus as king of Thebes. 
The story of his opposition to the introduc 
tion oftlie worship of Bacchus into Bceotia, 
and his consequent punishm&nt, are weli 
known. The Eumenides were otherwise 
called Dirae, Furiae, Erinves. 

470. With this verse, cf. Eur. Bacch, 916. 

471. Agamemnonius — the possessive for 
the patronymic, as Lycaonius, x. 749. 

Orestes — son of Agamemnon, and mur- 
derer of his own niother, Clytaemnestra, 
waa driven mad by the Furies, avengers of 
his crime ; 472 states the means by which 
his guilty conscience was harassed. 

Scenis, for i» scenis — "on the stage." 
Wagn. adds that the plur. numb. indicates 
the frequent repetitions of the piece upon 
the stage. The story of Orestes Ls some- 
what similar to that of Hamlet. 

473. In iimine — the threshold, either of 
ApohVs tempie at Delphi, whither he had 
fled to escape their attacks, or the door of 
his own house, where the Furics met him, 
as he fled from his mother's spectre. 

475. Secum ipsa — "with herself alone." 
Modum — "the kind of deam." 

477. Spem fronte serenat — " wears a 
calm aspcct of hopc on her countenance." 

479. Eo, Le.," amore in eum. On such a 
ceremony for the recovcry of a lover, see 
EcL vih. 

481. Acthiopum. The Aethiopes were 
divided into two sectiuns, the eastern and 
the western. All writers place tham in the 
very ends of the earth. Cf. Hom. II. L 423. 

Atlas. See above, 247. Torquet, more 
expressive than sustinet. It Lmplies the 
daily revolution of the sun. 

482. Axem— the globe. Aptum—" stud» 
ded," " spangled," from «**««•/«. 

483. Massylae, Le., Libycae. 

484 Hesperidum, the garden of the Hes- 
perides, usually assigncd to Cyrenaica, ts 
placed by Virgii in Mauretania, near the foot 
of Mt. Atlas. The Fortunate Islands (the 
Canaries) are by others given as the locality 
of this garden. The priestess is said to be 
residcnt at Carthagc at the tlme here spoken 
of. 

4S6. Spargens \s to be referred to dabr.{, 
not to servabat. Soporiferum, pass., Le., to 
deaden the rage of tbc dragon, but not U> 



B. IV. 487-505 



NOTES ON THE JESEID. 



B. IV. 506-512. 



put bim to sleep, for he behoved to bo 
always awake. 

487. Carminibus — magical charms. 

489. The power of stopping the course of 
streams, or of making them ilow back again 
♦o their source, was attributed to the magi 

400. Xuctumus, i.e., noctu, see above, 
303, note. 

49L Ornos— not ash trees only, but all 
kinds. 

493. Accingier— the old inf. for accingi, 
on which see Donaldson's Varronianus. p. 
360 (2d ed) It is here middle voice, "that 
I gird myself with magic arts," as mij wea- 
pons, Le., that " I have recourse to." Such 
an apology was unnecessary for Dido and 
her times, but it would have been requisite 
in the case of a Roman of Virgil's age (see 
note, JEn. L 469), when magic rites were 
condemned, and even subjected those who 
engaged in them to accusation before the 
law courts. 

Artes is the accus. of the remote object, 
on which see JEn. L 228, and iL 210, note.- 

494. Sub auras — sub means motion from 
bslou; upivards, so that the phrase siguifies 
" to raise a pile up towards heaven." As the 
Greek aspiralion=s, and <*=b, sub="^9. 
Heyne explains sub auras as merely = sub 
divo, " in the open air." 

495. The woodcut represents a pyre, or 
ara sepukhri, as it is otherwise called. with 
a dead body laid thereon. For a description 
of it see Ramsay, Rich, or Smith ; and on 
the funeral certmonies generally, consult 
the same authorities. 







Arma — that is, the sicord, mentioncd 
lelow, 507 and 646. 

497. Wagn. reads superimponant (scil. 
fnmu/i) which Forb., deeming inconsistent 
with secretn, rejects, and adopts the lection 
superimponas. 

498. Juvat (<rvf/.?ipii) — " it is neces- 
sary," or "cxpedient. ' Jubet is another 
reading. 

500. Anna's character, unsuspicious and 
devoid of pcnetration, is well chosen, to ren- 
der the working out of the catastrophe more 
casy and naturaL 

502. Aut fbi nec, after the preceding nec. 

503. laedis et ilicc secta " of pitch r»uies 
and split oak " 



506. Fronde funerea — more particularly 
the leaves of the cypress. 

508. Effigiem — an image of the person 
against whom the enchantment was directed, 
made of wax, or wood, was one of the mosl 
important parts of the magical rite. As the 
wax ofthe iinage melted, the faithless lover 
was supposed eitlier to melt again to affec- 
tion, or to be consumed by a miserable 
dcath, as a reward for his perfidy. The 
latter result was the one wished for by 
Dido. 

509. Effusa crines — another example of 
the acc. aftera passivepart. ; see note on ^En 
L 228; iL 210. Transl, " with dishevelled 
locks." Sacerdos. i.e., the MassyUan pries- 
tess mentioned above, 483. 

510. Ter centum tonnt deos — " thrice 
invokes with loud voice a hundred gods." 
Thus Wagn. in his larger edition ; but in 
his smaUer he joins tercenlum, considering 
it equivalent to plurimos. Schirach and 
Thiel write tercentum, but take it adverb- 
ially, (not joined to deos) equal to mulli- 
pltciter, multis nominibus. 

Erebus, brother of Tartarus, and son of 
Chaos. 

Chaos ix* a > X KIVU ^ whence #«07*«), 
the great void in which all things wera 
found ; it is sometimes put for Orcus. 

51L Tergeminam Hecaten and tria ora 
Diance mean the same thing, for Diana 
was called by three names — Luna in heaven 
— Diana on earth — and Hecate in the 
lower regions, and in this triple form she is 
represented in the woodcut below. The 
gods invoked were of course infernal ones. 




512. Latices simulalos Averni — " The 
r water pretending to be from Aver&na." 
101 



B. IV. 013-525 



NOTLS OX TIIE ^ENKID. 



IV. 527-551. 



Xhat poured on the altars was supposed to 
%e taken from the Styx. 

513. Fa/cibus, cte. Full grown herbs, 
'Iso, cut by moonlight with brazeri sickles, 
\re sought tbr, with thejuice of black poison, 
ie., herbs covered witb theripcned down of 
maturity, and swelling with poisonous 
juiccs. * Lac is oftcn uscd of the juice of 
herbs; Bee Ovid Met .\i. 606, 

510. Amor, etc. " Tlie ' inolher's love' 
too. is sought for, torn from thc forehead of 
an infant foal, and seizcd before the dam " 
fcould sccurc it;. It was a popular belicf 
tliat if the excrescencc sometimes appearing 
on the forehcad of a foal were not iimncdi- 
atciy devoored by the mother, shc lost all 
affection for hcr young. Hence it was osed 
as part of the cliarm to relieve the mind 
from love. The tleshy protuberance referred 
to is called Hippomanes, dilferent, howcvcr, 
from that otlicr Hippomanes which we 
mcet with in Geo. iii. 280. 

517. Mola — " the salt cake: - ' scc Ramsay. 
Viis manibvs, ie., puris, castis; see ii. 133. 

51S. Ezuia pcde/n. See above, 509. 
This was a common practice in religious 
ccrcmonies. 

In veste reancta — " ciothed in a robe, with 
girdle unloosed," as was customary. 

520. Sidcra conscia fati — the stars were 
" the eyes of heaven," and thus conscious, 
is it were, of heaven's decrees, and cog- 
pizant of all things done or doing trpon 
larth. Thiel. 

522. Apollonius (of Bhodes), iii. 744, and 
iv. 1008 sqq., has supplied to Virgil the 
tnain ideas in this beautiful description of 
night. Galbraith quotes the following from 
Young's Night Thoughts:— 

Night. sable goddess! from lier ebon throne, 
In rayless majesty now stretches forth 
Iler leaden sceptre o'er a leaden world. 
Silence, how dead ! aud darkness, how pro- 

found ! 
\or eye, nor listerring ear an object finds : 
Creation sleeps, 'tis as thc gcneral pulse 
Of life Btood still, and Xature made apause, 
An awful pause, prophetic of her end. 

The stillness of the night, and the repose 
of Nature's othor works, contrast strongly 
with the tunnoil of passion which gives no 
rest to the agitated queen. 

523. Silcae et aequora — either "thewoods 
and seas" themsclves, as the wind was lulled 
it nighlfali; or tlie "varioas forms of animal 
dfe inhabiting the woods, the tieids. and the 
ocean." 

Quierant — had gone tr i-est, Lc, were now 
wrapped in sleep. 

525. Pktae — "speLicled," " party-col- 
tturcd." Quaeque, i.e., both sea fowi and 
those birds which frequent inland dLstricts, 
But some take quaeque lacus, ete.. to mean 
"thosc animals (i.c, tish) wjuch frequent the 



waters. and those that inhabifthe Iaf.es, fol 
why, Bay they, should fish be omitted, sincfl 
tbe poeCa objcct secip^ to be to includc a 1 ! 
anlmals?" 

527. Somno — the d'iL, accorduig to Forb. 
and Gossrau — the abl., in the opinion of 
Heyne, Wagner, etc. Tlie former is prc- 
ferable, since they are mentioncd as now 
enjoying s/eep, and not as composmg them- 
setves to sleep. 

528. Thisline has becn omitted by many 
cditors as spurious. Forb., however, de- 
fendfl it as necessazy to thc contcxt, and 
punctuates with a full stop atterager (525), 
and a colon after laborum (528). II c, 
moreover,. supplics lenibat curas after at 
nun infelix l'hoenissa. Wagncr inits a 
comma after ager, and a colon after siknti. 
Forbiger*a opinion will, we behevc, bc 
rcadily adopted. See his r.otc in loc. On 
infclix anioii, sce abovc, 203. 

53L Runus resurgcns — such plconasms 
are not infrequent. 

534. Quid ago — "What am I doing?" 
with sclf repr.rach. Somc books read q id 
agam — "What shall I do?" the phrase of 
cne deliberating. Itursus is to be joined 
with experiar. 

535. Petatn connubia — said with the most 
bitter irony, as it was considcred highly 
disroputable for a virtuous woman to make 
advances of such a kintL 

538. Scquar classcs et ultima jussa — 
there is a zeugma in scquar, as applied in 
cne sense to classes, arid in another tvjussa. 
UUimameans "thc most degrading," — that, 
than which nothing could be more humilia- 
ting and disagrecable, so t Hima po<na. 

Quiane juvat (eos) auxilio (meo) ante 
lcvtdos Cetse). Ali this is said with the 
keenest irony. 

540. Sinct, "would allow me," \\z., to 
follow the fleet Fac vclle, " suppose I 
were willing." 

542. Pcrjuria, plur., refomng to the 
treachery of Laomedon towards Apollo and 
Neptnne. 

543. Ovantes — "trinmphing ' (see Bam- 
say 8 Antiq. on Ovatio) over her in thoir 
departure, and, moreover, bocause tliey 
would carry with them a quecn as a captivc. 

545. Infcrar, Le., Shall I follow and at- 
tack his sliips? not " Shall I bc bome away 
in his ships '?" with all my Tyrians. 

547. Morere — impcr. oimorior. 

548. The intense excitement of Oido's 
mind is shown by her accusmg her nearest 
and dearest and most affeetionate iriend. 

552. Sycltaeo. Ou this form of adj. eoir. 
pare JEn. L 686, and iii. 602. 

554. Certus euudi. Tliis constrnction ls 
frcquent with the poets; and even Tacitus 
I employs it. But the infin. aftor ccitvs y 
more usual, as 564, below. 

'.■at— see uote, J£a i. 3Sd. 



D. IV. 538-571. 



0.\ THE ,EXKII>. 



B. IV 



;.', '.. 



5-jg. Formn dei, non deut ipsc— 
Beaeuntis, i.c, iterum euntis. 

558. Omnin, vocem,a>/orcm, ctc. — simi/is — 
anothcr example of thc accus. of reference 

<n- limitntioii. on which sce uotc, JEn. i. 228, 
and ii 210. The voice, the coniplcxiou, thc 
golden locks, and the graeeful, well-turned 
limbs, are the marka of beauty for which 
Merooiy was distingulahed among deities. 
On the svnapheia of que after colorem, see 
JEn. i. 332, note. 

559. Black bchig the prevailing colour of 
the hair of Greeks and Romans, they prized 
liighly the flavos crincs as more rare and 
beautiful. See Antiq. 

560. Sub hoc casu — " at the crisis in whicll 
you noic are" — such ia thc force of hoc. 

Ducere somnos, Iikc trahere somnos, nieans 
to enjoy protracted sleep, tv^nv <rccvv6%iov. 

561. Demde, in interrogations, is often 
almost equal to " Qiium res ita sint." 

562. Zephyros, as auster at iii. 70, is not 
to be taken literally, but as signifying ihe 
trincl, generally. The wind called Africu» 
(W.8.W.) weuid have been more favourable 
for those sailing from Carthage to Italy. 

564. Certa mori — see above, 554, and cf. 
475. 

565. Potestas praecipitare. On the differ- 
ence between the infin. and the gerund after 
such a subst., and on the syntax of the infin. 
in this construction, see a full note, iEn. ii. 
350, v. 638, and Geo. L 305. 

560. Jam is used of an event which we 
confidently expect to happen immediately. 
Turbari trabibus, i.c, with the ships of the 
Carthaginians. Gossr. takes it to mean that 
unless ^Eneas made haste to escape, the sea 
wculd, on the morrow, be strewed with the 
fragments of his ships, broken up and burned 
by the Carthaginians. 

567. Fervere — see above, 407. 

569. Eia age is expressive of the greatest 
impatience. 

570. Varium et mutabile semper femina — 
a well known proverb. The neut. of an adj. 
joined to a masc. or fem. subst, expresses 
some degree of contempt and depreciation. 
Tlie construction is frequent both in Greek 
and Latin : Thus Ovid Am. i. 9, 4, Turpe 
est senex miles. Triste lupus stabulis, etc. 
Res is sornetimes put in apposition instead 
of the neut. of the adj., thus Ov. Met. vii. 
826, credula res amor est. 

The proverb avt amat aut odit mulier, 
nihil tertium, is similar in sentiment to the 
above. 

571. Subitis umbris — "the sudden dark- 
ness consequent on the departure of the 
god who had appcarcd, as deities were 
wont, in a halo of light." Thus Heyne and 
Gossrau. But Henry suggests that umbrae 
here means the simulacrum, <ptx,vTU.<Tf/,u, of 
Mercury, (forma dci, 556,)-- " a vision of 



it." II WOIlld be unwortliy of 
Jupiter to require to despatch lila i 
ger twice, In person, to /Eneaa. Of tliis 
YVagn., in his smaller edition, approvca 
Forb. lcans to the same lnterpretation. 

573. Praecipitcs is to be applicd to con- 
sidite, but not to vigilatc, say the commen- 
tatpra, it appears to ns, howerer, that it 
is cqually applicable to both, for an adj. 
thus nsed, where an adv. might have been 
cxpected, is in most cases eqnal in meaning 
to a scparate and independent asscrtion, ai 
if it wero, " Makc all haste (praecipitcs;, 
rouse yourselves from sleep (vigilatej, and 
take your scats on the rowing-benchcs." 
So, in the ncxt linc, citi is not for cito, but 
i» equal to " Be quick and unfurl." 

If the address, vigilate, were confined to 
those of the train whose duty it was to be 
on guard for the night, we might allow the 
restriction in the use of praecipites ; but 
as we cannot for a momeut imagine, either 
(1) that all the companions of 2Eneas wcro 
on guard on the night previous to the re- 
newal of their labours, or (2) that the orders 
of their chief would be given to a part only 
of the forces, we seem confined to the ex- 
planation now hazarded. 

576. Sancte deorum — imitated, says 
Heyne, from Ennius, Juno Saturnia, 
sancta deorum, and this from Homer, %^ x 
Siucav. The poets, and later prose writers, 
used the positive degree of adjs. in a parti- 
tive sense, governing the gen. 

577. Quisquis es — with this compare 
notes on 556 and 571. 

578. Dextra sidera — "propitious stars," 
on tlie rising of' which the winds depended, 
iu the opinion of the ancients. 

58L Habet — "possesses." Rapiuntque, 
ruii.ntqm, followed by the perf deseruere (in 
a moment, as it were, they are off), admir- 
ably cxpress the cxtraordinary activity and 
speed of execution of the various duties of 
seizing and arranging the cordage and tack- 
ling of the ship, of taking the posts of 
rowers or s&ilors, and of putting forth to 
sca. Xote the sound answering to the scnse 
in this and the following verse. 

584, 5. The reader of Homer will have 
little difficulty in turning to II. xi. 1, for 
the original oftheselines. Tithonus was a 
son of Laomedon, king of Troy, of whom 
Aurora became enamoured. 

.586. E speculis, i.c, from the lhgher part 
of her palace, to which, as a watch-tower, 
she had retircd at the early peep of grey 
dawn to have a view over the harbour. 

587. dZquatis velis — "with sails equally 
filled," i.c, with a stcady and favouring 
breezc 

588. Vacuos sine remige — such pleonasras 
are very coromon in Latin and Greek writer* 

103 



B. IV. 590-602. 



NOTES ON THE JESF.ID. 



B. IV. 603-618. 



go OvM Met. x 245, sine conjnge caelebs, 
and JEn. i. 614, note. 

i >n thc syntax of pectus percussa, 
and comas abscissa, see note, JEn. L 228, and 
iL210. 

592. Arma — not only naval implcments, 
bat all warlike instruments generally, as is 
evident from the words alii diripient. 

593. Ite. This is one of those lines which 
make against thc opinion of Bentlcy, that a 
dissyllabic word, in the end of a verse, after 
one of the ereater punctuatien marks, was 
most uupleasmg to the Romau poets. 

594. Date tela, is a much more spirited 
reading than date rela, commonly cdited on 
the authority of one MS. The frequent 
recurrence ofthe letter t appears to Wagner 
to be most particularly suitable to express 
Jhe excitemeut of Dido's mindL He com- 
pares Soph. CEd. R. 370, rvfXij <rd r 
ura, rov ri vovv, rd rb'ftp,ar tl, and the 
well known verse of Ennius, 

Tite, tute, Tati, tibi tante Tyranne 
tulisti. 
Tlie incoherence displayed in these lines, 
indicative of Dido's mental paroxysm, will 
strike the most s-uperficial observer. 

596. Impia facta tangunt. ''The wieked 
deeds (of ^Eneas, viz., his perfidy and mal- 
treatment of his benefactor) now affect 
(come home to) you." So Wagn., Forb.. and 
Wund. Heyne thinks that she refers to her 
treatment of her late husband Sychaeus, for 
which she now is being punished : but the 
foregoing line, insania mutat, with other 
considerations unnecessary to specify, reu- 
ders this improbable. 

597. The whole sentence is this: — "Now, 
when it is too late, you are keenly alive to 
the perfidy of JEneas; then rather ought 
you to have doubted his fidelity when you 
abandoned yourself wholly to his powerl" 

En dextra — so en is joined with the nom. 
in 2En. L 461. en Priamus. The interjec- 
tion expresses strong indignation and keen 
bitterness. Afterfides supply ejus, as ante- 
cedent to quem. There ought not to be an 
exclamation aHnT fidesquc. 

595. Some (Wagn. and others) grounding 
their conclusion on 599, suppose that por- 
tare refers only to the time wheu JEnezs 
carried forth the penates from burning Troy 
— but the sarcasm becomes much more 
bitter if we suppose it to apply equally to 
the time then present.— That a man, daily 
wrapping himself in the cloak of a sacred 
religious duty, should, by his conduet. give 
the he so glaringly to allhis professions. 

600. Abreptum direllere=abripere et dicel- 
lere — " Could not I have seizedhis body, torn 
it iii pieces, and flung its fragmeuts over 
the waves ? •' 

602. Ponere epulandum — a reference to 

104 



the story of Tereus or Thyestes, for whica 
see Smith's Class. Dict. 

603. Fuisset — " Even suppose it had been" 
(I cared not for that): "whom did I fear, 
dctermincd on death as I was?" 

606. Extinxem for extinxissem. Super= 
insuper, as at JEn. L 29, etc, Ipsa is nom. 
to dedissem, after which supply in ignes. 

607. Sol is invoked as seeing all things, 
and, amor.g others, the injustiee dune to 
the Queen of Carthage. 

608. Tuque harum interpres — " And thou, 
Juno, the arbitress and witness of these my 
cares." Interpres indieates the intcrme- 
diate person by whose intervention any- 
thing is effected, and the tenn is applied "to 
Juno, as tlie goddess who presides over 
marriage, and as the deity who brought 
about the union of Dido and ^Eneas. 

609. Ululata tririis — "invoked by howl- 
ings where three ways meet," whence she 
is called Triria dea, Triria rirgo, and simply 
Trivia. 

610. Dirce. See above, 473. 

Di Morientis Eltssce — not the genii of Dido, 
by aud by to become her Manes, but those 
gods who iooked on her with kindness and 
pity, aud who would avenge her death. 

611. Accipite hcec, scil. animis, Le., take 
especial notice of these things that are now 
going on. It is by no means the same as 
nostrds audite preces following. 

Meritum adrertite numen — " exercise 
against the uicked, (Le., ^Eneas and his 
abettors) the power of your divinity which 
they deserve to feel." Thus Heyne, Peerlk., 
and ThieL But Wagn., whom Forb. fol- 
lows, explains, " Take heed to my misfor- 
tunes, aud avenge them by you'- divino 
power, the exercise of whieh I meriton my 
beh.olf." The specification of the evils 
(615 sqq.) imprecated on ^neas seems to 
decide for the latter interpretation. 

613. Necesse est.—^U it must be fh*t." 
etc, i.e., if it be iimnutably fixed by tho 
fates. 

615. Tliis is prophetic of his war with tho 
brare Turnus and the RutulL The poet, 
by representing the legendary story of 
^Eneas, and the facts of later history as tlie 
word3 of prediction, leuds an uncommon 
interest to this part of the narrative, and at 
the same time displayshis own consummate 
skill as an artist. 

616, 617. Finibus extorris — arulsus, etc. 
These words refer to his departure from his 
own camp (after his arrival in Italy) to 
seek aid from Evander, when lie left As- 
canius behind him, and discovered on his 
return that Turnus had attacked his en- 
trenchments and slain a great many of hLs 
followcrs. 

618. Pacis iniquce—the Trojans gave np 
their own language, dress, and name, La 
the treaty with the Latins, xiL 823. 



B. IV. 619-634. 



NOTES ON THE .EXEfD. 



B. IV. G35-C54. 



C19. Fruatur luee. Ho is said to havc 
1 only three years, aud to have been 

drowned in the rivcr Numkius — his body, 
howevcr, WM never recovcred. To tliis 
line 620 n I 

It lias been asked, What does que 
connect? and it has been said that inhuma- 
ttu ts for neque humetur. But it isbetter to 
consider ante diem as in meajivtf, though 
not in form, an adj.=omna*urw — a cun- 
struction whieh might be abundantly iUus- 
strated from EngUsh as well as Latin 
authors. 

623. Exercete ocliis — referring, of course, 
to the Punic wars. Observe the position 
of munera. similar to that of naviget noted 
in 237, above. 

625. Exoriare, much stroncrer than exori- 
atur, for it expresses a contident expectation 
that such a one wiU arise, though she can- 
not name the individual. The ultor is 
Hannibal. Ex ossibus, i.e., not by genera- 
tion, but as it were from her very Ihiibs. hi 
a figurative sense. . 

629. The hypermetcr sylL que (to be 
joined by synapheia to tlie next line'i is 
very unusual at the end of a completed sen- \ 
tence, on which account some editors have | 
rejected the latter half of the verse. and 
others the que. Wagner and Forb. retain 
the line in full, considering that the hyper- 
metric&l syUable is intentionaL We are to 
hnagine, they say, that the excited feelings 
of Dido, and" her eager haste in speuking, 
had rendered her almost breathless. and • 
that the last words are uttered with a 
panting and failing voice, the que betraying 
an iutention to say more, which the powers 
of speech refused. 

631. Abrumpere lucem—the idea of violent 
breaking has reference to the thread of the 
Destiuies. 

633. This line is considered spurious by 
some editors on account of the trivial na- 
ture of the information, and the unusual 
phrase cinis me habet. Forb. defends its 
genuincness by replying to the first objec- 
tion that the great importance attached to 
nurses, and the large influence exercised 
by them, are sufficient grounds for the in- 
troduction of this piece of intelligence : and 
to the second, that as the phrase cinis sum 
is common, and tumulo urna haberi is a 
mcre variation of the one here used, we are 
justified in admitting cinis habet as a poctic 
fancy. Instead of suus we might at first 
sight expect ejcs, but the sentiments are 
bklo's, and therefore the reflexive pron. is 
qnite right, 

G34. Cara mihi, Le., "though not my 
nurse, but the nurse of Sychaeus, yet dear 
to me." Wakefield removes the commas, 
and makes mihi depend on siste, but this 
■would produce a tautology with huc. 
■whereas cara mihi causea no tautology, but 



on the contrary brinp-s out an Uea whlcli 
tlie brevity of tlie phnu aQow ta 

be broadly stated, nor indeed would that 
be cither uecessary or laudable. 

136. Fluviali lympha, i.e., vivo fluminc- 
Ablutions were neceaaary previooe to indi- 
viduals engaging in sacred rites. 

636. Alviistrata.anW.asacerdote. Consult, 
on the whole snbjeet of sacririces, Kamsay's 
Antiq., p. o:j'J sqq. 

638. Stygio Jovi, i.e., Pluto, Z=yj xara- 
X<!ovios. Hom. 

641. Anilem gradum—the more commot 
reading is anili, to agree with studio, ano 
this certainly suggests a much more beau- 
tiful idea than the lcction adopted by Forb., 
Wagn., etc., anitem. The epithet a"s joined 
to gradum is very insipid and common- 
place ; while, by attaching it to studio, you 
bring out one of the characteristics of old 
age, generally, and especially that whicb 
niiglit be ex]>ected in a !ome*tic, who haiL 
by long residence, become ahnost one ol 
the family. 

643. Acies is not used of the eye simply, 
but only when it is excited and has a started 
appearance through auger, or any othe/ 
violent emotion. 

644. Interfusa genas. See note, ^En. L 
228, and iL 210. Maculis — the truth of 
this is said to have been borne out in tho 
executions of the French Revolution. 
Haay of those whose hair or robea wena 
cut off at the neck, in preparation for the 
guillothie, had on their faces red and livid 
spots. 

646. For an illustration of the rogus, see 
494, above. 

648. Cf. 507 sq. The garments were 
among the presents brought from the ships, 
L 647. 

650. With this passage, cf. Soph. Trach. 
917 sqq., where Dejanira slays herself on tha 
couch of Hercules: see also Eur. Alcestis, 
where Alcestis tiings himself on the nuptial 
couch. Novissimus is often usedfor ultimus, 
so novissimum agmen. 

651. Exuvio?, etc. — "O ReUes, dear to 
me, while fate and the deity permitted, 
receive this sotd!" "Receive," etc, for 
she was about to breathe forth her souL 
lying upon them. Sinebat is written by 
Wagn. instead of the common readuig sine- 
bant, on the ground that deut andfata unita 
into one singular idea of divine arrange- 
inent. 

654. Peerlkamp would write this and tha 
two foUowing verses in the order 656, 655, 
654. 

Imago, aduXav, utribra, is called magna, 
on account of the celebrity of Dido's"ex- 
ploits. Mei imago means that by whicb I 
am represented: mea, would mean ihat 
which I uossess. 

105 



B. 17 65C-678. 



NOTES ON TITE ^SNEID. 



B. IV. 6S0-C9S. 



656. Ulta virum. See i. 360. 

639. Os impressa toro. This is usu.diy 
Interpreted as a convulsive and violent 
pressure of the couch, canaed by her gtief 
vf mind. Henry, however, comparing 851, 
considers such excess of sorrow onsuitable 
to Dido, who speaks now with a mind 
composed and tranquilised by her reflec- 
tions; he understands the phrase as mean- 
ing that she liswd the couch, like Aicestis, 
as before quoted, and Medea, ApolL Rhod. 
iv. 26. 

661. Tlauriat — oculis. Sowesay, " drink 
tn icith the eyes;" but our phrase implies 
anxiety. and usually pleasure, notions which 
cannot iind place in the present sentence. 
The verb is used of the (liquid) air, which 
we drink in hi breathing, and is thus applied 
to other things (sound, light, etc) which 
affect our senses through the air. 

CC2. Dardanum — said with contempt. 
See iu. 306, 602. 

664. After the example of tlic tragic 
writers, Virgil describes rather thc appear- 
ances resuiting from the deed of murder 
than the murder itself. Comites, i.e., fa- 
midas. 

666. Bacchatur, i.e., it speedily spreads 
through the city, and excites the people 
most vehemently. See above, on 301. 

667. Femineo uhdati/. On the hiatus be- 
iween these two words see note, iEn. iii 
211. 

671. Perque deorum. The poets and ora- 
tors often repeat the prep., and thereby add 
peculiar force andvigourto the sentence. 
Cf. ^Eh. ii. 35S. 

675. Hoc iUud/uit— u This. then, was the 
purpose cf that preparation of yours." 

678. Vocasses. Either, " If you had called 
me," or, " Would that you had called me," 
^tich latter is better siiited to the context, 
where Anna is remonstrating with the ex- 
piring queen, and complaining of her want 
of confidence in a sister's affection. 



680. Voeavi roce, (Kcc/.uv ,soa.) menns 
always to " call with a clear and dlatinct 
voice." 

68L As tlio eptthet crudeSt cannot with 
any proprioty be applied to Aiiiui in its 
literal eense, Wagn. takos it as the voc. ad- 
dr oaocd to Dido. Anna, howevor, may, 
as numbers often do, attnbute thc fault of 
Fortune to herself, as if she were to blame 
in haviug doparted froin beside tlie pyre, 
and left her sister there alone ; aud in tliis 
view caU herself crudelis. Extinxsti for 
extinxisti. 

683. Date, tmlnera lymphi» alluam, i.e., 
date (lymjmas) ut abluam vulnera lymphi*. 
Wagn. The common cuitions join date 
vulnera hjmphis, which they considc^ as an 
cnaliage iovdate hjmphas vulneribus, an cx- 
planation which no one will receive when 
the former has been once suggested to hhn. 

6S4. Legam, si halitus errat. This is a 
locus classicus, in reference to the custom of 
a near relative catching tlie expiringbreath 
of the dying. 

686. ,Semianime/n. Observe the sy/iizesis 
semjanimem, and cf. JEn. L 2. See also 
note 8, above. 

689. Stridit, — "gurgles," as the blood 
bursts out afresh. 

694. Iris is the messenger of Juno, as 
Mercury is of Jupiter. The duty assigned 
her here is usually given to Proserpina. 

695. Animam nexosque artus, Le., corpus 
cum anima nexum. 

698. The cutting off hair from the brow 
of the victim, and throwing it into the fire, 
was the form of consecrating the sacrifico 
to the gods. Thus the per-on on the point 
of death was devoted, as it were, to the gods 
beneath by cutting away the lock of hair. 
In violent deaths it was believed that the 
spirit lingered as if loth to depart from tfce 
body. This idea Yirgil works out and em- 
beUishes. Cf. Hor. Od. L 28, 20, nullum 
Saeva caput Proserpina fugit. 




[Death of Dido.— .FVo/n an Ancient Statue.] 



B. V. L 



NOTES OX TIIE /EXEID. 




[Roxan Ships.— From Patntwgs at Herculaneum.] 



BOOK FIFTH. 



ARGUMENT. 

Mn&tS, leaving Carthage, sets sail for Italy, but, by the violence of a tempest, is a 
eec&tid tlme driven on the coast of Sicily, where, assisted by the rraendly co-operation oi 
Acestes, he celebrates games at his father Anchises' tomb, on the anniversary of hi3 
death (1-603). But in the meantime, the Trojan women, being instigated by Iris, the 
messenger of Juno, set fire to the ships, of -which four are burned. the others being 
miraculously preserved by Jupiter (604-699). Anchises appears to ^Eneas in a vision oa 
the following night, and gives him advice and direction with regard to liis future course 
(700-740). yEneas founds the town of Acesta, and leaves, as colonists, many of the 
matrons, and the old men unfit for active service in war, and he himself again puts to 
sea with his fleet for Latium (741-778) In this voyage, Neptune renders the ocean 
propitious, and, at length, after his many wanderings, our hero reaches Italy, having, 
however, lost his pilot, Palinurus. when near the Hesperian coast (779-871). 

2. Certus — "determined to proceed to 
Italy, and not return to Dido," as certus 
eundi, iv. 554. Serv. "With straight, 
unerring course," as in the phrases, certa 
hasta, sagitta, etc. Wagn. 

Aquilone. The N. W., put for the wind 
generally, as frequently; Heyne. Holds- 
worth, however, comparing Dido's dissua- 
sive question at iv. 310, "Mediis properas 
Aqui/onibus ireper attumV thinks that wa 
axe to take it literally, it being thereby hw 
10T 



1. Interea — "inthe meantime,"Le.,whilst 
the events narrated in the end of Bk. iv. 
are in course of accomplishment. 

Tenebat (a nautical phrase) medium iter — 
" was novv proceeding on his voyage in the 
deep sea;" he had got "out to sea,'' as in 
Mu. iii. 664. Or, better, "Had got fairljP 
under weigb." So we u<c the term "to be 
in the middle of," to signify that one is 
cngaged busily in a process, without saying 
tliat it is actualb- W/^-completed, 



B. V. C-IG. 



NOTES ON TIIE ,ENEID. 



fi. V. 17-37. 



dicatcd that, in obediencc to IIcaven's wfll, 
JBaeaa pursnes his voyage, even under tlie 
difficulties of an adverse wind. Tfais wlll 

account ibr the faet, tliat iEneafl, thougfa 
setting sail at dawn, is still in sigh; 
thage at nightfall, as we see by the follow- 
ing lines. The dead bodies were UBually 
placed on the pyre in tbe evening (Hom. II. 
xxiii. 226), the pile smouldered during the 
night, and the bones were collected in the 
morningj thus the greatness of the fire 
attracted the attention of the Trojans, and 
tlie thoughts of thc power exereised by the 
"sad griefs of despised and forsaken love, 
together wlth the knowledge of wfaat a 
woman would dare to do when in despair," 
led thcni to nielancholy forebodings. 

6. Wlth polluto, in this sense, comp iii. 
61, poilutum hospitium. Notum is to be 
taken substantively as Livy vii. 8, diu non 
perutatum tenuerat dktatorem ne ante 
meridiem signum dareposset. See also Tac. 
Hist. li. 82, auduum. 

7. Per — Heyne intcrprets as equal to ad. 
But Forb. reniarks that per signifies rather 
that after various suspicions and coujec- 
tures as to the origin of the fire, they at 
last hit upon the right explanation. 

Pectora, Le., animos, cogitationes. 

8-11. These lines occurred at iiL 192-195, 
with little variation. Ut pelagus, etc. This 
tends to confirm the view we took of rne- 
dium iter, line 1, pelagus meaning the deep 
sea at a considerablc distauce from the 
shore. See JEu. L 181, note. 




13. Qmanam— an old form = qua re, 
<r'i ydp. So abovc. olli for iUL Quinctilian 
thinks that great iignity is added to this 
Dassage by these two archaisma 

15. Colligere arma, Le., contrahere vela, 
"reef the sails." Aima means the imple- I 
mentsoftacklir.ggenerally, but isheremore ! 
especially applicd to the cauvas. So oVa# 
Vi Homer. 

16. Obliquat smus in ventum — " turns the I 
108 



bosom of tlic safl obliquely to the wind," so 
as not to receive its full force; Le., he Itcs 
nearer to t/te icind. " Sinus a vestibus trans- 
fertur ad vela." 

17. Auctor is used of a person who pro- 
mises a thing, who pledges his word that ho 
wlll effect something. 

18. Sperem contingere. The pres. infin. 
is often used for the fut. after verbs of hoping, 
expecting, promfaung, etc, if we so certainly 
expect a thing to happen us that we can 
speak of wtiat is still futurc as if it had come 
to pass, and wcre now prcsent. 

' 19. Transversa f?emunt, for in transrersam 
partem. — "roar athwart ourcourse." Ves- 
jiere abatro — "from the dark -west," the 
Homeric &(pov 'hipoivrcc. 

21. Obniti contra. Such pleonasms may 
be found at ^En. ii. 593, iiL 690, vL 310, etc. 
Tendere tantum — "to struggle as much as is 
necessary" to overcome the opposing wind. 

23. Quoque for et quo, so quaeque =■ et 
quae, vbique=et ubi, etc. 

24. Eryx, who gave name tothedty, waa 
son of Venus and Butes, and therefore 
brother to ^neas by the mothers side. 
Observe the two adjs. joined to litora with- 
out a connecting particlc ; this is cxplained 
either by considering fraterna and litora 
as, taken together, formingoneidea, brother- 
land, or by looking upon the second adj. as 
explanatory of the first, or as increasing the 
first by an ascending scale; "the shores are, 
ftda, did I say, ay, they are exenfratema." 

25. Rite remetior. The meaning is, If in 
our journey from Africa to SicUy, I rightly 
rcmember the position of those stars -which 
I observed in our voyage from Sicily to 
Africa (L 34). 

28. Flecte viam velis — " change our coursa 
by (altering the position of ) the sails." 

30. On the death of Anchises, see JEi\ 
ul. 710. 

33. Gurgite, etc. — "the flcet is born« 
quickly over the boiling deep." 

35. Montis, scil. Erycis, Mt. Eryx. 

36. Acestes, son of the SicUiau* river god 
Crimisus, and a Trqjan woman En 
Segesta ; see L 195. It was on the banks 
of the Crimisus that Timoleon conquered 
the Carthaginians, 339 b.c. 

37. Horridus in jaculis — "armed with 
strong and pointed javelins;" each man 
carried two. See ui. 195. 

Libystidis ursce. Virgil is the only writer 
to use this adj. — the common form is Liby- 
cus. Pliny and other naturalists aUege 
that Africa does not contain the bear, but 
we are not to tie down the poet to the strict 
principles and facts of the naturaiist. Liby- 
stts is prupcrly a subst., and is in apposition 
to ursce, as Sicelides Musae, EcL iv. 1* 
Dardan ides Matres, .0 vid. 



B. V. 41-58. 



NOTES ON* TIIE aZST.ID. 



B. V. 80-77. 



41. tblahtr. Cf. Hor. Sat. iL 6, 117, 
Bilta tenui solabitur erto. 

tcet, from the adj. redux. 

44. £"jr aggere. This has reference to the 
castom of Roman gcnerals who harangued 
their aoldiers frota an artificial mound of 
earth raised in thc camp. 

45. AHo a sanguine, because Dardanns, 
their progenitor, was son of Jove . 

1*37. Understand ortum after genus; a 
particip. is often omitted thus, as at L 160 ; 
for teniens ab alto. 
47. Dir.ifiigue. The poets often place the 
conj. que with a different word from that 
to which it properly belongs. 

f estas. not by enallage for moesti, 
bnt to be applied properly to the altar3 as 
displaying in their adornment emblems of 

49. Wagn. writes nisi for ni, becanse, 
says he, ni is used when one affirms and 
determinedly (as iEn. ix. 
i when one denies or doubts. The 
cautionary expression nisi fallor is qsed, 
gftice men in the most ancieni times reckon- 
ed by the return of the sun and planets j 
only, withcut any means of a nearer ap- I 
proximation to the very day and hour. 

51. Ilunc ego, etc. Wa<rr.. and Hey.ie 
put a comma after ego, thus making the i 
lentence an anacolouthon (see JEn. 
•ud considering agerem-~essem, but Jahn, I 
Peerlk., Gossr., Forb., etc., omit the point, ! 
and govern hunc by agerem, which has ego j 
as its subject. This latter is mar.ifestly ' 
eommon sense, and, moreover, avoids an 
unnecessary anacolouthon — anglice, "a blun- 
ier." 

'; Syrtibu*. i. e., Libyan, gene- 
rally — for the GaetulL as we "have seen, 
liveil to the W. Surtes does not mean the 
sand banks. but the districts of the continent 
bordering thereon. 

prensus — " snrprised by the enemy " 

Argolico mari, Le., the JZgaean, the term 

u mear-ing anything Greek. 3Iy- 

cenae is mentkmed as beihg the city of 

Agamemnon, and therefore the head-qnar- 

•nmity to the Trojan race. 

51. AUaria — "altara," as if^Eneaswere 

'ro means primarily "contrary to 

.•xpectation." Cf. Livy L 5, ultro accusan- 

note ii. 145. 

/ tmt&tm is said by some to be eom- 

jiounded of ego quidem. " Othere, however, 

n numerous examples in which it 

is joined to p'.ur. nouns, and to words of 

the second and third person, prefer to de- 

duce it from e intensive i&ae-castor, e-durus) 

and quidem. 

Stne mente, without the intention (pre- 
eoncerted plan). Sine numine. without the 
wtah. On numine, uee note, iEn. L 8. 
68. Laetum \% applied to honortm, ai> 



though in scnse it balflBp lather to cuncti 
Ventos, Le., secundos ventos. 

60. Velit me sibi ferre, Le., let him (An- 

•iliingly rcceive fbese sacrificial 

gifts, and look down with bcnign infiuence 

The order is (AnchUes) velit, urbt 

posita, me/erre quotannis haec sacra templit 

sibi dicatis. 

62. In naves— the prep is used distribu. 
tively, "for each ship," in which mcaning 
it is carried out by the distrib. bina. 

64. Si=quum. Xona Aurora — thi3 re- 
fers, as lines 47, 48, above, totha novemdiale 
sacrum, performed nine daya after the in- 
terment of the body. See Ramsay's Antiq. 
p. 427. 

66. Prima, Le., primo hco, by enaTlage. 
Although prima (Le., primhm) is used witb 
the first of a series, we have not tum, dVade, 
etc., with the remaining particulars of the 
wholc list. but the simple copulatives. 

Ponam — " I shall institute." The custom 
oftheancient Greeks in celebrating games 
on the death of a relative or friend is here 
referrcd to. 

:ulo and sagittis are rightly coupled 
by ths simple copulative que, since botli 
bekmg to the same kind of exercise, while 
aut and sed contrast two different sorts of 
game. Jaculo melior is similar in construc- 
tion to optimus hasta, etc. The words 
jaculo incedd melior are to be taken together, 
as the verb incedere suggests a degree oi 
confidence and pride arising from co.iscious 
superiority. 

69. Crtido, "untanned," or so calledfrom 
thc sevcrity of the blows inflicted. The 
former is to be preferred. 

71. Favete ore, eftfajpsTre— u Keep reli- 
gious silence;" so Hor. Od. iii. 1. 2, favete 
linyns. The phrase is well known as that 
used by the priests at the commencement 
of a sacred rite. Some rcad temporn 
ramis to avoid tempora ramis coming to- 
gether, bnt such alliterations are frequent; 
see vii. 135, and viiL 286. See note iiL 20-3. 

72. The myrtle was* »acred to Venas, 
hence materna myrto. 

"'■',. Hehjmus had come frora Troy to 
Sici!y with Acestes, as report said. Ae.-i 
moturus, " ripein years." Ontbeeonstnic- 
tion see i£n. i. 178. fessi rei-um. 

77 On these rites consult rtamsviy. or 
Smith'sDict. of Antiq.; andseei&n. I 
Instead of Baccho. lacte, sanguine, we Bhould 
expect the fren. The abl. Is explahied on 
the same principle as / 
L 313, and domus banie ddpibusque, iii. D18. 
Mero, "unmixfd." for it was nnlawfnl t-> 
mix water wlth wine nsed i;i ttie dntiesof 
religion. Tlie blood is eafled M 
being that of the decbcated 
following is an illustration of thc C 

108 



B. V. 79-37. 



XOTES ON TIIE .ENEID. 



B. V. 89-103. 



*ium, or drinking cup: it was of Greck in- 
ventiou. 




79. Purpureos means only " fresh and 
beautifaL" nothing more. 

- me editions put a colonafter parens, 
but tliis is objectionable, since iterum joined 
with recepti would be tautologieal ; it is 
better to punctuate with a semicolon after 
iterum. 

81. Cineres,animae. wnbrae. An ancient 
BCboliast notices the triple division of a man 
thus, — the body (cineres), handed over for 
sepulture; thesoul (animd), whieh goes to 
heaven : and the shade (umbra), whicb goea 
below, ad infcros. 

Fatalya, by sunizesis. see 2En. L 2. 

83. Thybrim—see iEn. iL 782. 

84. Adytis — (ccbvrct), the raost holy and 
most secret part of a temple to which com- 
mon (Le.. unsanctiiied) people had no access. 
It is here applied to the sepulchre, as a 
place of rernarkable sanctity. It was a 
popular belief among the Etruseans and 
Roinans, and other ancient nations, that the 
genii of places or of men»appeared in the 
shape of serpeats; here, therefore, the ser- 
pent is aptly referred to the genius of the 
place or of Anchises. 

85. Septem gyros, septena volumina. Le., 
septem gyros in se repiicatos — "trailed along 
.«oven c.ircling spires — seven coils." The 
aKtrlbiitive septena is equal to the cardinal 
septem. The number seven is supposed by 
some to have reference to the years of 
^Eneas' wanderings ; while othersthink it 
chosen as being odd and sacred. Milton's 
description of the serpent will occur to all : 

So spake the enemy of mankind inclos'd 
In serpent. inmatebad! and toward Eve 
Address'dhis way : not withindented wave, 
Prone on the ground, as since: but on his 

rear, * 

Circular base of rising folds that towered 
Told above fold, a surging maze ! his head 
Crested aloft, and carbuncle his eyes ; 
■\Yith burnished neck of verdant gold, erect 
Amidst his circling spires, that on the grass 
"Floated redundant — Pak. Lost, Bk. Lx. 

87. Cui terga notae caeruleae (pingebant 
to be supplied from incendebat, below), et 
tquamam incendebat fulgor maculosus auro 
(i.e., aurearvm macularum). Translate, 
" Whose bacic, azure-coloured snots varie- 

110 



gated, and whosc BCalea bright shiinng 
specklcs lit up witli a golden lme." Cf. 
Iloin. II. ii. 3dS, 0pd.xuv Iti vcZrec ^octpoivif. 
■it colores — so jacere odorem, radios, 
Ivcem, ctc. 

01. LSvia—" smooth," but levia — "light." 
The former is from >*uos (a£<F«,-). Dapa 
— thc meats which, on certain days, were 
offered on the tomb to the shade of the de- 
partcd one. 

94. Jnstaurat honores, i. e., repeats the 
rites celebrated the year before. 

95. The genius of the place is differenl 
from the attendant of Anchiscs. The/u/w«- 
lus, or minister, was an inferior powei 




assigned to deities, to wait upon them as 
Adonis to Venus, or Virbius to Diana. It is 
thus hinted that Anchises has been deified. 
The cut represents a Genius, in the form uf 
a serpent (see above, 84), feeding on the 
meats which had been offered on the altar. 

97. Bidentes, see iv. 57. Nigrantes— black 
victims were offered to the Dii inferi. 

98. Pateris, with the prep. e omitted. 
Animam vocabat, xiz., to come and partake 
of the offerings. 

99. Manes remissos. The Manes were 
supposed to be allowed to come up to be 
present at the inferice. 

102. This line refers to the feast which 
followed the offering of the inferiae. Ob- 
serve dlii "others," used without a preced- 
ing alii "some." So ol o~i without oi ftiv. 

103. Viscera, see note L 211. The follow- 
ing description of the games in honour of 
Anchises was likely, in the opinion of the 
poet, to berelished bytheRomans. He, no 
doubt, has reference tothe gamesinstituted 
by Augnstus in honour of Julius Caesar 
Compare Hom. II. xxiii. for the games in 
honour of Patroclus, and Od. xxiv. 85 sqq. 



D. V 105-124. 



SOTE8 OfH THE ,K\i:ii'.. 



B. V. 125-142. 



Sec also for imitatioiis of Virgil, Silius xvi. 
295, and Stat. Xheb. i. 6. 

105. Phaethon, for tiol himseif. So Ilom. 
r.iXioi <pu.'i6uv. 

108. Visuri JEneadas, scil. pugnantes. 
Pars parati — on this synesis syntax see note, 
JExl i. 70. Anothcr pars is not to he under- 
stood to viswi, for all had comc to sce, and 
part only to take a sharc in tlie contests. 

109. Munera — thc rewards of victory, 
ra, u,$ka.. Circum — the place wherc the 
contests were held. From Homer wc lcarn 
that tripods were thc rewards of bravcry 
among the Grceks. 

111. Pretium, for praemium. Ostro per- 
fusae vestes, i.c, purple-dyed garments. 

112. Talentum, Lc, a talent of gold and a 
talent of silver. Some MSS. rcad talenta. 

113. Et tuba — the copula after thc inter- 
venlng words sacri-tripodes, ctc, seems to 
oonnect canit closcly with Jocantur, 109, 
"The trumpet proclaims tliat the gamcs 
liave begun." The poet again attributes to 
remote times the customs and instruments 
of his own, for the tuba was not known in 
tiie Homeric agc ; but see note i. 469. 

114. Virgil lias substituted a boat-race for 
the chariot race of Homer. 

Pares — not "equalin sizc," as 118 shows, 
but as "nearlyequal in spced," as iEneas 
could judge from their sailing qualities, 
aa tried in the voyage. 

11G. Mnestheus, grandson of Assaracus, 
from whom Virgil feigns thc Memmian gens 
to be derived (Mox Italus) on account of the 
slight similarity in the name. See iEn. iv. 
288. On Pristis, sec iEn. iiL 427, and on 
Gyas i. 612. 

119. TJrbis opus, i.c, so *arge that you 
would think it a city; "a fabric like (as 
largc as) a town." 

120. Impellunt. plur. with pubes as nom. 
(synesis), sce JEn. L 70, and above, 108. 
Triplici versu, "withthrec banks of oars." 
Virgil assigns to the heroic age an inven- 
tion which Thucyd. (i. 13) says was due to 
the Corinthians about three centurics bcfore 
the Pelop. war. 

122. For Sergestus, see Mn. i. 611, notc 
Cloanthus, see i£n. L 222, 510, is repre- 
sented as the ancestor of the Cluentian gens, 
us Sergestus of thc Sergian. Even after 
Virgil's time, tlie Itonian gentes sought to 
derive their names and trace their descent 
from Trojan heroes. Many of tlicse attempts 
were vcry far-fetched ; thus, as Mnestheus 
was deduced from [tiy-vrio-Qott, so Memmius 
from Meminisse, its Latin equivalent. Cen- 
tauro, fem., as beiug the name of a ship. 

124. The rock, during the winter, is 
covered by the sea and the high hillows, 
but in thc calm weather of suminer it ap- 
peara abdve the waters, and prescnts a fiat 
gnrface, a resting place for the sea fowL 



The bay appears to be tliat of Longurus, at 
tlic foot of Mt. Eryx. Procul, scil. a 
litore. 

121. Olim-=--inti'rdum. Cf. Ilor. Sat. L 1, 
25, Ut pueris olim dant crustula blandi 
doctores. 

12G. Cori (or Cauri), tlie N.W. wind. See 
Geo. iiL 278. 

127. TranquiUo — "in a ealni," thc so- 
called abL absoL 

128. Apricus commonly nicans "sunny," 
exposed to tlie sun ;" but here it signiries 
"loVing the sun," "deligliting to bask in 
the sun." So Persius says, " Aprici senes." 

132. Sorte — thcy select"^, jy lot their 
positions, because it was a matter of great 
importance to have the course nearest to 
the goal round whicli they wcre to tum. 

133. Ductores — thc navarchi, or captains, 
not thc gubernatores, on which seel2, abovc. 
See 160, below, wherc Gyas the Ductor is 
distinguished from Menoetesthe Rector, Lc, 
gubernator. 

134. Popuka, from populus, a poplartree ; 
but pdpulus, the people. The poplar was 
chosen because they celebratcd funeral 
gamcs. The poplar had been brought from 
the lower world by Hercules when he car- 
ried off the dog Cerberus. For the fablc of 
Leuce, Pluto, and the poplar, see Smith's 
Class. Dict. under "Hades." 

135. Humeros — another " acc. of reference 
or Umitation." Sce JEu. L 228, and ii. 21C, 
note. 

136. Transtris— " the thwarts," or cross 
seats. 

Intenta-intenti To avoid the repetition 
of the same word emendations have been 
proposed. Thesc, however, secm unncces- 
sary, since the words are used in different 
senses, the former referring to thc stretch of 
muscle, the latter to the anxious straining 
of the mind. "Tlieir arms are stretched, 
ready for the oar-stroke; witli breathless 
anxiety they wait for the signal, and tlirob- 
b'mgfea.r exhausts their palpita f ing hearts — 
their desire of glory, too, is keenly roused." 
Haurit some explain as = exhaurit, i.c, 
drains, so as to interrupt thc free passageof 
the blood; others, as^permeat, alte vene- 
trat, "thrills through." 

138. Pavor is tlie feeling of the mind 
alternating between hopc and fear. Finibus, 
the stations assigned by lot. 

141. Versa (from verro, not verto), "The 
swept waters foam beneath the might 
of their arms vigorously brought to the 
stroke," properly "brought back to tl.eir 
breasts" after the strokc 

142. Thc metaphor is taken from plough- 
ing. "They cleavc furrows sidc by side 
(i.c, all keeping abrcast), and the whole sea- 
plain yawns, liarrowed up by the oara and 
the three-pronged beaks." For tridentibus, 
some read slridentibus, which violates tlio 

m 



B. V. 144-14& 



NOTES ON TIIE /ENEID. 



B. V 149-166. 



metre. The ships of the Ancients had the 
prows adonied with sharp three-pointed 
beaka. For a specimen, sec woodcut, L 35. 

144. Tlie following comparison is taken 
from Ilom. Od. xiiL 81 sqq. 

Bijugo certamine, Le., in the two-horse 
chariut race. 

14-5. Corhpuere and concussere are fre- 
qnentative perfects, on which see JEn. iii. 681. 

Corripere, rapere, carpere viam, aie me- 
taphorical expressions suggested by tlie 
appearance of a horse*s legs and feet when 
galloping, since hc seems to seize one por- 
tion of the ground after another in his mo- 
mentary grasp. So Shakspere says, " He 
seemed in running to devour the way." For 
carceres and the other terms, consult Ram- 
say's Antiq. In the following plan of the 
Circus, Arepresents the Arena, B the Spina, 
C the Meta, D the Euripus, E the Carceres, 
F the Alba Linea, and G the seats. 




146. "Norwith snch eager energy do the 
charioteers shake the flowing reins over the 
strcds bounding without rcstraint. and bcnd 
fonvard to (inflict) the lash" Juais-=equis 
ivgalibvs. Every word in this beautiral 
desvxiption is pregnant with meaning and 
teeming with life: prcecipiiet — cctTipxure 

112 



campum — ruunt effusi — undanlia lora — and 
proyii in verbera pendent. 

14'J. Consonat for resonat — " rings again," 
though perhaps stronger in meaning, im- 
plying unanimity on the part of the spec- 
tators — " ringa again with one accord.' 
Wooded heights surrounded the bay (in~ 
clusa), and by these the sound is echoed 

150. Colles clamore resultant, for the pro- 
saic form clamor resultat a coUibus. 

152. Turbam inter fremitumque. Wagn. 
understands thisto meau that Gyas " shoots 
ahead," whilst hiscompetitors urge forward 
their boats turbulenter et cum fremi/n 
(Le., crowd upon one another, and shout 
confusedly in their endeavours to get clear), 
the confusion and noise arising when they 
see their adversary gaining upon them. 

153. Consequitur — "follows close;" melior 
remis — "superior in his crew." Pinus= 
navis. Tarda — his ship is " slow by reason 
ofherbulk-" 

154. sEquo discrimine — the two last are 
keeping abreast, and both equ^Uy distant 
from No. 2. 

158. Lor.ga is the reading of the best 
MSS. for longe. The epithet is not a useless 
one, fqr the Centaur is dcscribed as a large 
ship, a'nd, moreover, the two vessels are so 
closeh/ matched that sometiines they ar« 
abreast, and sometimes the one is slightly 
ahead, so that it is in advance of the other 
by but a portion of the keel ; thus the fur- 
row of the two keels seems one. Longe, 
however, is graphic, pointing to tl e long 
wake made by a vessel propelled with great 
speed. 

151». Scopulo — see 124. Ifzta— the turn- 
ing point. 

161. Rectorem=gubematorem. in thisplace 
— see 133. 

162. Quo dexter abis. Adjs. of place 
(dexler) and time are often joined to the 
names of persons, so matutinus puer — thus 
quo diversus abis. 166. below. 

Gressum has bcen objected to as a term 
inappropriate to a ship. As sohnn. bow- 
ever, is often applied to the plain of tlie 
sea, there is no great violation of propriety 
in using gremim for the progress on such 
a stuface, We have the countenance of 
Byron for such a metaphor wlien hc says, 
She walks the waters like a thing of life, 
Cuksair. 

163. "Keep close by thc shore. and let 
(sine) the oar-blade graze the rocks on the 
left," which fowned the meta. 

166. Iterum is varicusly interpreted : by 
somc it is joined to abis, by others the 
phrase i« written, abist Uertan (i.e.. tibx 
dico — again I tell you), pete saxa. Wagn. 
• that clawnhat, o» somesuch word, 
i< suppressed, and ihat, aiter the uiterrup- 
tion ofpete saxa, Menati, thc sentence, wiUi 



B. V. 170-185. 



NOTES GN THE JENEID. 



B. V. 188-! 



a slight inversicn goes on, cum clamore 
revocabat. 

170. Iiadit ,ter — "cuts liis cou; 
217. railit itcr liquv&um; or the word mterior 
may lead 113 to supposc that it requircd 
"close shaving" to gct past, and thus \ve 
will translatc literally "scrapes." Laevum — 
"on tlie left," keeping nearer the rock than 
the Chimaera of Gyas. 

A grcat many of the ideas in this des- 
cription arc taken from the games of tlie 
circus and the race-course, on whioh, con- 
sult Ramsay's Antiq., p. 347 sqq. 

172. Ossibus is the" dat. (not the abL with 
in omitted), and is, after the Greek fashion. 
joined to another dative, juveni, which it 
more closely dcfines. 

174. Decoris sui—" inhonestum enim cst 
irasci, praesertim duci." Serv. 

Socium salutis, scil. erepto aubernatore 
navis. This contracted form of the gen. 
plur. of the 2d decl. seems to have been 
used by all the ancient Roman -wTiters : by 
poets of the later years of the republic jn 
proper names (Argivum, Danaum, Rutulum, 
etc), and by prose writers of the same 
period, in certain common formulae — in 
nffairs of religious and civil government 
(deum, ephorum. fabrum, virum, etc), and 
In the designations of weights, measures, 
and coins. Forb. 

176. Ipse rector, ipse magister — the same 
«dea repeated, with emphasis ; for magister 
^gubemator here. 

178. Fundo, i.c, a fundo. Gravis—inac- 
tive in swimming, partly by reason of his 
age, and partly on account of the water 
which his drcss had imbibed. 

179. Fluens in veste—&n antique phrase 
for fluens veste, and tliis latter for veste flu- 
ente aqua. 

181. The repetition of risere — rident of- 
fended Heyne, so that he marked line 182 
with an asterisk. But Wagn., Jahn, and 
others defend it, by saying that thc verbs 
refer to different periods of time, ar.d that 
the sense is. " As they had laughed at him 
when he fell from the boat and swam for 
his life, so now they laugh at him as he 
emics the salt watcr." 

183. Hic, i.e., hoa ipso tempore — " just at 
Ihis time," or simply " upon this." 

184. Mnesthei, instead of the common 
reading Mnestheo. Proper names in eus 
are usually declincd by Virgil and other 
poets after the Greck fashion in the dat. 
and acc ei, ea, but after the Latin model in 
thc gen. and abL ei and eo Morantem, 
"losing way." 

185. The "intercst of the contest now rests 
betwcen Sergestus and Mnestheus, the for- 
mcr of whom anticipates hia rival in secur- 
Ing the inner course nearest to the rock 
(Meta), while the latter, with his superior 



band of rowcrs, prcsscs closc on his anta- 
gonist, even against the disadTantage of a 

wHcr circle. Serirestus did not. however, 
ist-t befbre Mneatheua by a whole kecl'3 
length, but only by a small portion. 

188. In imitation of the addresa of Anti- 
lochus to his horses, in Hoin. II. xxiiL 
402 sqq. 

190. Socii Hectorei — eithei a bravc as 
Hectors, all of you,"or "youwhooncewere 
(actually) thc comrades of Ilector;" this 
latter interpretation Ls to be preferred. 

Sorte suprema, L c, the destruction of 
Troy. 

i:»2. QeetuHs £tyM&t»,Yiz.,'whensBflferlng 
from thc storm which drove them to 
Carthage. 

193. Ionio mari, Lc, after leaving Crete, 
iii. 192 sq., 211 sqq., where see note on 
quantity of lonius. To the same time is to 
be referred the doubling of Cape Maiea 
(now St Angelo, or Capo Malio), on the 
S. of Laconia. The waters are called 
sequaces, either from the general appearance 
of wave following wave, or because they 
flow in so quick succession as to suggest the 
idea of an evil-intentioned purposc The 
dangers of the navigation roimd Malea are 
recorded in the Greek proverb. M«/.:c<- 
ol %u{/,i]/u; iTrtXadou tuv oiKaii, which 
Erasmus, Adag., has translated Maleam 
legens, quae sunt domi obliviscere. 

194. The namc of the spcaker is inserted 
to heighten the sense of the indignity, that 
he, the foremost of Trojan chiefs (see Lx. 
171, 306, etc.) should be compelled to con- 
tent himself with a place not the tast. 

195. Obscrve the Aposiopesis (on which 
see JEn. i. 135) after quamguam. O — as if 
he felt, " Would that I conquered!" 

196. Vincite hoc nefas—prohibete, i.e., by 
your exertions avoid this disgrace, viz., of 
returning last 

199. Solum sultrahitur — the furrow 
made by the oars causes the sea (which is 
the solum, or surface traversed Vy the ships) 
toyawn. "The sea plain is sHvept from 
neneath them;" an expression which cx- 
actly suits the appearance presentcd under 
vigorous rowing. Cf. note 162, above. 

This and the line following are translated 
from Hom. II. xvi. 109 sqq. 

201. Ipse casus, Lc, solus ca*t,s. accident 
alone." See Wagn. Qu. Virg. xviii. 2, 9. 

202. Furens animi— e£ note, ^En. L178, 
see also ii. 61 ; iv. 203. 

203. Iniquo, i.c, "narrow and danger- 
ous," on account of the rocks. 

205. Murice. This word is used of anytliing 
which, Hke the murex proper, has pointed 
and sharp projections. Here it means a 
sharp pointed rock, as that on which the 
ship struck. The cut represents a Tritou 
113 



B. V. 306-880. 

blowing en a wurcx BhelL 
250 



KOTES OX TllE iENEID. 



B. V. 831-24«. 



See bclow, 




201. Illisa pependit, i.e., " was dashed 
against and remained balanced," swaying 
from one side to the other. 

•-'07. Morantnr, "delay," i.e., "ccuse to 

<"W." 

208. Trudes. Tlie coramon reading is 
poks" — but Trudes is foirad in the 
- 9. Though short, in tbe first syllable, 
it is derived from trudere, and signuk 
fittedfor shoving off." The contus was what 
wc call a punt-pole, osed also f<>v keeping 
\ essels offrocks, when approachingtoouear. 

212. Prona maria — "the uminpededsea" 
— the sca in which tbe course was clear. 
Heyne. Ilenry, however, considers the 
epithet prona to apply to tbe waves, as 
running toirards the shorc [or it may refer 
to the apparent slope of tbe sea plam, which 
seems to one standing on the land to rise 
gradually as tbe distance from tlie beach 
increases] : so tbat when tbe ships had 
roonded thc goal they migbt be said to 
run doicn the sea; cf. Geo i. 203, prono 
amni, " down the stream." 

216. Plausum ingentem dedit tecio — this 
is trutbfully descriptive of tbc babit of 
pigeons, whieh start from tbeir perch with 
a loud and clear flapping of the wings, but 
soon skim tlie air, floating with motionless 
pinions. See above, 170. 

218. Ipta to be joined to Pristis. Lltima 
acjuora, i.e., aroundthe rneta. 

220. Luctantem — "struggling to gef off." 
Alto scopulo, the procurrenlia saxa of 204. 

221. Brt oibus vadis, the places close round 
the rock, which wcre bi a great raeasure 
devoid of water, ar>d exhibited tbe sand 
plainly. Henry would raake it a hcndiddys 
Ibr scopidoskvadis, asbrevia etsvrtes, ini. 111. 

224. Cedit. i.e., the Chimaera (of Gyas) 
allows herself to be paseed by. 8ee 175, 
above. 

225. Fragoribus — the plaudits and shouts 
of the Bpectators. 

229. Hi refera to Cloanthus and his crew ; 
hos to ^lnestheus and his companions. 
Proprium raeans what is one's own withont 
controversv, or witbout ri?k of loss. Sce 
L73. 

230. Xi teneant. Le., se non icnere, or si 
non le. 

114 



231. Alii — this verb, like pascere, is used 
metaphorically of hope, courage, etc. Pos- 
sunt. /piiaposse ridentur; — Heyne's explana- 
tion is that usually adopted — " They succeed 
because tbey bave a confident expectation 
that they ran and will accompbsh theb: 
purpose;" theconfidenceofthosecontending 
bebig spoken of, and sibi being tberefore 
understuod to videntur. Forb. and Siipfl. 
supply spectatoribus to videntur, so that tho 
meaning will be, "the confidence which ttie 
spectators express by gesture, shouts," etc, 
uicreases the courage of the rowers, ar.d in- 
cites them to labour to realise the cxpecta- 
tions which their exertions had raised : but 
tbis seems forced. With the sentiincnt 
compare Dryden— 

For they can conquer, who belicve they can 

232. Fors. Sce note, iEn. ii. 139. 

233. Palmae utraeque for palma utraque 
— returns again at vL 68-3. So utruque 
tempora, below, 855. 

235. On aquora, an acc. afteran intrans. 
verb, curro, see note, JEn. i. <•:. 

_';7. T-nir iinconstituam. For the rcasons 
of this see iEn. ni. 119. The victini was 
snid statni, conslitui, or sisti ante aram. for 
it was not lawful to brrag it forward or 
detain it by force; tbe necessity for violence 
wonld bave been an evil omen. 

Voti reus. i.q., voti damnatus — a gainer of 
my wish, and tberefore under obligation to 
pay niy vow. 

23& Pomciam, i.q., porro jaciam, pro- 
jiciam. Some books read proiiciam, but 
the former is a word pecnliarly applied to 
sacred rites (see Macrob. Sat. i. 1 ; Livy 
xxix. 27; Varro, K. EL, i. 29), while the 
latter usually implies a certam degree of 
contempt and disregard, ideas entbx-ly un- 
suited to tbe offering of sacrifice. 

Liquentia — short bere, but long in JEn. L 
432. where sec note. 

240. The Nerads (Nereidum chorus) were 
fifty m number, daughters of Nereus and 
Doris. Phorcus, thc son of Pontus and 
Terra, and brother of^ereus. Panope, or 
Panopea, was one of the Nereids, and here 
brought forward as a chief one — so Cymo- 
thoe at L 144. Some books rc-ad PanopeTa 
virgo, but Wagn. objects that m a conca- 
tenated scrks of three members, the copula 
could not be omitted after the second. 

241. Portunus, or Portumnus (i.e., por- 
tuum deus), was the saraedeity as the Greeks 
caUed Melicerta — he was supposed to assist 
distressed mariners. See below. B23. 

243. The harbour is called altus, on ao 
count of the waves bcating far in on the 
land, the shore retiring to a considerable 
distance. Observe fugit, pres., and condidit. 
perf., coupled togetbcr. Cunctts, "allthose 
contending." 

24G. Advelare — a verb f«jund nowhere 



B. V. 247-257. 



NOTES ON TI 1 1: A.S R 1 1 >. 



15. V. 250-273. 



else, exccpt In Lampridius, in liis life of 
Commodua, Equally rare arc cUtorquere, 
M\\. ix. 52, and adlacrimare, x. 828. 

247. Optare (i.c, eligere), ftrrc dat—a 
Gk. coustruction, on which sce JEw. i. 319. 
So.below, 262, donat habere viro. 

248. Majnum talentum does not refer to 
the greater and less talent of later days, but 
means mcrely " the grcat weight of a 
talent." 

250. Onthcchlamys, seeiii.484. Quam,Le., 
"around whicfa abroad borderof Mcliboean 
porple (phirima purpura Meliboea) ran in a 
doublc maze" (meanderingline). The robe, 
whcu thrown about the person, and girt, 
had some parts of its lower cdge elcvated 
and otliers depressed, so tliat the border 
wonld appcar double, though not real y so. 
Tlie windings of thc river Macander in Caria 
arc proverbiaL 

At the mouth of the Orontcs, a river of 
Syria, was an island, Meliboea, whose coast 
supplied abundance of the Murices (sheU- 
(ish) that afforded the valuable dye so well 
known (see above, 205) ; hence the epithet, 
according to Voss. But Heyne, coinparing 
Lucr. ii. 499, (from whom the passage seems 
borrowed; — 

Meliboeaque fulgens 
PurpuraThessalicoconcharum tincta colorc, 
refcrs itto aThcssalian city, Meiiboea in Mag- 
nesia, between Ossa and thc Peneus; see 
Ilom. II. ii. 717. 

Cueurrit So Hom. II. vL 320, *ifi Ti 
tyiiffios Qii tropxtif. 

252. Regius puer, GanymeJe. son of Tros 
and Callirrhoe, whose rape was a favour- 
ite subject of ancient art 

253. A ditriculty has been found in re- 
conciling this line with 255, and Virgil is 
accuscd of "nodding" in introducing such 
a confused description of a picture which 
exhibits Qanymede now at the chase, and 
now in mid air in the talons of the eagle. 
Bnt it may readily be supposed that the 
picture consists of two paxts, the first rc- 
presenting the boy at the chase,-the seeond 
hia abduction : or, as Heyne explains, veloces 
and sintilis rnay bc inserted for mere poetic 
embellishment, notdcscriptive ofthe picture, 
but recalling the idca that the youtli was 
^arried off frorn the midst of his sport 

255. Armiger — thc eagle which held the 
thunderbolt for Jove. 

256. Longcevi custodes. "VTrgii again at- 
tributes thc customs of his own times to 
thedaysofantiquity; but see i. 4<i9. Roman 
youths of the higher ranks were attended 
Ly aged guardians; see below, 546. 

Tendimi palmeu, i.c, in despair, and im- 
pioring the protection of the deities. 

257. For the difference between ad auras 
in amtK. ... e u ,t, , ,];.,. ij. -:\) 

Q 



259. Tliis line has already occurred at 
JExL iii. 4<J7, whcrc sce annotations and 
woodcut. 

260. Demoleo — a naine derived from the 
Cyclic poets, or perhaps Virgil hiinself iu- 
vented it ; it is not found in Homer. 

261. IlioaltO (some icad alla). (Jn the 
hiatus and the ahortening of tlie long vowel 

rwther voweL. w c \\n{(% J-Ji. iii. 21 1 

2G2. Donathabere — tee abovc, 247. \'im 
— " the hero," not an unnecessary addition 
but suited to the context. In armis — " ij 
battle." Observe the subst. xiro used tn 
mark more distinctly the subject, whlcli 
had been but obscurely Indicated by huit 
m ■j'/.». For other examples of the demonst 
so employed, see below, 521 and 609. 

2<i:J. This is quitc consistcnt with the ' .\- 
travagant notions cntcrtaincd of ancienj 
heroes. 

265. Highly honouring to the poefa hero, 
inasmuch as he, single-handcd, slew the 
man who drove before hiin, hi straggling 
flight, whole bands of Trojaus. 

Cymbia—see iiL 66. Aspera sianis — " em- 
bossed," ornamented with raised work. 

269. Tceniis — a dissyllable, tanyis. Thcsc 
were the ribbons which bound the garlands 
(the virides coronae of 110) to the liead. 

270. Observe that the poet ascribes to 
Sergestus hhnselfwhat can properlybe said 
of tlie ship only, revolsus. Debilis uno ordine, 
disabled on one side, etc. 

270. Scepe used as quondam or olim, This 
difficult passage may be thus tnuislatcd :— ■ 
"As, whcn surprisedon the highway, a scr- 
pent u icont to act (over which the iron- 
shod whcel has passed, or which the travcller 
dealing heavy blows has lcit half-dead and 
manglcd with stones): As he strivcs to 
escapc, he describes in vain with his body 
long wreathy twistings, savagely energetic 
in one part (of his body), and flashing fire 
from his eyes, and raising his hissing crest 
as hc rears himself on high ; the part which 
is maimed with wounds rctards him thbugli 
he struggles (to rest) on his knotted wreaths, 
and coils himselfup within his own folds." 
Trapp makes the following judicious re- 
marka on thc whole passage : " There nevei 
was a finer simile than this. It will be ob- 
jected, perhaps, tbat a ship is not like a 
snakc: I own it is not, any inore than it ;s 
likc a dove, to which anothcr ship is coin- 
pared a littlc before. But thc comparisons 
are bo i'ar froin being faulty upon this ac- 
count, that lbr this very reason tney are 
the more beautiful, considering that the 
particular circumstances upon wliich the 
similitudes turn do so vtry uearly resemble. 
In the onc hnagine a ship Btrugghng, and 
with diflTculty getting out fcom a narrow 
passage, and thcn Bwiftly flying away into 
the open ocean; how properly is it com- 
p.ircd to a dovc, whicli lirst llutttrs :n hci 
116 



B. V. 281-298. 



N0TE3 ON THE ^ENEID. 



B. V. 299-319. 



covert, and then glides, as in these incom- 
parably smooth verses cxpixssing the thiog 
by their very sound: — 

Aeve lapsa quieto 
Radit iter liquktum, celeres neque com- 
movet alas.' 
In this latter, what can better represent a 
galley shoved along, witfi oars on one side 
and with none on the other, than a snake 
sound and fierce in the upper parts, and 
maimed and disabled hi the lower! It is 
impossible to reinark upon the particular 
elegance of tliis similitiule without trans- 
Eribing every word of it." 

281. Velafacit — " makes sail," but tliis is 
a very unusual phrase. 

282. Promisso munere — 305 and365show 
tbat he intended to reward all enteiing the 
lists. 

284. Datur — last syll. lengthened by arsis. 
Operum Minervoe — Le., spinning and 

weaving, with embroideiy. 

285. Genvs — the " acc. of the remote ob- 
jeet; " see ^En. i. 228, and iL 210. Cressa= 
Kpr,a-irct. 

286. The foot race which follows is 
modelled after Ilomer II. xxiii. 740 sqq. 

287. Quem cingebant collibits sihce, i.e., 
wood-clad hills enclosed on all sides. A 
uatural theatre was made by the high 
groonds surrounding a plaiu whicli consti- 
tuted the circus. 

290. Consessu — thc dat. for ad consessum, 
" Advanced through the midst of the assem- 
bly. and sai down on the raised tri- 
buual." Exstructo, i.e., the suggestus, or" 
raised platform from which oratorsaddressed 
their aiuhence, or generals their soldiers. 

292. Pretiis, i. e., praemiis, by which 
word the-sense is filled up. 

293. Mixti. This adj. is used generallyby 
the poets to signify the addition of au in- 
ferior or less important object to a superior 
or more important. The Trojans were of 
CMurse of greater note in the games than the 
Sieanians. 

294. Nisus and Euryalus, whose friend- 
sbip, like that of Pylades and Orestes, has 
passed into a proverb. See below, 334, iEn. 
ix. 176, 444, aud Ovid Trist. L 5, 23. 

296. Pio anwre — with a pure love of the 
boy (Euryalus). Puer, lc.juvenis, for the 
name was not confined as our term boy, but 
torrcsponded rather to "lad-" as vulgarrj 
used in Seotland. 

298. Diores. a son of Priam, afterwards 
slain by Turnus. Salius is nowhcre <-lse 
mentioned. Patron, according to Dion. Hal. 
L 51. was an Acarnanian, and one of those 
wliom Ilelenus sent alongwith iEneas (iii. 
470. where see notes). Livy and Ovid also 
use the form Acarnan, from which come the 
adjs, Acarnanus and Acarnaniw 

116 



299. Tegeoso?, from Tegea, a town in Ar- 
cadia. 

300. Helymus, a Trojan, wlio had come to 
Sicily with Ace^tes, is nientioncd 73, above, 
Panopes is mentioned only here. Acestes — 
see ^En. L 196. Observe tbe hypenneter in 
Panopesque, and consult notc, ^Eil L 332. 

303. Quibus in mediis ior in quovurn medio. 
or inter quos medius. 

306. Gnosia— the MSS. are in favour of 
one s, on which mode of writing see Blonif. 
uEsch. Prom. 751 ; Poppo, Xen. Anab. vii. 
5, 12 ; and Boeckh, Pind. 01. ix. 47. The 
Cretan towns of Gnosus and Cydonia were 
cclebrated for their javelins, bows, and 
arrows. See Ecl. x. 59. The two epithets, 
Gnosia aud lucida, applied to spicuht, forin 
no difiiculty, since the fonner refcrs to 
origin, the \&X.tbvtr,quality. Levato (>.ur o;) } 
Le., polito. See iii. 467. 

IJabo,. sciL cuigue, which is readily under- 
stood frora the context On Bipennis, see 
ii. 479. 

308. Honos means a gi/t of honour, but 
prozmia the prize gained by the contest; 
llejme confounds tne two. 

310. Phaleris — trappings for horses which 
hung down lrom the neck and head, as in 
the woodcut, and were omamented with sil- 
ver or ivory bosses and other decorations 
There were also phalerae worn by personi 
of distinction, or by soldiers as emblems 
of military bravery. See ix. 359. 




311. Amazoniam — Threiciis, i.e., such as 
arewomby theAmazonsandtheTluacians, 
the latter of whom were most especially 
famcd as archers. Quam, etc, transl 
" which a belt with massive gilding encom- 
passes, and a brooch with pohshed gem 
fastens." 

314. On the galea, see Ramsay's Antiq., 
and iEn. iL 392. 

316. Corripiunt spatia, i.e., they begm to 
run. See above, 145. On ibe race course, 
consult Ramsay's Antiq.. and above, 145. 

317. Similes nimbo—"l\kc tlic whirhvind. " 
Vltima signant, i.e., they mark out the goal 
with their cyes, and in thcir minds. 

319. Fulminis alis — in works bf art, 
especially coins, the thunderbolt is ire- 
quently rcpresented with wmgs: "The 
wiuged lightning." 



B. V. 321-336. 



NO'iES ON THE jE!*EID. 



B. V. 887-8ML 



321 Deinde and post are not pleonastic, 
but deinde is a conj. "then," "in the next 
place," and post is an adv. joincd to relicto. 

323. Su b mean s c/oxe to. On t>so, in a 
restrictive^ierlSersce ^Eil iiL 5. 

324. Cakem cake—notto bc taken literally, 
' heel withheeL," but it simplyineans "foot 

with foot" 

326. Ambiguum is taken by Heyne as 
masc., "would have left him (Helymus) 
doubtful of success." By othcrs it is con- 
sidered neut, "would have left the issue 
doubtful." Heyne's view gets confinnation 
from Ilom. IL xxiii. 382, which see. 

827. Extremo spatio, i.e., the meta, as 317 
seems to indicate. Fessique, — on this extra- 
ordinary use of the conjunction, sce note, 
JEn. iil 329; cf. also iv. 102; and x. 842. 

328. Levis is here used in an unusual 
meanmg, "slippcry "=/«©/•!<;*«. 

329. Ut for ubi. Super, in next line, ia 
an adv., not a prep. 

332. Titubata vestigia Tiaud temut — a bold 
expression for titubantibus pedibus vestigta 
non tenuit — "did not maintain hi3 footing," 
which gave way when the ground waa 
firmly trod upon" "did not keep hia 
footing, by rcason of his sliding." On titu- 
bata, the past particip. of an intrans. verb, 
thus used, see note on jEn. iii. 14 and 125. 

334. Amorum — "of his affection," not 
his "beloved friend," as Heyne interprets. 

336. Arena. Wagncr remarks that VirgiL, 
tbinking of the circus at Rome, which was 
covered with sand on such occasions as thls, 
here forgets what he had said in 287 and 330. 
We do not, however, see that the poet is to 
be hastily condemned. Though tlie plain 
was grassy (287) on the whole, yet we may 
easily imagine that the concourse of people 
at tlie games, and the struggles of the vic- 
tims as thcy were slaughtered, together 
with the bustling tread of those cngaged in 
sacrifking, may have worn away the her- 
bage, and left the soil exposed, The use 
ofhumus in 330, as opposed toherbas, wouid 
lt-ad U3 to a simiiar conclusion. And it 
may be further argued that spissus ia em- 
ployed purposely, to save the poet from the 
ebarge which hc may have himself antici- 
pated by the use of arena alone. We 
would, therefore, gnggest that spissa arena 
means the Joose mould, wbieb was their only 
substitute for sand, but which (the poet ac- 
knowledges) was spissus at the best Spissus 
meaus dense, Le., with little space between 
the component particles of a body, an idea 
which suits well with heavy mould, the in- 
dividuality of whose atoms is not so easily 
(Jiso; vered, or so generally recognised as that 
ot' the grains of sand. For arena, meaning 
" mould," see Geo. L 105 ; iL 232; iv. 291. 

Observe the tense of jacuit, cxpressive 
of the instantaneous result. lievotutus— 
'*rolled over"— Btronger th&a provolutus. 



rj;7. Euryattls-Aatt sylL long by ar»U. 
See Metrical Indcx. 

1'alma, for victor. 

340. Cavea>— the part of the theatre occu- 
picd by the public. 

Ora prima patrum, Le., the elder-; and 
more influential personages, who occupied 
the front benches. 

34-5. Thc solicitations of Diorcs for him- 
self strengthen the claim of Nisus. 

349. Ordine — "from tho fixed arrange- 
ment," indicated in 308. 

350. Cf. iEn 1L 93. Gaetuli, Le., African. 
852 A ureis, two syllables by synizesis. 
o'j'j. Merui. Some write meruit, but thc 

best MSS. exhibit the former. 

356. Fortuna inimica tulisset — tulisset for 
abstulisset, Le., had not envious Fortune 
withheldme from gaining the first prize. 
Heyne. But Forb., comparing <Qi[ii<r6a.i 
(■u, kccxu;), says that the use of the word 
is derived from naval phraseology, and that 
the whole=?J» inimice a fortuna acceptus 
essem. 

357. Simul has a cum after it usually 
But the poets and later prose writers, thcir 
imitators, omitted the prep. 

358. Risit olli, Le., ei adrisit. Some make 
olli depend on efferri, the comma being 
placed after optimus. Of Didymaonnothin/r 
is known. Observe artes, plural, in apposi- 
tion to clipeum, singular. 

360. How or whence the shield was pro- 
cured we have no means of deciding; pro- 
bably in an attack on some Grccian city, or 
through Helenus. 

362. The pugilistic contest forms the 
third of the exercises. Here, again, Ho- 
mcr, IL xxiii. 651, is laid under contribu- 
tioD. Dona peregit, an unusual phrase, 
signifying "to bring the distribution of the 
piizes to an end," as if we should say, 
"got through the prizes." 

363. Animus prossens, Le., fortis, owkix, 
with an idea of cooiness and colkctedness ia 
danger. 

Evinctis, sciL caestu. 

366. Velatum auro vittisque, a hendiady» 
{2E,n. i. 2, 258)— the meaning is "Fillets 
adorned with plates of gold," or "inter- 
woven with threads of gold." 

370. The charactcr of Paris is usually 
looked upon as effeminate and umvarlike, 
though cven Homer allows him some sliare 
ofbravery. But the later poets attributed 
to him higher courage and more daring cx- 
ploits than Homer records. t 

373. Butes, not elscwherc mentioned. 
The Bebrycians werc a Tbracjan people_of 
Bithynia on the Euxine, but tlicy eafly 
disappeared entirely from the Ustofnations. 
Amycus was king of these, and son of Ncp- 
tune and Melia. Hc was a ccleltraled 
boxcr, but was finally sluin by roLlux. 

117 



B. V. 380-402. 



KOTES ON THE -ENIIID. 



B. V. 404-42C 



380. Excedere paUna, Lc, dccline thc 
contest 

3S4. Qiue fnis. On the gendcr of this 
Bnbst., see notc, jEil UL 145. 

387. Qravu=*gpaviter, aceordingto Heyne 
and Jaeobs, Others niakc it=grandaevus. 
Entellu# was a companion of Acesu >. and 
a sharer ot* his labours, but vcry little is 
known ofhini. The town Entelia, Lu the 
west of Sicily, was callcd from him. 

388. Ut—utforte. Torus is applicd to any 
D lace which Ls soft and suitcd for lying upon, 
a nd therefcre uscd with reference to the 
green turf. Sec JE\\. ii. 2. 

389. For shr.ilar friendly chidings, see 
Ilom. IL v. 17 sqq., and xv.*440 sqq. Frus- 
tra fortissime. i.e., it is now of no avail that 
you once wcre the bravest of the brave, if 
you do uot maintain your former character. 

391. Tlie usual punctuation is as follows: 
* + nobisdeus ille, magister Xequid. memor- 
. ..' 's, Eryxt YVagner writes thus — **nobis 
dcus ille magister, Nequid. mem. Eryxf 
Forb. removes all points, because he says 
the senee is, vbi nunc (scil. estj deus ille 
(tamquam deus tibi celebratus) Eryx, nobis 
nequid. mag. mem. 

392. Eryx was son of Butes (son of Amy- 
cus) and Venus. He challenged Hercules, 
but was slain in the combat. He gave name 
to Mount Eryx, from a temple on which 
Venus is called Erycina. On Trinacria, 
lee ELn. i. 196. 

395. Sed enim. After sed some words are 
to be supplied by the mind, thus — sed jam 
non sum, qui fui olim, senectus enim me 
tardat. The words are equal to kXXk yap. 
See note, ^n. L 19. 

396. Effetce: — effetus properly signifies 
past bearing, said of females, 'fields, etc. 
Thence it means. generally, exhausted. 
weak. It is derived from an old verb fio, 
$'-">>) and should thercfore be writtcn effe- 
tus and not effoetus; see vii. 440. 

397. Improbus is here equal to our "for- 
ward," " self-confident" 

398. Juventas — v.rittcn juvcntus in some 
editions. But VirgLl usually maintains the 
well known distLiclion that juventus is tlie 
foncrete and collective (a body of youths), 
hut juventas and juventa the abstract (the 
season of youth, or youthful vigour). 

400. Kec dona moror—" nor do I care for 
the prizes," 

401. Peerlk. asks " whence did the ca?stus 
so nnexpectedly comeT since Entellus was 
present as a spectator, and uot as a com- 
batant?" He forgot. in proposing the 
question, tliat he was dealing with a poet. 

402. Inproelia depends on ferre manum 
and not o;i accr. By the common construc- 
tion, tirgo shouid be the acc. and brachia the 
dat, as at JEn. iv. 506. Tergo is put fur 
torio. as at -E. . 

118 



404. Tantus and talis, hkc tgios and 
Taeost Inclode thc idea of a causal particlc. 
bo as to be equal to nam magnus, nam mul- 
tus. Hcre, thereforc, the clausc is equal to 
nam septem ingentia magnorum [rather 
maximorum] boum terga (coria) ligtt-anl 
(i.e., eraut.) 

405. The cestus, or boxinggauntlet?. coa- 
sisted of leatlier thongs bound round tlie 
hands and wrist, and reaching sometinics 
as blgh up as the elbow. They werc armcd 
with lead or metal bosses, as secn in the 
woodcut bcneath. Sec Rainsav's Antiq. 





406. Longe=valde. Heyne. Butequa' to 
diu in Forb.'s opinion. Ferhaps it is rathcr 
equal to " entirely." 

408. Immensa volumina. Heync undcr- 
stands by this tJie thongs by which the 
ca-stus was bound to the hand. But Wagn. 
and Forb. thmk that it means the thowis 
and ccestus both, since the ccestus ia as it 
were one contiuuous band surromiding thc 
hand and arm. It is not, thereforc, the 
ccestus and the thongs that are distinguished 
from one another herc, but tlie weight 
(pondus) and the balance; for iEneas, by 
lifting them. first examhies their actual 
weight, and then, by tmning them about 
and poising them, ascertains thcir Buitable- 
ness for figliting. Obseiwe the zeugma in 
versat, wiiich, Vhen applied to pondus, is 
equal to explorat. 

410. Ccestus et arma—the et is merely ex 
pktive, as the two substs. mean the san e 
thiug. " The castus wilh which Herculca 
was armcd." 

411. Tristem, because Ezyx wa3 slain in 
it. 

412. Ge?*manus tuus — sce note above, 24. 
The next line is parenthetic, refeiTin? to 
the blood of those whom Eryx had van- 
quished. 

415. Old agc ia called ce?nula, Le., invid.i, 
because, while it diminishes the powtr o( 
entering into the contest with liopes of 
success, it envies younger men the vic- 
tory. 

418. Id is by some referred to what goe3 
before, but Henry is of opinion that it rathcr 
belonga to the phrase fullowing. 

jEquemus pugnas — "let ns e-jualise the 
contest, if Dares refuses, r.nd if this pro- 
jiosal be plcasing to .Eneas," ctc Auctor 
— " who has encouraged mc" 

•■. i.c, tr.os — th.osc 



13. V. 421-447. 



I ri£ .knkii». 



B. V. 443-483. 



tif yours which voa have brought from 
Troy. 

42L Duplicem amiclum. i.o., th( 
a cloak made of a coarse cloth doubled, and 

with tlic nnp on. It waa fastened by a 
brooch ou the Bhoulder or under thc ncck. 
Cf. Hor. Epist i. 17, 25, Quem duplici panno 
patientia velaL 

422. Another hypermeter vcrse — sec 
above, 

423. Artus—exuit, for veslem exuit de ar- 
tibus, i.c, •-' stripped." 

426. Arrectus in digitos — each raising 
hhnself on tiptoe, both to plant his blow 
inore eftectually, and to avoid his adversary 
tlic more nimbly. 

429. Pugnam lacessunt — " tlicy spar." 
Lacessere, means primarily to give niotion 
to anything — hence to begin. 

430. Mehor motupedum, i.c, more active 
either in avoiding the blows, or pdrhaps in 
'• tripping up." 

431. Membris et mole, byhendiadys (ttn. 
i. 2, 258), as molem et montes, at iEn. i. 81. 
Serviua Eut we see no nccessity for such 
an explanation here. 

432. Genua — to be pronounced as two 
svils. (synizesis), Genva — see note, J£n. 
L'2. 

433. Kequidquam — "in vain," i.c, whieh 
tended in no degree to decide the hattle. 
Vulnera — "blows," whose object was to in- 
flict icounds. 

435. Tempora — " temples." Ingcmmare 
mcans to repeat an action many times m 
quick succession. 

436. Crepitant—thc sourcc whence this 
metaphor is derived will be secn in 45S sq. 
0'ravis, sciL aetate et mole eorporis. 

438. Exit teta—" shuus the blows." The 
verb is common in this sense in thc phraseo- 
logy of the "ring." 

4*39. Ille, Lc, Dares. Molibus, i.c, ma- 
chines — it depends on oppugnat and not on 
cclsam. 

440. Sedd. This verb is propcriy applied 
to the blockade of a town, the besiegera re- 
maining inactivc Here, however, it implies 
simply the sitting doicn be/ore the place to 
bestege, activity being indicated by the words 
following. Sub armis=armatus. 

444. A vertke= desuper — "from above." 
Veiox — both "nimble and qiuck-sighted." 

446. Vires m ventum rffundere, is a prover- 
tiial expression like dare verba ir. ventum, 
and our "fight with the wind." See Lucr. 
v.: 932, and Ov. Ar. Am. i. 0, 42. Uliro, 
"contrarj- to what you might have cx- 
pected." Scc above, &L. All anticipatcd tlie 
fall of Dares, but the assailer himself fell. 
Wagn. explains idtro " non prostratus ctb 
adversario," Lc, sua culpa. 

447. Qravis graviterque. On tlic pcculiar 
nsr- of thc conjiinciiun (which Ls hcreepftW- 
fetical), see above, 827, 



| 448. This Is a favourite Uomerlc simile. 
See II. xhi. 17S; xiv. 414. Quondam, like 
olim, "bytinies." C'a>a — hullow by rcasor. 
o/ agc, tlius applicable to Entellus, whose 
tall was to bc attributed t<j uiward decay 
and not to ezternal violence. Erymantha 
(Mt. < henos or Olonos) in the W. of Arcadia, 
famed for the slaughter of the boar by 
Ilercules. Ida, in the Troad. 

430. btudiis — "in their zealous partizan- 
ship ;" scme bcing interested iu Dares aiul 
somc in Entellus. 

45L II clamor cozlo — the dat. is very often 
used by thc pocts in this construction. 

455. Tum, i.c, praeterea, porro. Vim — 
vires, for a similar repetition see Geo. iL 
125. Notc the clima.v — Iledit ad pugnam — 
sincitat — incend.it — ardcns agit. 

456. Daren; Dareta, as another form.of 
the accus. is found at 400, 463, 47U. 

457. Ille. On the insertion of the pron. 
see note, ^En. L 3. 

460. Versat, the same as agit aquore toto 
in 456. 

461. Thc part of Achilles in Hom. II 
xxiii. 734, is here performed by iEneas. 

405. In/dix, i.c, the cause of your defcat 
was not want of vigour, or braveiy, or 
ability, bnt unpropitious fortunc 

466. Alias vires, vlz., divine. Eryx assist- 
ing Entellus. 

469. This verse is a close translation. 

from Hom. See E. xxiiL 695 sqq., A/^as 

i Tccy^v Trvavra., y.u.pYi fiaXXovf iTipcjfi. 

471. Vocati, i.c.,jussi — for they modestly 
refrained from claiming any prize for one 
so thoroughly defcated. It* may, however, 
refer to the usual proclamation of the 
herald announcing the victor, and sum- 
moning him to receive his trophy. 

473. Superans animis. Lc, superbiens, 
chttus vktoria. Forb. Superbus tauro — 
superbus is constantly used of victors and 
those triumphing ; see 26S and iEn. i. 61. 

476. Revocatum — " rescued." A quct 
morte — "from how certain and pitiable a. 
death." 

477. Contra—ex adverso — "right in front 
of." 

47S. Donum pugnce, i.c, praenuum victo- 
nae. 

4S1. Humi, for in humum; sce L 193 
The order is Tremens bos exanimisque, but 
the position of the conjunction is pcculiar. 
Super for insuper. "' 

483. Meliorein animum — "a more aecept- 
able lifc" There is a zeugma in repono, "I 
lay aside my instmments. and resign the 
art." The refcrence is to thc custom of 
Roman gladiators, scldiers etc, who dcdi- 
cated the arins of their profession in the 
terople of some deity. when they retired 
fxom the exerci»° nf t u »ix o«"' lv 45 



+ V.4t 

4S5. For the deacription of a similar con- 
tcst in Hotner, see II. xxiii. 850 sqq. 

487. Ingenti manu — this seems an 
attempt to translate the Homeric X U P' 
<r«£s/'/?, thc strcng, brawny hand of a 
hero, which interpretation is by no means 
unnatural. Some join ingenti with ncive, 
but the position of the words seems to be 
opposed to tliis explanation. De nctve, scil. 
sumptum. 

Trajecto infune, le., by a cord passed 
round it 

489. Quo=in quam. Dejectam, std. in 
gakam. 

492. Hippocoon was the son of Hyrtacus, 
and theretbre brother of Nisus (294, above.) 

495. Eurytion — mentioued only here. 
His brother Pandarus, thc Lycian, son of 
Lycaon (Hom. II. ii. 824; iv" 88; v. 95), 
was renowned for his skill in archery. 

496. Jussus, scil. by Miriorva. See nom. 
I). iv. 6S sqq. Hc wounded Menclaus, and 
thus broke the league. Acestes, for sors 
Acestis. 

501. The woodcut represents a bow, nud 
a quiver full of arrows. 



NOTES ON TnE ^XEID. 



B. V. 506-537. 




502. Pro 8« quisque, y-af iavrov "xaffro;, 
i.e., u$ Ivvapiv— "vrith all his might,'' 
"according to his ability." 

504. Wagn. points out that a conjunction 
vs frequently thus uied when the writer 
hurries on to thc detail of some following 
circumstances, or when he wishes to indi- 
cate that an event was quickly brought 
about. See JEn. i. 82. Malus, as the mast 
of a ship, is masc, as a tree,/em. 

505. Timait pennis, i.e., trepidavit prae 
mtt'i. " The scared bird sbowed its terror 
by the fluttering of its •wings." 

120 



506. From the usc of plamlenlem in 516, 
and from 215, above, it would appear 
that plausu refers to the flapping of the 
bird, not to the applauso of the spectators. 
It niay well be doubted, however, whethei 
the terms ingenti and omnia do not rathei 
point to the general applause which would 
doubtless foUow such a proof of skilL, 
though, certainly, there is no mention of 
plaudits in the case of the other archers 
who follow. 

508. Oculos telumque tetendit. Another 
example of zeugma (see ^En. L 79 ; and iL 
258) "strained his eyes and directed his 
weapon." 

511. Inneropedem — an accus. ofrefcrence 
or limitation ; see note on Ain. i. 228, and 
iL 210. 

512. Observe the prep. in applying to 
both notos and nubila, but joined only with 
the latter ; see ii. ti-34. 

Fratrem (514) viz., Pandarus (496). 

51S. AMeriis — some rcad aeriis — but tlie 
former is more suitable, since the stars 
werc in the cether, not in the aer, which is 
farther confirmed by Cic. Nat. De. iL 1"«, 
42, where the Epicurean notion is men- 
tioned that stars were generated by the 
acther itself. 

523. The ingens exitus is supposcd by 
some to be the burning of the Trojan sliips 
soon aftcr this time; by others, the war 
waged by iEneas in Italy against Turnus; 
and by others again, tbe wars of the Romans 
in Sicily against the Sicilians and Cartha- 
ginians. This last interpretation is favoured 
by the word sera. 

524. Sera, etc. WagnT considers that 
sera has refercnce to post, and terrijici to 
ingens, and thus explains the passage: — The 
soothsayers, in interpreting tlie omen, fore- 
told that it would be fulfilled a long while 
after with a fearful tunnoil of affairs. Ter- 
rijicus is a poetic word. 

525. Liquidis, i.e., in aere puro, m the 
clear sky. It does not indicate moistur ;:; 
the air, as some would have it. The effect 
here produced had probably taken placc m 
the knowledge of the poet, and he uses i r 
to embellish his description. Electricity 
satisfactorily accounts for the pbenomenon. 

527. Retixa — "detached," " let loose." 

52S. Crinem — this term is applicd to tho 
tail of a comet, and here used ofthe "falling 
star." (See Geo. i. 365.) . 

530. jEneas does not disregard the omen, 
but receives it as a prognostic of future 
fame and glory. It was customary in tho 
case of an unexpected appearancc, to pray 
to the gods to avert ill-luck. 

534. P-xsortem, "extraordinar\-,"or"with- 
out you- coming into competition." 

536. Pnpi-essum, "inlaid," an opus anu- 
gbjphum. 

537. Osseus, klng of thc Thraciana ami 



B. V. 538-556. 



XOTES OX TITE iENEID, 



B. V. 557-565 



father of Ilecnba, thc wife of Priam. In 
magno nuinerc for pro magno mvtnrr, as 
ls frequently for «vt/. 

/V/re dederat—sce ahove, 247. 

541. Prcelato honori—" nor did the gene- 
reus Enrytion envy him thc honour ranked 
before his own." Ileyne considcrs pr&lato 
as alniost equal to prcerepto, which use of 
tlie word Wagn. decms without precedent. 
Tlie latterexplainsthus:— "Nor doesEury- 
tion feel envy at Accstes hecause he is pre- 
ferrcd to hini, and because thc honour which 
he had hoped for himself is transferred to 
his rival." 

.343. Proximus ingreditvr donis, i.e., Ile 
(Mncstheus) is next presented with his 
prize, and marches proudly forth in exulta- 
tion. Donis does not depend, in Wagner's 
opinion, on either ingreditur or proxinms, 
but on the idea of " coming second," whieh 
arises from both taken together. 

544. In the programme of tho games, 
above, 66 sqq., JEneas made no mentian of 
the combat now to be entered on, whieh. 
therefore, comes unexpectedly, and on that 
account more agreeably to the assemblcd 
throng. These games were kept up by 
Augustus ; see below, 601. 

Certamine, scil. of the archers. 

54^. Custodem — see above, note 25G. 

547. Epytides. Periphas, son of Epytns, 
a name borrowed from llom. II. xviL 323. 
He was the herald of Anchises, and friend 
of uEneas ; he had grown old in tlie sorviee 
of the family. 

Ad aurem means "confidentially and 
privately," but in avrem (which some edi- 
tions read) expresses more secrecy, and a 
greater desire to conceal the information 
from others. 

649. ursus instruxit equorum, i. e., has 
prepared the horses for their manoeuvres. 

550. Avo — "in honour of his grandfather." 

551. Observe ait so close after fatur, and 
compare JEn. iL 78. Patentes — "open," 
"cleared," 

655. Fremit is often followed by the acc. 
of the thing, but here it is construed un- 
usually with the acc. of the person. Mirata 
fremit — gaze on with loudly-expressed ad- 
miration. 

556. Tonsa coronct, etc. By this Heyne 
understands that a garland (plucked and 
cropped so as to be of equal length all 
round) was placed on the belmet of each, 
and that thus it was said to press their 
hair, or that it fell so far over thc margm 
of the helmct, as to touch the curls which 
appeared from beneath the head-piece. 
Pcerlkamp, interpreting premere comam as 
"trinding up thc hair, to kec-]> it from Sow- 
ing lousely, and tlius interfering wtth the 
active eaertlon of riding, and with the 
rider'8 sight," thinks that the olive garland 



was for the purpose Jriit Indicated. Bitl 
the hair tlms oollected, and conflned by .-. 
garland, would, Ifkept beneath the helmet, 
rendcr it too largc and loose, and tf placed 

above it would exliibit a ridiculon 
tacle. 

Hcnrj' takes pressa (so premere faJce — 1« 
prdne) as^recisa — "cropped," and belierea 
that the hair was so cut u to resemble a 
garland in its outcr margin, which waa 
visible round the edgc ofthe helmet. llis 
arguments are as follows: — (1,) If Virgi! 
spoke of a real garland, hc would have r.scii 
some cpithet, such as oleaginea, or laurea 
(2,) It would be a very odd exprcssion tc 
say that the garland pressed the hair, wher. 
it only touched the helmct. (3,) In morem 
is not a suitable phrase to be used of a gamc 
celebrated for thc first time. Moreover, Sue- 
tonius mentionsthat the Roman youths bad 
their hair cropped to rcsemble a garland, in 
the competition in this exercisc. (4.) Sincc 
Statius says aurwn coronatum for corona 
aurea, Virgil niight also say tonsam coronam 
for capilUs informam coronae detonsis. 

557. Hastilia bina. Baebius Macer statcs 
that the boys who engaged in the Trojan 
games were presented by Augustus with 
helmets and two spears each. To this tho 
poet refers. Serv. 

558. Pars leves (polished) is the rearling 
of most MSS., but some have parsque leces, 
wbich raakes a veiy appropriate sense like- 
wise. 

559. An ornate statement of the fact that 
cacli worc upon his neck a golden chain. 
The chain was twisted (hence torques, from 
torqueo) spirally and bent into a circular 
form— it himg down from the neck on the 
breast. 

500. Wagn. and others write tres and not 
tris, the common reading, which latter they 
allege is found only in the accus. Terni is 
considered equal to tres m this place, having 
lost its distributive force. For a very simi- 
lar use of numerals, see above, 85. 

On Turmce, and the divisions of the 
Roman army generally, see Ramsays 
Antiq; and on bis seni, consult note, JEn. 
L71. 

562. Paribus Magistris. The Ductores or 
Custodes went here and there around tlie 
field (vagantur), bntbesidesthesetherewas 
a magisler (a kind of riding master) to 
superintend the movements, and see that 
no harm happened to thc boys. Paribus. 
" elmilarly clad." 

564. Ilfferens is more than ferens, and 
means "reininding men, by his name, of 
his grandfather Priam." On Polites, see 
JEn. ii. 526. 

565. Auctura Italos. Cato in his Ori;r. 
says that Polites separated from ££neas 
after his arrival in Italy, and founded the 
town of PolitoriumM Quem. etc. Transl. : 

m 



H V. 56G-5SO. 



NOTES OX TIIE MXEID. 



II. V. 5S7-G04. 



Whoin a Thracian Bteed carrics, marked 
v. itli white Bpots, displaying white fore-feot, 
and .1 white forchead, as he t'>sses it on 

i primi />> dis, i.o.. " the fore- 
n put by the | 
the soles of the feet, and thus for the whole 
feet 

568. Alter Atys — "the second leader is 
Atys." Ile is mentioned out of compliment 
toAugustus, whose mother was Atia, tlie 
daughterof M. Atius Ealbus, by Julia, the 
sister of Julius Csesar. Therc was aa Atys, 
one of the kings ot' Alba, according to Livy. 
Latmi, Bimply for Iiomani, as often, thougb 
rleinsias tliinks the epithet is used because 
tlic Atii were from Aricia in Latium. 

.' 'nero puerdilectus Tulo. This rcmark 
is added, not withont purpose and force, 
intended, as it is, to indicate the love and 
friendshipwhich.eventhen, existedbctween 
the Atian and Julian families, now united 
in the pcrson of the second Ca?sar. 

571. Sidonio, i.e., African, given to Dido. 
Candida, '^ccu.^-po;=e.rimiae pukhritudmis. 
So andida Nais, EcL ii. 4<;. 

575. Pavidos — "with beating hearts," 
i.c, through the modesty and timidity 
natnral to boys; not gloriae cupiditate solli- 
citos, as Bervius explains. 

576. Veterum, i.e., seniorum, for retus, 
which properly applies to what has con- 
tinucd for a long time, is somefimes used of 
adranccd ag-e. 

57? Postquam Lustravere, etc. — "after 
tney nave ridden round the assembled 
spectators, viewing thcm aa they pass." 

579. Lomje, Le., clamore longe lateque 
audiendo. 

/iisonuit — this verb, uscd activcly, is 
joincd with the abl. of thc thing by whicft 
tlie sound is made, thus cahimis agrestibus 
insor.at ille, Ovid Met xi. 101. It is also 
followed by thc acc. aftcr the word which 
cxpresscs the result, as insonare verbera, 
/En. vii. 451. 

5S0. Olli discurre/-e pares, etc. On the 
•novements of theyouthful equestriansthere 
.< much diversity of opinion. Some (e.g., 
Wagner) suppose that they formed in three 
hodies of ticelve cach ; and others. that they 
ivere di^ided into turelve bands of three each. 
Anthon gives a long note on the subject, 
with diagrams to exi>lain the evolutions; 
but his arrangements seem somewhat fanci- 
ftil. He follows Noedhen's opinion that 
there were twelve bodies of three each. 

Pares, scil. ioco, eodem ordine. — " They 
rode forth in equal line, and forming in 
tbree bands (terni) broke up the main body 
(agmina). (smaller) parties (choris) separa- 
ting to difterent points; and again being 
siunmoned (by their leaders) they wheeled 
>and presentcd their wcanons in hostile 

122 



[ attitude. They thcn move forward In dif- 
ferent courscs and rctum to the charge in 
dhTerent parties, confrouting one another 
with a Bpace intervening, and thcy involve 
alternately circle within circle, and armed, 
engage in mimic wai." Thc above trans- 
lation will, it is hoped, assist the student 
in understanding this difficnlt pasaage; but 
let the rcader, who wishes furthcr discns- 
sion of the question, consult thc comtnen- 
tat »rs. 

587. Pariter — ,c in one line." 

588 The Labyrinth of Daedalus, describcd 
by HomerH xviiL 590 sqq., as representerl 
byVnlcan on the shield of Achilks, i- >>t 
course the original of this situile, but the 
Latin poet comes far short of his great mas- 
ter in the task of dcscription. On the Laby- 
rinth, consult Smith's Class. Dict. under 
Daedalus and Minos. 

589. I J arietibus — to be scanncd parjetibus, 
by snnizesis. 

590. Ancipitem dolum — "adoubt causing 
deccption," i.e., iter dolosum, fallens. 

591. Indeprensus — "undetected" at the 
time, and "not to be remedied by retracing 
one'a steps." Seguendi, Le.,of adcancing. for 
sequor is often used both in prose and poetry 
as equal to ire, because there is some point 
marked out in the mind as the end to bc 
reached. the intervening road being, as it 
were, the guiding thread. 

593. Texunt ludo, i.e.,fing>int per ludinn. 
"In their game (or in sport) they represcnt 
both flight and fight" 

594. Delphinutn similes — the agility of dol- 
phins is proverbial; eonsult any book of 
Nat Hist. Thus, in the Kon.an Circus thc 
columns were ornainented with the figureia 
of these animals as emblematic of activity. 

595. The Carpathinn sea was that part of 
the sEgean, around the islandof Carpathus, 
between Rhodes and Crete; and the Libyan, 
that which washes the north coast of Africa 
between the Svrtes. 

59S-601. Retulit— "renewed." Porro— 
"in succession." Patrium honorem— li he- 
reditarv ceremony." 

602. " The sport is now called Troy, the 
boys (who engage in it) the Trojan youths." 1 
On thisgame, which was exhibited by Sulla, 
restored by Julius Csesar, and frequently 
celebrated during the time of the Emperors, 
consult Smith's Class. Dict. Heyne thinks 
that if it was derived from Trojan times, it 
must have been at first a series of chariot 
manceuvres. derived froni the custom of 
racing round the tomb of a deceased hero, 
and that after the art of riding was more 
cultivated, that mode of celebration was 
preferred. 

603. Ilac is separated from tenus (tmesis) 
for Hactenus. 

604. Fidem novare. Novare is used in the 
same scnse as in the Dhrase res novare=rem+ 



I). \. 608-G26. 



NGTE3 ON THK .KNF.ID. 



B. V. 627-C38. 



publicam turbare, so lli.it tlic mcanlng wiU 
be, Fortune having changed her coun- 
tcnance to ua, now createa disturbance. 
(ieyue makea mutata novavit equal to 
-. Bythe otbermethod, 1 /Wejnis the 
acc. of reference after mutata, and novavit 
equals novavit rcs. 

Saturata dolorem. On the syntax. 
see note, Aln. i. 228; ii 210. The causea of 
hcr grudge f.re statccl at Mn. i. 2.3 sqq. 

610. IUa — Virgo. On tliis use of the 
demonstrative pron., sce note 262, above. 

6ia Acta is a Grcck word («*t«) trans- 
ferred into Latin letters. It iscalled sola, 
hs being deterted by all the males, (for the 
rigid decorum of more ancient tiines did 
uot allow the feinales to be prcscnt at the 
. or because it waa "retired," "se- 
questcred." 

Cl.3. Vada, i.c, maria — the seas, the idca 
of dangcr frora s/toals being implied. 

616. Superesse. On this use of the infm., 
see Mn. i. 37, note. 

C18. Haud ignara nocendi, le., about to 
do injury; with the intention aud setpnr- 
pose of doing raischief. 

C19. Vestem. The gocldess Iris was re- 
presented on works of art, with a party- 
eoloured robe. 

620. Tmarii— ftom Traarus (or Tomarus), 
a Mt. of Epirua near Dodona. But as 
licrocJ Ls called Rhoeteia, i. e., Trojana, 
(from the proraontoiy of Rhoeteiim,) in G4G, 
below, a contradiction secms to be evident, 
aud thcrefore some have read Ismarii, from 
Ismarus, a Mt. of Thrace, since it is pro- 
bable that Beroe would marry a Thracian 
rather than an Epirote, Thrace being in 
terms of alliance with Troy ; but we may 
readily supposc that Beroe migrated to 
Epirus with Helenus, that she there con- 
tracted marriage with Doryclus (not the son 
ot" Priam, who, it will be remembered, was 
Blain at Troy, Hom. II. xi. 489), and after- 
warda joined the expedition of iEneas, 
when it left the coasts of Chaonia for Italy. 
62L Cui is better referred to Dorycli 
than to conjux, for ncmen is then more 
suitable. Genus means nobility of birth. 

Fuissent is put in the subj., as expressing 
the cause why the goddess assuraed the 
/orm of Beroe. And the reason is asslgned 
in 651, viz., that Beroe was sick, and there- 
fore could not intcrvene to disclose the 
fraud. Cui is equal to quijnpe cui, or to 
(juum ei. 

C22. Dardanidum. See JEn. i. 565. 

C2G. To reconcile septima crstas with the 

same phrasc, as occurring at iEn. i. 7-j">, 

Gussrau has the following note: "Bcfore 

the setting lo of winter A""-ncas arrives in 



SicQy, and there Anchisca dica When the 
winter was ovcr. hc sct aaiL and w.i* driven 
to Carthage, [thia waa the beginning of the 
aeventh year,] where he remained durlng 
the Bummer, and till thc end of autiimn 
(.-cc iv. 309); tlius hc ntnrncd to Sicily 
about twelve nionths after the death oi 
Ancliisos, still, however, in thc sevcnth 
ycar of his wandcrings." 

G27. Inhospita sa.ra — "the dangerous 
rocks" oftheseaitself, notnecessarilyof the 
coasts. 

628. Sidera is properly introduced among 
thc pcrils and delays of navigation, as the 
marincrs of thosc days depended entirely 
upon them. The word may be here takcii 
as equivalent to tempestates, as storms wer« 
cousidered to be caused by the constellations. 
Observc thc remarkable zeugma in 
emensce which applies to all the aecusatives, 
freta, terras, saxa,andsii!era. Transl, "The 
seventh year since the destruction of Troy 
is now in com - se of fulfilraent, during which 
we are still bonie onward in our wanderings, 
after having traversed (emenscr) evcry sea, 
visited exery coast, risked so many dangerous 
rocks, and braved and outlived so many 
storms," (or, outwatched so many stars). 

G32. Xequidquam — "to no purpose re- 
scrved;" since we have no fixed abode in 
which to deposit them as our tutelary deities 
On the Penates consult Keightley's MythoL, 
or Smith's Dict. of Biog. and Mythol. 

633. " And shall thcre be no new Troy, to 
be cclebrated by fame ? In no country shall 
I see thoseTrojan streams, theXanthusand 
Simois." Hectoreos raay be used to mean 
more than simply Trojan, and is probably 
intended to recall the memory of Hector's 
exploits on their banks as giving them their 
chief celebrity. 
636. On Cassandra. See JEa. ii. 24G. 
638. Tempus agi res — "that matters be 
hastened to accomplishment is even now 
seasonable." By this translation, we liave 
endeavoured to convey an accurate idea of 
the syntax, which is not to be considered a 
Graccism, nor is the infin. to be lookcd on as 
cqual to a gerund. The difference is this, 
when the infin. is used as here, it serves as 
the subject, the verb esse (expressed or un- 
derstood) as the simple copula, and the subst. 
as the predicaie, thr.s res agi (that action be 
taken) est (is) tempus (seasonable). So in 
Geo. i. 305, Tempus stringere glandes; where 
tempus is equal to tempestivum. But, on the 
other hand, in the construction with tbe 
gerund, tlie subst. is the subject, the genmd 
the ison. of thc object, and esse contains the 
predicate ; thus tempus est agendi, " The 
time is sufiicicnt for acting," or "the time 
for acting is now present." See note, iEn, 
ii. 350, and Geo. i. 305. 

123 



B. V. 639-675. 



NOTES ON TIIE ^NEIt». 



B. V. 676-714. 



C"0. Quatuor ara> Xcptuno. Thcse had 
bcen eri ne, one bycach of the 

four contending in the boat racc, to propi- 
tiate his favour. 

G4'2. Tlie verb coruscare in the transitive 
signification of "brandishing," is found in 
JBa. viii. 66L Wagner rcmarks on the 
eonsuminate skill displayed in the versifica- 
tion of thia line : " The spondees, expressing 
exertion, and exciting cxpectation to the 
highest pitch, are followcd by one dactyl, 
which biielly declarcs, though not without 
a dcgree of horror, an event already cx- 
pcctcd, while tlie cacsura (aftcr co in corus- 
cat) makea the "boldest holdhis breath for 
a time," and the concluding spondee dis- 
tinctly snggests to us the mind terrified by 
some unlooked for decd of daring. A carc- 
ful rcading of the verses is sufficient to jus- 
tify Wagner's rcmarks. 

C46. Volis — an cxamplc of the Dativus 
Ethicus, on which see note, 2En. L 261. On 
Rhateia, see note G20, above. 

647. Signa, ctc. Witii this compare JEr\. 
1 408, where Venus is recogiiised by similar 
extemal marks of divinity. 

648. Qui spiritus, i.e., quam divinus spiri- 
tus, so qui vultus, for quam augustus vultus. 

652. Munere — the favour was not in see- 
ing tlie games, but in performing the rites 
o:' the dead to Anchises. 

6-54. Ancipites and ambiauo?, are nearly 
the same in meaning; here, however, the 
formerannounces<7enera%; the latter, with 
greater limitation. 

Malignis, i.e., torvis, transversls. 

Matignis oculis — "with evil disposed 
eyes." "fiendish." 

65-5. Amor iscalled miser — uot simplybe- 
cause it was grcct. but because by i 
excess it makes one miserable. 

658. Secuit arcum. i.e., she mountcd to 
heaven, leaving behind her a train of party- 
coloured light. 

660. Rapiunt focis penetralibus — thcy 
hastily lay hold on torches taken from the 
iimer shrines of the houses nearest to them. 

CG2. Vuleanut — " thefire." 

663. Pictas, either painted all over 
(jM4\r*9iifnM of Homer), or baving the 
tutela painted on the stern, or the parasemon 
on the prow. 

Abiete, to be scanned abjete. 

664. Cuneos — the rowa of seats in the 
theatre divided into wedge-shaped compart- 
ments by the steps which, radiatmg from 
the arena, rose up on both skles of them. 

669. Magistri, i.e., custodes. Sec 546 and 
562. 

673. Inanem, i.e., the light helmet worn 
onlyon sueh occasiona, but not nsed in war. 

675. Aecekvat used intransitively for 

124 



celcriter adpropinquare — " to advanco 
quickly." 

676. Per diversa lilora, Lc, throughout 
dilfcrcnt parts ofthecoast. "They stcaltli- 
ily seck the rocks, (to try) if "thero b<? 
caves anywhere." 

679. Mutata;, scil. mentem. 

681. Udo — "moist" from thc wate* 
pourcd on it" Forb. 

682. Stuppa — the oakum with which th« 
seams were caulkcd. 

683. E$t, from cdo — "eats." "consnmes.* 
Vapor, i.e., incendium, the effect bcing r"'i 
for the cause. 

685. Abscindere, rocare, and tendere, are 
so-called historic infinitives. Thc loss of 
the ships was not so much the causc of thc 
grief of iEneas as the delay arising in the 
immediate prosecution of his journey. 

687. Exosus es, i.e., odisti. The older 
writers said both odi and osus sum, and tlius 
exosus came to mean "he who hates," 
though it is sometimes used passively. 

Adunum, fnr omnes ad unum, but the adj. 
omnes ia frequently omitted in this phrase. 

688. Pietas — "kindly feeling," "commis- 
eration." Antiqua means " in times past 
tried and proved." 

689. The order is, Da classi evadere flam- 
mam. The verb evado is often joined with 
the acc, as in iEn. ix. 560. 

691. Quod superest — "as towhatremains," 
to complete my misfortune ; since nothing 
remains to be desired. Jahn understands 
the phrase as applying to all the Trojans. 

692. Dextra — the right hand with which 
he wields the thunderbolt, and thus called 
by Horace rubens. 

*G94. Sine ??iore, i.e, "different from com- 
mon occasion," "in an extraordmary dcs 
gree," The opposite of sine ??iore is de. 
mo?'e. 

G96. Turbidus imber, Le., a rain shower 
drivcnhither and thither by the violence of 
the wiud. Densis means that the wind was 
strong and difficult to be resiated, such as 
every one must have experienced in the 
spring, when somctimes we feel as if we 
could amiost see and catch it. 

G97. Super for desuper. Wagn., in hia 
smaller edition, interprets it as if it meant 
that the water was so abundant as toflow 
over the ships. 

704. The ycns Xautica traced its origin to 
this Nautes ; with it the care of the palla- 
dium remained. T?itoma, see iEn. ii. 171. 

708. Solatus for solans. Que after is con- 
nects dabat to infit, 707 and part of 706 beuig 
parenthetic 

711. Divinm stirpis—beaam his r ther 
was the river god, Crimisus. 

713. Superanl for supersunt 

714. Pertcesum— see iv. 18. 



B. V. 713-731. 



KOTES ON THE .EXEID. 



B. V. 735-755. 



718. Pcrmisso nomine, i.c.,jEneas, though 
thefounderof thecolony, and therefore pos- 
sesslng the rignt to have the name of the 

citv, wi!l give up his claim to Acesteft 

■v.is that famous city of Sicily called 

l !iy Diodorusand Strabo, Egesta by 

Thiicyd., and Segesta by the later Romans. 

720. Animunv— some books read animo. 

721 Polum, the zenith. Nox was supposed 
1o risc in the icest, gain the zenitli by mid- 
night, and set in the east at sunrise. 

722. Ccelo delapsa. As Anchiscs was in 
Elysium, we mttet consider the phrase as 
used in its common signification of anysud- 
den appearance; as we say, "dropped from 
the clouds." But Jupiter may have sent a 
messenger to assume the form of Anchises, 
since he says Jovis imperio huc venio. 

730. Aspera cnltii, L c, quae aspera vita 
vtitur, " which lives a savage life." The 
word asper is applied to substances whose 
surface is uneven and rough, and so t^ans- 
ferred to men of uncivilized manners. 

701. The first hint of the visit of ^Eneas to 
the infernal regions is given in the prophecy 
of Helenus, 2En. iiL 441. Since the spirit 
of Anchises might as well have recorded 
h11 erents to iEneas when it appeared to 
hiin, without entailing on the Trojan prince 
so dangerous an expedition as one to Hades, 
Wagn excuses the mtroduction of tlie Epi- 
sode only on the ground that Virgil was 
carried away by his desire of imitating his 
great master, wliose Neeyomanteia in the 
Odysseyisoneof themost beautiful parts of 
that delightful poem, andadinirablyadapted 
to adorn the story of the Latin bard. Dis, 
ie., Dives, HXevruv (from tXouto;, 
wealth) because to him, says Cicero, N. D. 
ii. 26, 08, omnis terrena vis atque natura dedi- 
cata est omniaque et recidantin terras et ori- 
antur e terris. 

732. Per alta Averna— properly through 
the lake Avernus, but here we must under- 
stand it of a cave in a valley near Avernus, 
by which an entrance was cffected. 

734. Tristesque. Wagn., Siipfl., Gossr., 
etc, read ve, but Jalm, Forb., and otbers 
que, as the uniformity is thus kept up 
betwecn tlie two clansea tartara umbrceque. 
and amozna concilia Elysiumque, and as a 
less jejune sense is thus afforded. Tartara 
and umbrai unite into one idea, and refer 
to one and the same place ; and althOugh 
all tlungs belonging to the affairs of thc 
dead are called tristia, yet here the opposi- 
tionof amcenapiorum concilia shows that it 
is the shades of the v.icked that are more 
particularly intended. 

On Amcenus oonsult Kritz,SalLCat. 11, 5. 
The word is akin to otftiivcov, and Biguifies 
naturai beauty of place; it here refera 



rather to tlie places where the concilia met 
than to the concilia themw ' 

785. Xibylla. Sec vL 10, below. Sanrjuint 
is tlie abL of the instrument. 

738. The superstitious ancients ! 
that spirits could not await the lir.st beams 
of the sun, and thus the airival of night 
at the zenith (when in early times the 
civil day began), and the first breath of 
the horses of Sol, warn the shade of An- 
chises to disappear. Cf. Shakspere, Ham- 
let, where the Ghost says, " Fare-thee-well 
at once! the glowworm shows the matin 
to be near, and 'gins to pale his ineffectual 
fire." 

741. Deinde=Mnc, hhv, S o that the scnse 
is, Why do you not remain longer? Quo 
proripis, salte, whkh ia alwaya exprcssed, 
but here omittcd on the analogy of the 
other verbs, fugis and ruis, signifying 
motion. 

744. Larem Pergameum. By this some 
understand tlie shade of Anchises, since the 
souls of ancestors were treated as Lares, 
others believe Vesta to be meant; Heyne, 
however, considers it to indicate the Penates, 
with whom the Lares were often con- 
founded. 

Penetralia Vestce, for Yestam.; her image 
was kept in the inner part of the temple, 
veiled and undefiled by the gaze of the 
mnltitude. She is called Cana, on account 
of the antiquity of her religion. 

745. Farre pio, i.e., mola salsa, for whicli 
see Ramsay's Antiq. 

Acerra is properly the incense '.fnser, but 
here the incense itself ; cf. Hor Od. iii. 23, 
19, Mollivit aversos Penates, Farre pio et 
saliente mka. 

746. Arcessit, otherwise written accersit, 
which was for a time considered a corrupt 
form introduced in the period of declining 
Latinity, but whicli has recently found de- 
i ndera in Schneider, Zumpt, Doderlein, 
Kritz, etc 

7-30. Transcribunt. Persons transferred 
from one city to another were said trans- 
cribi. but colonists were said adscribi. 

752. Ipsi, i.c, those who were about to 
pursue their journey. Reponunt, Lc, reno- 
vant, reparant. 

754. Vivida virtus. The irregularity of 
the syntax adds force to the expression ; 
Evigui numero sed tales quibus sit bello 
(ad bellum) vivida virtus. 

755; The founder of a city having his toga 
folded in a peculiar manner, part being 
thrown over his head, and part pasaed 
round his waist Like a girdle (cinctu Gabino), 
marked out the limits of the town by a 
furrow, carc being takeii that the clods '>f 
earth sliouid all be turned inwaida, and rliai 
i tlie plough sliDuld be carrfed ovcr thc place' 



b. v. ; 



NOTES OS 1 1 1 1: -KNKII). 



: . v 






where gates were to Le placed Thc wood- 
cut represents the Cinetus Qablnu& 




755. IIoc Tlium, et hcee luca Trojam — ifie 
town he ealls Ilium, the surroundiug dis- 
trict Troja. 

75S. Indicit forum. As indicere ia a 
foronsic term, this seems to mean that he 
put lbrth laics, and having called the sena- 
tora together, proposed these laws for their 
adoption. This is Heyne's view; but Wagn. 
thinks that the last ciause means, " he de- 
fined to the senators the nature of their 
office, and the character of its duties.*' 

750. The poet feigns that the famous 
temple of Veuus on Mt Eiyx waa the work 
of the Trojans, though it belonged to a much 
later period. 

Venus is called Idalia, from Idalium, a 
town, grove, and momitain iu Cyprus. 

761. A priest, with a sacred grove, 
(rifiivts;') is appointed to Anchises as a 
liero. 

762. Cf. 64, above, Kiiie days was a 
usual time for great ceremomes, such as the 
expiatory ofierings after the appearance of 
prodigies. 

763. Placiai, etc See note. 2£n. iil 69. 

764. Creber adspirans — "blowing fresh 
and favourable." 

• 768. For numen some editors read nomen, 
which makes admirable sc-nse. Others 
cothtm, and a few lumen; but that liere 
adopted has tlie best MS. authority, and is 
the ino^t poetical as well as thc most ditri- 
cnlt reading. Xumen uieans "the vcry 
120 



mighty, and very nutch to be drcaded 
power of tlie soa." 

772. Eryci— they sacrificc to Eryx as a 
hero, and at tbe same tinie as the tatelary 
dcity of Sicily from which they are setting 
sail, that tliey may propitiate his good wili 
and secure themselves froni Bhipwreck ou 
thc rock-bound coagt of his favourite island. 

77:J. Ex ordine — one ship after another, 
and onc at a tinie. 

774. On toxsce, sec abovc, 556, and onthe 
syntax ofeapitfdependingon tonsce, consult 
note, JEn. i. 228, and ii. 210. See Geo. iii. 21. 

776. On porricit, sce note 238, above. 

779. Observe how the poet amplil 
adorns his subject by the introduction of 
divine instrnmentality in circunistances 
where a historian would liave shnply stated 
that a fair wind bore iEneas and his asso- 
ciates to Italy. 

78L Nec requircs to be here resolved into 
its componcnt parts, et non. ExsaturabilU 
is a word found only liere, though exsatu- 
ratus is frequcntly employed. 

783. Dia is hore fem., since it indicatca 
no fixed term j it is masc. when it means a 
natural or cicii day. Pietas, i.e., the rever- 
ential conduct of iEneasin propitiating Juno. 

784. Infracta is the particip. of infringere, 
and means "broken down," Le., yielding — 
the adj. wfractus would signify "unbroken,' 
"unsubdued." 

785. Mcdia de gente, Le., media ex Troja. 
Exedisse, Le., confecisse, perdidisse. 

786. Traxe, for traxisse. 

792. /// regnis. The reason of the failurc of 
Juno's expectations is expre? ?ed in tliis line. 

794. After subegit Bnppry mettm ftlium. 

795. Terrae, gen.. or ratherthe dat. otplace. 
See Schmitz Lat. Gr. on the syntax of the 
dativc. 

796. Quod superest. (1,) Either to be 
joined with oiv, in this sense, "this only 
remains with me to beg you,'" cte. Or, (2.) 
which is bettor. it applies to the whole of 
the fleet. By this latter interpretation. we 
have a subject to dare and attingere, and tho 
roply of "Neptunc iu 813 becomes more ap- 
propriato. 

797. Tibi=per te, trsi=$ix tri. 
Thybrim Laurentem — so called as flowing 

past the walls of Laurentum. 

S00. Cytherea. See JEn. i. 257. 

801. Sape rders to the instance of Xc-p- 
tnne's interforence recorded in JEn. i. 1.1 
sqq., and probably to the other storms that 
visited JEneas. in the calming of which, 
however. the sea-god is not mentioned as 
taking an activc part. 

. his, and the following lines. refer 
to the battle of ^Eneas with Achilles, Hom 
II. xix. 79 sqq., 168 sqq.. from which arises 
that of the Scamandcr with Achflles hiin- 
self. 



t. V. 811-85 



NOTES ON '111 E .!•; N l ; 1 1 -. 



B. V. 827-84L 



Xanthus is thc samc as Scamander. 

811. Per/une Trojce — on account of tlic 
perfidy of Laomedon, who, aftcr promisea 
of liberal rewards for building '1 'n.y, de- 
frauded the gods of their rapuhtied re- 
compense. 

813. Portus Avcrui, i.c, Cumae, audtherc- 
fore Italy. 

Unus, i.e., Palinurus, introduced at S33, 
below. 

81G. Lcrta pectora permulsit— " soothed 
her heart so as torenderit joyful." Another 
instancc of tlic proleptic use of the adj., ou 
which sec iEn. ii. 73R 

H7. Auro, i.c, aureo jugo. 

820. A.vis. for curriis, is a very common 
synecdoche with the poets. 

822L 1 'arke com itum/aaes, for com ites varia 
facie et adspeciu. Cete — " monsters of the 
d?*iv' in attendance on Neptuue and other 
inarine deities. The Greek form of the word, 
ro y.7,ro:, plur. ra K-/,rr,, is used by other 
writers also, as Silius and Pliny. Some 
other words likewise are fonnd in this fortn, 
e.g., mele, Lucr. ii. 412, 504, and at v. 3G of 
the same author, pelage. More frequently, 
however, Roinau writera cmploy the masc 
cetus. 

823. Glaucus was a Boeotian fisherman, 
born at Anthedon : having eaten a cer- 
tain herb, he concelved an uncontrollable 
de.-ire to pxccipitate hiraself into the sea. 
which craving being compUed with, he was 
immediately transformed into a god. Meii- 
certa was the son of Atharaas and Ino, and 
grandson of Cadraus; his mother, flying 
with hiin from her enraged husband, flung 
herself into the deep, from which tirae both 
were reekoned sea deities, and worshipped 
by the Romans under the nanies Albunea 
and Portumnus (see above, 241), and by the 
Greeks, Leucothea and Pakemon ; see Geo. 
L 43T. Senior is an epithet applied towards 
almost all the sca gods. 

524. Triton, see JEn. i. 144, and abovc, 
20-3. Also on Phorcus, 240, above. E ver- 
citus, like cohors in 241, seems to mcan 
simply "a multitude." 

525. Tenet is the reading of most MSS. — 
the vulgar text has tenent. In phrases of 
this kind the plur. is used when several 
subjects are so introduced as that they are 
BUpposed to pertorm jointly and simulta- 
neously that which is tndicated by the verb 
of tirae; but the sing. is employed when 
several subjeets arc supposed to perform 
the same thing indicidualbj and in succes- 
sion, each in his own time and place, and 
with his own cxertion. In wliat manner, 
nowever, the matter is viewed, and what 
nomber, sing. or plur., is used, depends on 
tiie judginent of tlic writer, whom (if he be 
a poet) the necessities of the metre or othcr 
rcasous may influencc in his dccLsion: 



thna we miut depend entirely on MS. 
authority. 

Thetis, daoghter r.f Nereus and Doris, and 
mother of Achilles by Peleus. Melite, one 
of tlie Nereids. Panopea, sec abovc, 240. 
The others arc of Greck formation. Con- 
sult Class. Dict. 

827. IIic, " upon tliis," iEneas had becn 
anxious and doubtful beforc, but now in 
turn, vicissim, joy succeeds. 

828. Pertentant. See 2En. i. -302. Malot 
attolli — tlie inasts wcre lowered when near- 
ing harbour, but raised when the sea was 
smooth and the wind gentle and favourablc, 
Brachia, i.c, the antennae, "yard arms." 

830. The Pedes wcrc ropcs by which the 
lower corners of the sail were drawn towards 
the stern and side bulwarks. When tlifl 
wind was "right astern," both corners 
were drawn tight so as to afford a bosom to 
catch the breeze, and the vessel was thcn 
said currere ntroque pede; but if it were a 
side or veering wind, only one of the ropes 
was tightened at a time. So, we have liere 
the alternatc tightenhig and slackening of 
each side described: "At one and the 
same time they let go the sheets on the 
left, now (again) on the right." The wood- 
cut on 2En. iii 549 wiil illustrate this 
movement. 

832. Cornua. The knob-like cxtremities 
of the yards were so called. For other 
significations of cornua consult Dict., and 
see iiL 549. 

Torquent, detorquent — " they turn now in 
this direction, uow in that," as nccessity 
required. 

Huaflamina — "favouring blasts," a coni- 
mon use of suus. 

S34. Alii, i.c. ceteri. On Palinurus, son 
of Iasius, and pilot ofiBneas' lieet. see /Eiu 
iii. 202. 

835. Mediam metam—as tbc Meta, or 
turning post, was half of the course in the 
circus, so Xox is said to have finished hal/ 
her coorse when she has reached the zenilh, 

837. Sub remis — still abiding by the oars, 
but onemployed, as the favourable breeze 
rendered rowing unnecessaiy. 

Dura sedilia i.c, the transtra — " tlie 
thwarts." 

838. Somnus, the son of Night, and tlie 
brother of Death. The disaster of Pali- 
nnrus is introduced here, that the passage 
froin Sicily to Italy may not be without i:i- 
cident; and, moreover, tliat the I 
which traced the name of Cape Palinurus 
(Capo Palinuro) to tiie Trojan hero's death 
may not be omitted. The poet borrows 
from lloin. Od. iii. 278 sqq., wliere Phrotttis 
thc pilot of Menelaus loses his life iu a 
similar manner on tlie voyage. 

841. Insonti is placed with peculiar force 
as tl-c last word of thc scntence, and the 
127 



B. V. 842-857. 



NOTES ON TUE .EXEID. 



B.V. 858-87!. 



first of a line — it equals el quidem insonti. 
See iv. 237. 

842. Phorbas — a son of Priam of tliis name 
is mentioned in IL xiv. 490. Loquehts, Lc, 
verba. The word is rarely used, but seems 
to suggest the idea either of a vain attempt 
at eonversation, or of silly and trivial talk. 

844 uEquatce aurce, Le., breezes biowing 
•' right astern," neither on the one side nor 
on the other. 

S47. T7.r attoUens izmina — "scarcely able 
to raise his eyes" through the influence of 
sleep (Heyne); or rather " scarcc conde- 
Bcehding to raise his eyes," but uuinterrupt- 
ediy directing the hetin, without regarding 
Phorbas. 

850. On the reading of thi» line there has 
been much disputation among commenta- 
tors, for which see Forb. TransL, " For 
why should I entrust ^neas to the faithless 
. and that, too. (<?0 whenlhavebeen 
so often deceived by the treacherous appear- 
ancc of a cahu sky ?" 

853. Nusquam — you might expect nun- 
quam, but as that which takes place nowhere 
does not take place at all, nusquam is some- 
times used for nunquam, the idea of time 
being exehanged for that of place. 

Obscrve tlie last syllable of amittebat 
lensthened by arsis. 

855. Soporatum — this verb, which else- 
where is equa. to consopire, "to lifll to 
sleep." here means toenduewith the power 
of liuling to sleep, but iu this sense the perf. 
part- alone is used. 

B57. Primos=primum. But it is perhaps 



bctter to take it literally, "those lirnbs first 
lulled to slecp," reierring to the gradual 
approach of Som n us. 

858. £t=quum;thisis& poeticconstructiou 
which our author borrows from Homer. Cum 
puppis * * gubernaculo, Peerlk. and Gossr. 
think to be spmious, because, say they, if 
part of the ship, togcther with the tiller, had 
been carried away, iEneas and hls com- 
panions -\vould have heard, and ^neaa 
•vvould himself have taken the helm so soon 
as he discovered the loss of his steersman. 

801. Ales, Le., ceu ales, " bird-like." 

862. On the construction currere tter, see 
note, ^n. L G7. 

8C4. With this passage, cf. Hom. Od xiL 
39 sqq., and 160 sq. Consult Class. Dict. on 
Sirenes. 

865. Quondam — "sometimes," or " on a 
former occasion," referring tothat of Ulysses. 

866. Rauca is to be joined with sonabant. 
Assuluo sale, " by the constant lashingof the 
waves." The repetition of the letter s is 
supposed to be LntentionaL, to suggest the 
peculiar noise of the sea-wave washing 
against tl.e rock» 

869. Animum — "acc. of limitation or re- 
ferenco" aftev concussus; see JIjl L 228, 
and iL 210. 

870. The omission of ait or inquit in thia 
waiUng exclamation of iEneas, lends a d g- 
nity to the Unes, and removes them from 
among the common-places. 

871. Xudus — "unburied." In ignota arena 
-r-oneof the greatest misfortunes, accordiag 
to ancient opinion, which could belall a mau 




[The Siress.— From an EWuscan Sarcophagus.] 



B. VI. 



HOTES ON THE jENEID. 



C VI 




[Ceses, Pioto, ahd PsosEsrnrs.— MM. Denk. der Alt. Kumt.] 



BOOK SIXTH. 



ARGUMEXT. 



-lExExshavinglanded at Cumse immcdiately seeks the cave cf the Sibyl, and consults 
thcoracle: from it he leanis some partlculars of his dangers and farther labours (1-155). 
He performs funeral rites to the body of Misenus ; and while engaged In the preparations 
for this ceremony discovers the golden bough, which, as a gfit to Proserpina, would 
gain for him permission to pass to the Elysian shades, to meet and converse with his father 
Anchises. Provided with it and aecompanied by the Sibyl he reaches the entrance tr 
the infernal regions (156-336). On the hither side of Styx he meets the shade of his 
quondam pilot. Palinurus, and after receiving from him a detailed account of the cireum- 
I attending his death, he promises to perform to ldm the due obsequies on his 
return to eaith. and to erect a cenotapb (337-883). Crossmg the Styx, he traverses the 
district occupied by the spirita of infauts, and of tliose who liad been unjustiy put tj 
death, and enters that where wander in solitude ill-requited Iovers — tbeir own murderers. 
In this latter place he falls m with Dido, who, however, mdlgnantly declines a conversa- 
tion (384-47G). In tlie region of slain warriors, Deiphobus, among others, prestnts 
himself, all mangled as he was (477-534). He passes Tartarus on the rijrht, and is in- 
structed by the Sibyl in all the varieties of punishment which were infiicted on the 
grossly wieked in the abode set apart for them (535-627). He next reaches the palaco 
of I)is, and ha\Tng fixed the goldcn bough on the entrance. directs his course to the 
habitations^of the blessed, and, under the guidance of Musjcus, at iength rinds Anchises 
178). Having fully discoursed on the nature ofthe soul, its purification. and tho 
■ s nccessary to bring about final perfection. Anchises lays brieflv before ^Eneas 
the hUtory of the Koman Empire, •wbich nis posterity arc to fouud (679-888). On the 

129 



B. VI. 1-10. 



NOTES ON J JIE JCNEID. 



B. VI. 11-21. 



conclusion of tlie iuterview, our hcro and hls guide asccnd to earth again through 
the ivory gatc, the Sibyl departing to lier cave, and JEneas to his flect, which he moors 
at Caieta. 



1. Some copies attach this and the next 
line to the end of the Fifth Book, but the 
words obrertunt pelago pivras cannot bc 
separated from the foregoing verses, ezcept 
by a violent and unnatural brcak. Besides, 
sicfatur bxcrimans is, in itst.li", no improper 
coinmcncemcnt of a new book, and has, 
moreover, the sanction of Hoiner. Lr'. 11. 
vii. 1; Od. ix. L 

2. Euboicis Cumarum. Cttmae — a famous 
rity on the coast of Campania, abont six 
niiles north of Cape Misenum, foundcd 
jointly by the Chalcidians of Euboea, aiul 
the Cvmeans of Aeolis. See Bttnbunf, in 
Smith's Dict. ofGeog. Cf.iiL13L Tandem, 
••at length," referring to the tediousness 
ofyoyage. 

3. Obvertunl — "they tnrn the shipsronnd, 
aml direct their prows seaward, so as to be 
ready to start vvith greater ease and speed 
when dcparting on an outward voyage. 
Dente tenaci — "witb tenacious fluke." 

4. Fundabat, i.e., fundo aHigatas tenebat 
— "moored." Prcetexunt — "fringe," as a 
garment is bordered. Curvce puppes, i.e., 
the natural bend of the stern, togetherwith 
the curve of the aplustre contiuuing up- 
wards. On these naval terms, consolt 
Ramsay's or Adams' Antiquities. 

5. Emkat well expresses the life and 
energy displayed on the part of the youths, 
theword properlymeaningto "shine forth," 
"spark forth," or "dart forth." 

6. Besperium (iir*rif«s) means simply 
'wcstern." Italy was sometimes called 
Hesperia Magna, and Spain Hesperia Ultima, 
hy the Roman poets. 

& Rapit — "scour the woods, the close 
coverts of the wild beasts, [in search of 
watcr and game,] and point out thc newly- 
tound streams." Invenire — to find by acci- 
Uent, "to comeupon." Reperire — "to dis- 
cover by sewcA." 

9. In obedience to the order of Helenus, 
iii. 441 sqq., and of the sliade of Anchises, 
v. 731, sqq., iEncas proceeds to the vesy 
ancient templc of Apoll«j on the mountain 
[hcnce arces, aud altus Apollo], abovc 
Cumae, and to the cavern of the Sibyl at 
its base. 

10. On the Sibyls consnlt Smith's Dict. of 
Biog. and MythoL, andNiebuhr's Rom. Hist. 
Tlie most famous of these inspircd women | 
was slie of Cumce, variously called Amal- 
tbaea, Herophile, Demophile, and by Virgii, 
below, 3G, Deiphobe, the daughter of 
uUtacus; it wasiSe, according to tradition, \ 
who brought the prophetic bapks to Tar- ^ 
qiu:iius Superbus, thc frjigments of which, ' 
ai:, r ....; book.s Hiuiusclves had becn eon- 



sumed or lost in the buming of the capitol 
during the tyranny of Sulla, Augustus 
caused to be collected and preserved in the 

temple of Apollo Palatmus. 

11. Aniiiiiim — " the. soul with all its 
faculties." Mentem — '•thethinking faculty." 
See Dbdcrl. Lat. Syn. Apollo is calicd 
Delim from the island Delos, his rcputcd 
birth-place. 

13. Tricice, Lc., Hecatc, to whom the 
whole district of Avcrnus was sacred. 

14. There seems to havc been an ancicnt 
legond that Dsedalas was the builder of the 
templc of Apollo at Cumre. To him thc 
Sicifians and Italians referred all tlieii 
superior works of art, a jiroof that their 
knowledgc of scuhiture and architecture 
came from Crete. On Dsedahis and Minos 
consult Class. Dict., and cf. Hor. Od. L 
3,34. 

1G. AJ, Lc, versus Arctos — •' towards tl-o 
north." Heyne and Pecrlk. thoughtlessly 
found a dimculty in ad\ which they intcr- 
preted hterallv, as "reachmgto," "arrivmg 
at." 

15. Redditus — "restored to earth again 
at this spot," i.e., because this was the spot 
on which he first landed after his long wan- 
dcrings in air, he dedicated, etc It was 
customary for navigators to make an oflering 
to somc god on account of their preservation, 
and sometimcs in token that they aban- 
doned their formcr pursuits, they conscci atcd 
the impktnents of it to the deity, and sus. 
pended thcin in his temple. Remigium 
alarum — "the oarage of his wings," i.c, 
" his oary wings." So Milton says of tho 
swan, that ^lie "rows her state with oary 
feet" 

20. There follows a description of the 
carved or sculptured work on the gate >>f 
the templc And first is ropreseinvd the 
death of Androgeos (son of Mmosand Pasi- 
phac) at Athcns, an evcnt whichled to war 
between Cretc and Athens. Peaee was 
soon agreed to, on condition that seven 
young nicn and sevcnmaidensfrom Athena 
should yearly be sent to Cretc to be de- 
vourcd by the Minotaur. Read in connec- 
tion with this subject, the articles, Minos, 
Pasiphae, Androgeos, and Theseus in the 
Class. Diet. For Androgei some books read 
Androgco, the Gk. gen. Avlpbyia. This 
pcrson is not to be confounded with the 
Grecian hero mcntioned ii. 370. 

21. Cecropidce— the Athenians were sc 
called from Cecrops, an Egyptian, who 
accorduig to the common but now rejected 
legend, at a very early date (1583 B.C.), 
tviidueud a colony to Attica from S.tis in 



B. VI. 24-36. 



NOTES ON THE .ENEID. 



B. VI. 37-«9. 



Egypt Hc is callcd thc first king of Attica. 
Tum indicatcs transition to the second part 
of thc picture, thcpaymentofthe stipulatcd 
atonemcnt by the Athenians. Athcns and 
its public place wfll form the foreground; 
Crete appeared on the opposite side, raised 
in relief, with thc depression of the sca 
Oetween it and Athens. Septena— U by 
sevenB," "scven of eachkind." Staturnc— 
the urn is represented as standing near, 
as from it the lots had been drawn to de- 
cide who were to be selected as victims for 
the Minotaur. 

24. hic introduces a third scene, the un- 
natural (crudetis) love of Pasiphap, :he 
queen of Minos. Crudelis may refer to the 
story of Venusexcitinglove cruelly, merci- 
lessly, in Pasiphae, because she disclosed to 
Vulcan the unfaithfulness of his wife, the 
Goddess of Love. Supposta, contracted for 
%vppmita. 

•25. Mixtum genus — so Ovid calls the 
Minotaur, discordem fetum. 

20. Veneris monumenta nefanda; — "the 
mcmorials of an accursed lust." Inest — " is 
represented." Venus for amor, as Vukanus 
for ignis, Mars for praelium, etc. etc. 

27. Hic, as a fourth scene, is depicted the 
Labyrinth, "that laboriously constructed 
retreat, and inextricable maze," made by 
Daedalus for Pasiphae, that in it she might 
conceal the monster Minotaur. In Hom. 
II. xviii. 592 sqq., Daedalus is said to have 
arranged, for the gratification of Ariadne, a 
chorus or dancc, whose eyolutions imitated 
the windings of the Labyrinth. 

29. Here again Daedalus appcars unra- 
velling the mysteries of the Labyrinth. by 
giving to Theseus a ball of thread*by which 
hc should direct his steps. Reginae=regis 
tiliae, viz., Ariadne. 

30. Caca vestigia—'- hia blindiy planted 
footsteps." Read in Class. Dict the his- 
tories of Theseus and Ariadnc. 

31. Icare. Consult Class. Dict. Thefate 
of Icarus in his too daring flight is well 
known. Si is omitted before sineret. Wiio 
will not think of the lines of Horace, Od. 
iv. 2, 1. 

Pindarum quisquis studet aemuhai, 
lule, ceratis ope Daedalea 
Nititur pennU, vitreo daturus 
Nomina ponto. 

33. Quin protinus, xu) p,hv x.ui, "and 
indeed they would have carefully exainined 
all the objects portraynL" Omnia is to be 
pronounced omnja by synizesis. 

30. Deiphobe Glauci — Glaucus waa a pro- 
phetic seadeity (Geo. iiL 207), and therefore 
the Sibyl, Deiphobe, is not improperl; 
his daughter. Mr Holdsworth endeavours 
to makc out that Deiphobe and the Sibyl 
were entirely different personages, but his 
reaaoning is not considered conciusive, 



37. Ista spectacula — "those sights that 
you are examining;" iste having ahvays re- 
ference to the 2d pers. 

39. Bidentes—see JEn. iv. 57. 

42. Euboicce rupis — the rocky hill of 
Cumae, which, as said before, was aEuboe- 
an colony. The temple of Apollo was on 
the suromit of the hill, and the grotto 
(alta templa) of the Sibyl lower down its 
side. There were many subterranean 
passages (aditus) by which they came to 
the doors (ostia — or ora, 53—orfores, 47), 
forming the entrances to the cave iu the 
heart of the hollow mountain. Centum — a 
defmite number put for an mdefinite. 

45. Poscere, viz., in prayer. Deus, ecce, 
deus— she felt the influence of the god per« 
vading her frame. 

47. Unus, i.e., " the same asbefore." 

48. Non comptoe — the hair, though 
trimmed, was allowed to flow free during 
the time of the sacred rites ; but now, under 
the inspiration of the deity, it becomes 
wildly disordered and tossed abont. 

49. " Her bosom heaves, and her heart 
swells with the wild frenzy of inspiration ; 
moreover, she appeared taller to the view, 
nor did her accents seem those of a mortal, 
seeing that she was inspired by the now 
more immediate influence of the god." 

52. Cessas — " do you delay." Attonitce — 
the adj. is transferred from the persons 
awe-struck to the inanimate object itself. 

58. ^Eacidce, i.e., Achilles — see 2En. i. 99. 

59. Duce te — see iEn. iiL 154 sqq. All 
circumstances are here magnified, so that 
the Massyli (on whom consult note, iEn. iv. 
132) and the regio Syrtica (iv. 41) are put for 
the placcs in hnmediate proximity to Car- 
thage. 

61. Prendimus— an emphatic word, "we 
hold in our grasp," as it were. 

62. "SofarletTrojanfortune (i.e., adverse 
fortunc)'have followed us;" Le., by implica- 
tion, " but now let good fortune bless us in 
the rest of our undertakings." 

04. Vos — dique deceque — thc deities more 
cspecially hinted at are Juno, Minerva, and 
Neptune. 

06. The adj. prxscius is found with a gen. 
in Val. Flacc.,Tacitus, and clsewhere. 

<■!. Vates, da considere—the superstition 
of the ancients usually attributed to the pro- 
phet the power of ordering according to 
his pleasure and bringing to accomplish- 
ment those tliings which he himself forctold. 
Teucros is much more emphatic than nos, 
and the mention of the Penatea increases 
still farther the solemnity of the appeal 

69. Servius thinks that in this line Virgil 
1k d rcference to tlic tcmple of Apollo, built 
on the Palatine by Augustus, so that iEneas 
lnli.ls his vow by the instrumentality of hia 
Ulu:-trious descendant. 

iai 



E. VI. 70-9& 



NOTES OX THE iEXZID. 



B. VL 91-1C7. 



70. Festot dtei — tl. _ 

tuted in 212 b.c, a_d ce_ebfat_d c_. 
July each year, under the direction of the 
Praetor urbanus. Observe the zeugma in 
instituam, "I shall build a temple, and ap- 
point holydays." 

71. This and the following lines refer to 
the Sibylline books and their preservation, 
first in the capitol, and afterwards in the 
temple of Apollo on the Palatine, to which 
they were removed by the order of Augus- 
tus. The college of priests appointcd to take 
charge of them consisted originally of tico, 
which number was increased in b.c. 369 to 
ten (half being patricians and half plebcians 
after the year b.c. 367). Sulla farther in- 
creased the number toffteen, whence they 
got the name Quindecemviri sacrorum. 

77. Patiens Phcebi — "no longer able to 
endure the inspiration of the god." The an- 
cients believed that the human body was 
unable to endure the divine will and influ- 
ence, and that it became subject to spasms 
and convulsions while under the direction 
of the deity. Immanis is to be joined vrith 
bacchatur. 

79. Excussisse is an o.orist=quam celer- 
rime excutere. The metaphor continued 
throughout these two lines is taken from 
the training of horses. 

80. fingit premendo — " by curbing, 
moulds her to his vrill." 

81. Ostia. Heyne _ explanation of this 
passage seems the correct one. "The 
Sibyl vrith __meas, had already passed 
through the aditus (43), or subterranean 
passages leading to the shrine, and there- 
fore they are now in antro (77), not having 
yet reached the limen and/om (4-5 and 47); 
the doors (ostia) of these, however, now 
Epontaneously open, after the offering of 
the prayers, and while the prophetess en- 
ters into 'the holy of holies,' and thence 
utters the responses, iEneas remains with- 
out before the entrance." 

S4. Terrae is found in the best editions 
instead of the vulgar reading. terra, ie.. in 
terra. Pericida is to be understood before 
it, so that the meaning will be, " You have 
indeed exhausted the perils of the sea, but 
the more serious dangers of the land await 
you." Lavinium. by anticipation, aa the 
town was not yet built. 

S6. Sed, etc. " But they shall wish, too, 
that they had not come." The reason im- 
mediately follows: bella, etc. 

8S. Dorica cctstra—scc iEn. ii. 27. Thy- 
trim — see ii. 781. 

89. Alius AchiTlcs. viz., Tm /uts, son of the 
nymph Venilia, daughter of Daunus, a hcro 

;-; hence dea, She was a sea dcity. 
Lai;o-=in Latium. 

90. Aec. "Nor will Jnno, who perse- 
cutes the Trojans with ir" 

ceaso to haraes you." Addittu docs not 

m 



. notion is easily sugge_:ed 
by it to the reader who knows of the wrath 
of Juno against the Trojans. 

91. The narrative beginning with cum ia 
suddenly broken off ; the sentence conclud- 
ing with an exclamation. Such an inter, 
ruption of the syntax is called an anacolou* 
thon (freely translated a "blunder"), on 
which see note, iEn. i. 237. 

92. Quas gentis Italum — see iEn. viii. 
126 sqq., where /Eneas begs help from 
Evander and the Etruscans of Agylla, or 
Caere. 

93. Conjux, i.e., Lavinia, the daughter of 
Latinus, whomTurnus claimed in marriage, 
and who thus became the cause of war. 
Eospita, Le., not a Trojan. Iterum is pro- 
perly used, for, "like another Helen, she 
fired another Troy." 

9"\ Audentior — some copiesread audacior, 
but the former ia preferable, since it conveys 
an idea of praise and commendation, while 
audax signifies, "fool-hardy." 

96. Quam=quantum — "asmuchas," "as 
far as," Another reading is qua, which, 
however, has little MS. authority. 

97. Graia ab urbe, Le., PaUanteum, on 
the Palatine Mount, built by Evander and 
a colony of Greeks (Arcadians). iEneas 
received a contingent from it against Tur- 
nus and the RutulL 

99. Ambages — obscure, entangled expres- 
sions, by which matters are not clearly 
indicated, especially used in reference to 
the responses of oracles. 

100. Ea — "such," "sopowerful." Wagn. 
refers ea to the foregoing words, obscuris 
vera involvens, so that the meaning is, 
"Apollo so restrains (puts such a restraint 
upon) the excited heart of the Sibyl that she 
cannot declare the plain truth," etc. 

101. Stimulosver-tit — "andwithcontinued 
stroke applies the spurs deep inherbosom." 
When the spur is once plunged in and 
fixed, we can stimulate only by moving 
and turning it about ; thus Apollo does not 
repeat the blow, but, by keeping live the 
influence of his first instigation, maddens 
the priestess, rendering her frenzied and 
incoherent. 

105. Pro?cepi — "I have anticipated in 
thought," viz., from what Helenus had de- 
clared, iiL 458, and Anchises had warned 
him of, v. 730 sqq. 

106. Quando, for quandoquidem. 

107. Tenebrosa palus Acheronte refuso — 
" the darksome lake made by the overflow- 
iugs of Acheron ;" or it may be put for palus 
Acherontis refusi — " the lake of Acheron 
boiling up and overflowing." In the neigh- 
bourhood of Cunne was the palus Acherusia 

! (Lugo di Fusaro), which Virgil mentions 
I to note thoee places by which there waa an 
1 flrrrooxh to the Infemal world— not, how- 



B. VI. US-13T 



XOTES ON THE JEXEID. 



B. VI. 138-186. 



ever, by the lake, but by a cave in the 
vicinity. Htyne. 

118. Ilecate. See above, 35. On Avcrnus 
consultNote, JEn. iiL 336. 

119. Sipotuit may be joined to miserere, 
or another member may be supplied, thus: 
" Why may not I also go to the shades?" 
Heyne. Jahn proposes to mako Et mi 
genus db Jove summo (123), the apodosis, 
thus: "If Orpheus was able, etc., (I also 
have a right for) my descent, too, is from 
Jove supreme." On Orpheus and Eurydice, 
Pollux, Theseus, and Hercules, consult 
Class. Dict 

122. It viam. On this construction see 
note, JEn. L 67, and LLL 191. 

126. Anchisiada — the voc. forrned on the 
Latin model. Many copies give Ajflthisiade, 
the Greek form. 

Averno. for ad or in Avernum, Avernus, 
meaning in this place not the lake, but the 
regions of the dead Several copies read 
AvernU wbich Wagner believes to have 
arisen from some grammarians who dkfhot 
know that substs. (as descensus from de- 
scendo) are frequently construed in the same 
way as the verbs from which they are 
formed. 

129. JEquus, Le., propitius — " Jupiter in 
tiis kindness." 

131. Tenent media * * airo. Thesewords 
are found fault with by Wagner, as implying 
an absurdity; the things, he says, which 
make egress difficult, reuder ingress equally 
irksome and laborious; nor is there any 
evident reason why one should find it 
impossible to retum by the way through 
which he entered. In reply tothis, Peerlk. 
says, " Imagine a subterranean labyrinth. 
The mouth is wide — there is at first no 
darkness — the light of day follows tlie tra- 
veller for some distance down the tunneL 
The wayfarer, however, gets gradually 
benighted amidst windings of the path, 
woods, and meandering rivers, so that he 
finds it impossible to retrace his steps." The 
mention of silvae is suggested by the woods 
surrounding Lake<Avernus. 

132. Cocytus — one of the -rivers of Hades. 
See Class. Dict. 

133. Cupido innare. On this construction, 
see note, iEn. iL 350, and v. 638. Innare is 
nsually followed by a dat, but here, and at 
viiL 651, Geo. ii. 451, etc, with an accus. 
See note, Mn. L 67. 

135. Insanus, like our "mad," is used to 
express thc enonnous magnitude and folly 
of a plan. 

137. Aurevs, etc. "On a shady tree 
there hangs a bough, concealed from gazo, 
goldcn in its leaves and pliant stem." Tho 
refcrenco is to the goldcn rod of Mercury, 
th^: soul-conductor. Heyne refers it to tho 
tastratlons made by boughs dlppcd ln pure 



water, in the mysteries. See :iXccCto(boie.' 
in Smith's Dict of Antiq. 

138. Junoni infernce, i. e., Proserpine. 
Sacer dictus, Le., dedicatus, in which sense 
dico itself is often uscd. 

1 11. Avricomosfetus— u its golden-foliaged 
progeny," i.e., the s?wots, not the fruit 

142. Hoc—hcc ipsum. Suum=sibi pro- 
prium. 

145. Rite to be joined with carpe. 

149. TheunburiedJi nes wandered abou! 
Styx: but when the funeral rites were 
performed, they gamed admission to the 
company of Shades. The purificatory of- 
ferings, the description of which followa 
(153), was not so much to purify the fieet, 
as to appease the Manes, whom he is about 
to visit. 

| 150. Incestat — "defiles," "pollutes-" Fu- 
1 nere means the dead body here. 

152. Sedibus, Le., in the tomb. 

153. Sunto. Let these expiatory offer- 
ings be previously (prima=primum) pr»- 
sented. 

159. Figit vestigia is more than ponere 
vestigia, since the former signifies to walk 
slowly and steadily, as if engaged in reflec- 
tion. 

160. Heyne pronounces Virgil to have 
been "nodding" here, in thathe forgets the 
recent death of Palinurus, when he represents 
^Eneas as m difficulty to discover whose 
the corpse might be. 

164. JEoliden, son of the Trojan Aeolus. 
who was slain in battle, xiL 542. 

165. Prcestantior ciere. On this construc- 
tion, see Kritz SalL Cat, 82, 24, and Jug., 
46,5. 

17L Forte— "as it happenei" Demens. 
r/iTios of Hom. 

172. It was a mythic way of denoting ex- 
cellence in an individual, that he who was 
distinguished for any accomplishment was 
said to challenge the deities, and to provoke 
their hostility. Thus Thamyris and the 
Sirens vied with tho Muses, Marsyas with 
Apollo, and Arachne with Minerva. 

177. Aram sepukhri, callcd an ara be« 
causo shaped like an altar. Ara, indeed, 
was the base serving to place something 
upon, as here it is the rogus on which the 
body is to be btirned. Sec woodcut iv. 495. 

180. Piceee — which trees, on account oi 
their resinous nature, would be especially 
useful for the pyre. 

182. Montibus, Le., de montibus. W>_ 
excuses the omission of tho Praepos., al- 
legingthat advolvunt montibus ornos is eqnal 
to advolvunt ornos montibus devohentes. 

184. Accingitur, Le., se accingtt. Armis, 
Le., securibvs. 

186. Forte is tho reading adopted by 
Wagn. instcad of voce, the cc 
on tho ground thtit roc« prt 



B. VI. 187-214. 



NOTES ON THE ^ENEID. 



B. VI. 22i-239. 



indicatcs a loud and di^tinct utterancc, 
which is nnsuitable to the present case. 

187. Si, Lc, Si, utinam. Arbore—*in 
aliqua arborum. Wagn. thinks Virgil 
would kave written in arbore had nemore 
in tanto not followed. 

193. Maternas aves. Doves were sacred 
to Venus, whenoe Ovid, Jlet xv. 386, calls 
them Cythcreiades. 

197. Vestigia pressit — checked his steps. 
This expression is not to bc confounded 
with premere vestigia alkujus, whichmeans 
to tread in the same footskps, which one 
going before has made in the ground. 

19S. Quae signa — " What kind of an 
nugury." Servius, "In what direction 
they (the pigeons) gc, and what coursfe 
they indicate to iEneas to pursue." Peerlk. 

199. " They, stopping at intervals to feed, 
flew only so lar in advance as that the 
eyes of those following could keep them in 
view." 

200. Possent— the subj. is used to signify 
ihe design of the doves in acting as just 
stated (or of Venus who sent them). 

202. ToJlunt se ceJeres— they fly aloft to 
avoid the noisome exhalations of the me- 
phitic Avernas. 

203. Optatis— "wished for" by JEneas. 
Gemina is read by Wagn., Jahn, Forb., 
Etc, instead of the vulgar gemince. The 
^pithet is applied to the tree, on account 
[>f the two different characteristics which it 
/resented in the goJden bough, and in its own 
r.atural green brancJi. Heyne thinks that 
the stem consisted of two parts at the base, 
tut that these united towards the top. 

204. "Whence the gleam of the gold dif- 
fering from that of the tree showed clearly 
through the branches." 

205. QuaJe, ete. "Just as in the woods, the 
misletoe, which its own tree does not pro- 
duce [by its own seed]. is wont to bloom with 
new foliage, amidst the winter cold, and to 
enrich the tapering trunks with its yellow 
lhoots."Anthon. The seeds of the misletoe 
are deposited in trees by birds. The leaves 
are green in winter, but its stalks and 
Bhoots are of a yellow or saffron hue. 

Brumali from bruma, quasi brevima, Lc, 
lrevissi?na (scil. dies), the shortest day. 

215. Ingentem — cf. 17S, above, coeJo edu- 
cere certant aram sepukri. The height 
of the pyre indicated, in some degree, the 
rank of the individual deceased. 

216. Feralis, from fero, applies to every- 
thing connectcd with funerals. The smell 
of the cypress, while burning, kept down 
the disagreeablc odour of the dead body 
under the action of the flames. 

21 S. Undaniia suggests the idea of the 
water bubbling as it boils, Exp>ediuni, 
" get ready." In connexion with this pass- 
age read "Funeral Rites in Roman Anti- 
quities," Raiiisay or Adanis. AVe Jiave, in 

134 



the tcxt, a brief summary of the pnncipul 
ceremonies on such occasions. 

221. Nota velamina — either garments 
which, when alive,he hadused — "hiswonted 
attire;" or " those customary coverlef»,"Lc, 
used in fuuerals. It is likely that the poet 
in this mention ofpurpureas vestes followed 
Homer, Od. xxiv. 59. 

222. Subiere feretro. Whcnthisverb sig- 
nifies "to approach a placc," it governs tl.e 
dat,butin such a sensc as that here, usualiy 
an acc The woodcut represents an ancient 
bier. 




223. Triste minklerium is in apposition to 
subiere feretro. More parentum — " after the 
fashion of their ancestors." Congesta — " col- 
lected," for each Lndividual of the people 
brought his gift. 

225. Dapes—" flesh of the victims" slain 
in sacrifice. 

Crateres. Sersius asserts tliat when per- 
forming sacred rites to the hifernal gods, the 
ancients were in the habit of throwing the 
vessels themseives, as well as the libationa 
they contained, into the fire. 

226. This line is closely translated irom 
Hom. IL ix. 212. 

227. BibuJus is used of anything which 
readily sucks in nioisture. 

228. Corynceus is nientioivd againix. .571- 
After the funeral there foiiows the solcmn 
lustration. 

229. CtrcumtuJit socios v.nda is an unusual 
expression for aquam, circum socios tuJit. 
Wagn. Compare x. 243, ambiit oras auro. 

230. The olive is called/t ft.r, from its fruit- 
mlness, and from its use iu sacrcd rites. 
while the oJeaster is called infeJix. 

231. Novissima verba—sec i£n. iv. 650 
and cf. iL 644. 

233. Imponit, as applied to sepuJcJirum, 
arma, etc, is an instance ofzeugma. "Ha 
raised over him a tomb of extraordinary 
size, and on it lays," ctc 

234. The promontory Misenum (Punta di 
Miseno) in Campania formed the northern 
pier of the modern Bay of Naples. The part 
of the baynear this headland waseanverteJ 
by Augustus into aharbour, and becamc tJic 
naval station of the Eoman fleet on the Mare 
Inferum, as Ravenna was on the Mare Su- 
perum. 

238. Tuta— "guarded," "diflicult of ac- 
cess." 

239. Quam super, etc See note. JEn. iil 
386 and 442. Volantes is to bc takcn suh» 
stantively. 



B. VI. 242-27S 



NOTES ON TIIE JSNEID. 



13. VI. 279-287. 



242. Tliis linc is omitted altogcther by 
some editors, and marked with asterisks, 
as doubtfuL by others. It is not fonnd in 
tlie best MSS. External and internal 
tvidence are both against it 

243. Nigrantes terga. On this acc of 
reference or limitation, see note, JEn. L 
228 and ii. 210. Invergit^infundit. 

245. Yictims were consecrated to the 
gods by a libation of wine being poured on 
the forehead, and by some piles of hair 
being taken from the same place, and 
burned, as a kind of uvupxui. 

247. Potentem Coelo et Erebo. Hecate 
had power in Coslo, as being Luna there. 
See iiL 680, and iv. 511. 

250. Matri Eumenid, Le., Nox. her great 
sister being Terra. 

2-32. Stygio regi, i.e., Pluto. JSolida vis- 
cera— "the entire carcase." On viscera, 
see JEx\. i. 211. 

255. Primi solis, ie., orientis— morning. 
The time occnpied with these rites, is from 
midnight till morning. 

257. Juga silvarum — "the summits of 
the wooded heights." Canes— the Stygian 
dogs. Ululare is an onomatopoeic verb, and 
has almost the same stem m Greek, Latin, 
English, etc. Visce ululare — "seemed to 
howl," for he did not see them. Dea, Le., 
Hecate. 

258. Heyne finds a difficnlty in the plur. 
profani, because ^Eneas had no companions 
on the journey, but the plain answer to 
this great cornmentator is, that the poet is 
using a common formula, which, in Greek, 
ia, ixu;, ixu;, irrs (Zifinkei. 

264. The unexpected introduction of a 
prayer to the infernal deities is happily 
made, and helps to excitc the mind, and to 
imbue it with a sacred awe. 

265. Chaos and Phlegethon. See Class. 
Dict. Chaos was father of Nox and Ere- 
bus. 

266. Numine veslro — "with your sanc- 
tion." 

268. Obscuri — the epithet properly applied 
to the shade, or night, is transferred to the 
'tidividuals enveloped in darkness. 

2G9. Vacuas — " desolate." Inania — 
' peopled with shades." 

273. As the ancients adorned their halls 
and conrts with statues and images, so 
Virgil decks the entrance to Orcus with 
variou9 impersonations, which represent 
the things that are destructive to man, and 
hasten on his death. 

274. Cura;, "thegnawingsofconscience," 
well called ultrices. Quos diri conscia facti 
Mens habet altonitos ct surdo verbere caedit. 
Juvonal xiiL 193. 

276. Malesuada, '• that promptstocrhne." 
murder, plunder, etc. 

278. Sopor consanguineus Le(i — umof 



xutnywro; fatetroie, Hom. II. xiv. 231. 
So Hesiod, Theog. makes Nox the mother of 
Somnus and Mors. 

279. Mala mentis gaudia — "the joy of a 
mind which prides itsclf in guilt." Seneca 
believed that this referred to the doctrine of 
thc Stoics, which forbade indulgences in 
exultation of mind, or the reverse. On the 
Stoic Philos., see " Greek and Koman PhL\> 
sophy" (in Encyclop. MetropoL), p. 249 
sqq. 

Averso (adverso) in limine—va. the door- 
way to Orcus, opposite to the vestibirium 
already described. In limine, therefore, cor- 
responds to primis infaucibus Orci, 273. 

280. Ferrei, a dissyL by synizesis. Tha- 
lami has reference to the cells (as they were 
called) of the slaves who acted as janitora 
in Eoman houses. Wak, Discord, and 
Fup.ies well represent the instigators to 
blood and death, the replenishers of Orcus. 
In 570, however, Tisiphone, witli her sisters, 
Alecto and Megaera, is placed in the ap- 
proach to Tartarus. These three ladies 
(the Furies) are also assigned a third loca- 
lity in xiL 849, where they are said to be 
found inlimine regis Jovis. These contra- 
dictions it is difficult to reconcile, except on 
the supposition that the poet follows difter- 
ent myths in different parts of his work. 
The Furies are Eumenides (svfittsTs) by a 
euphemism, as the mischief-delightJng/atrtes 
are called by thc superstitious, "The good 
people." 

281. Crinem innexa. 0\\ the svntax see 
^n. L 228, and iL 210, note. The Furies, 
too, are represented with their locks inter- 
twined with snakes. 

282. This strange imaghiation is probabh 
taken from Hom. II. xiv. 2S6 sqq., which 
see. Cf. also Hom. Ocl. xxiv. 12. Servius 
distinguishes between two kinds of dreams 
— the true, which the gods send down from 
heaven, and the false, which come up from 
the lower regions. 

In medio, sciL vestibulo. 

285. The "hideous shapes," now men- 
tioned, are derived from the Greek and 
Etruscan religion. The funeral urns and 
vases, dug up in modem tiines, show this. 
See Aristoph. Banae, 143, 280 sqq., 475 
sq. 

286. The Centaurs, said to be sons of 
Ixion and Nephele, were really a pcoi>le of 
Thessaly, who, having been the ftrat to 
train wild horses and ride upon them, 
appeared to pcrsons looking on them ap- 
proaching from a distance to be horses in 
the lower part of the body and men above. 

Scyllce — marine monsters of a fish fonn 
in the lower extmnities and a human in 
the upper. See Ecl. vi. 74. 

287. ( ' '• ."icminus — "hundred-headed," 
or ,; hundred-handecL" See Ilom. II. L 402» 

135 



B. VI. 2S8-295. 



NOTES ON THE ^NEID. 



B VL 298-510. 



iKccToy^upo;. The word geminus, when 
combined with a numeral, loses its proper 
signification, and mcrely indicates junction 
of a number of things in one body. So 
Tergemini honores in Hor. Od- L 1, 8, means 
siraply "triple." Briareus or JEgaeon, the 
son of Ccelus and Terra was a monster with 
50 heads and 100 hands, -whom Jupiter 
employed to guard the Titans in Orcus. 
It is unnecessary to remarkthat these mon- 
sters, kept imprisoned imder ground, are the 
types of the violent powers of naturc, eaiih- 
quakes, volcanoes, etc. 

Bellua JUrnae. The hydra of Lake Lerna, 
in Argolis, slain by Hercules. 

288. Stridens is to be joined with bellua, 
since Chimcera has its own epithet 

Chimcera — offspring of Typhon and 
Echidna — a fire-breathing monster, whose 
fore part was that of a lion, the hmder part 
that of a dragon, and the middle that of a 
goat It was killed by Bellerophon, after it 
had ravaged the fertile Lycia and sur- 
rounding countries. The orighi of the fable 
may be found in the volcano called Chimeera, 
near Phaselis, in Lycia. 

289. The Gorgons, daughters of Phorcys 
and Ceto, were Stheno, Euryale, and Me- 
dusa; the last, the only mortal one, was 
killed by Perseus. See Class. Dict 

On the Harpies, see iEn. iiL 211. Some 
of the larger species of bats seem to have 
suggested the attributes of these deities. 

Forma tricoiporis umbrce, Le., Geryon, 
son of Chrysaor and Callirrhoe, king of the 
island Erythia, variously placed in the Sinus 
Gaditanus, or on the W. or E. coast of Spain. 
On account of his great strength, the 
ancients ascribed to him three bodies, six 
hands, and six feet Some say he was 
called the "three-bodied," from the cir- 
cumstance that he was king of the Bal- 
earic Isles and Ebusa. He was famed 
for the excellence of his oxen, which Her- 
cules carried off after having slahi their 
master. 

292. Sine corpore — without substantia- 
lity — mere shadowy outlines (li^uka) of 
b<>dily form (cava sub imagine formae). 

294. Instead of the two verbs of this line 
being in the pres. sub., we should have ex- 
pected to find them in the impeif. But the 
poet seems to have chosen the present, to 
bring the incident more vividly before the 
eyes of his readers. See note, iEn. i. 58, and 
consult Madvig, Lat Gr. § 347. 

295. Hinc, sciLincipit. Fromtheoutermost 
thresirdd of Orcus begins the road which 
teads, etc In the naming and arranging of 
the iufemal rivers, there is great diversity 
among ancient writers. Virgil makes the 
first Acheron, flowing into tbe Cocytus:— the 
third is Styx, the most remote. Phlegethon 
occurs 551, below. All these three surrouud 



Orcus, and even Elysium, so that those who 
would visit these rdgions must pass thein. 

298. Portitor, Le., Charon. The Homeric 
age did not know Charon, but the myth 
concerning him in later times was derived 
from the Egyptians, who, upon the death of 
an individuaL, performed certain ceremonies, 
which, in the ferry-boat, lake, judges, etc., 
were identical with those usually attribute^ 
to the infernal regions. 

299. Terribili squalore, Le., habitu inculto 
et sordido. Forb. So Tibullus calls him 
turpem ?iavitam Stygiae aquae ; Juvenal, 
tetrum Porthmea. The epithets trux and 
torvus are also applied to hhn by other 
poets. 

300. Stant luminaflamma — " His eyes are 
fixed and glaring," for, saysWagn., " Stan 
is often equal to rigere, horrere." 

301. Nodo — "aknot," or " a clasp"^6«7a, 
but this latter would be inconsistent with 
the rest of the appearance of the ferryman, 
or rather tollman, portitor being derived 
from portorium, and not from portare. 

302. Velis ministrat— either "perfonns 
the necessary service to the sails," ministrat 
being equal to ministerium praestat, or ra- 
tem may be again supplied as the acc. after 
ministrat. 

304. Senior—the Romans called those per- 
sons seniors who had passed 45, but had 
not reached 60 years of age. Cruda — " un~ 
tanned" literally, Le., "hale," "fresh." 
Viridis, Le., vegeta, "green old age." The 
Greeks said vpov yripus. 

305. Huc — ad ripas. The practice of add- 
ing to adverbs of place a substantive clause 
in apposition for more distinct explanatiou 
is entirely Virgilian. Cf. EcL i. 54. 

306-308. These verses are quoted from 
Geo. iv. 475 sqq., where see notes. On mag- 
nanimum, see note v. 174 

309 sqq. These two comparisons are 
borrowed from Homer, the one from Od. ix. 
51, 52, and other places, the second from II. 
iii. 3 sqq. 

310. Lapsa caduni— "losing their hold, 
fall," for labi denotes the first giving way 
and cadere the final coming to rest There 
is therefore no pleonasm in the use of the 
words. Ad terram — " landwards." Trans- 
late from 305 thus : " Hither, to the banks, 
the whole crowd (of ghosts) was rushing in 
eager swarms (matrons and men, and high- 
spirited heroes who had finished their career, 
boys and unwedded maidens, and young 
men laid on the funeral pile during the life- 
time of their parents) in munbers countless 
as the leaves, which, dropping, fall in the 
forests on the first chill of autumn ; or many 
asthe birdswhich, from the deep abyss, flock 
to land when the whitry season drives them 
to migrate over s<.«. and settle in suimy re- 
gions." 



B. VI. 311-333. 



NOTES ON THE .ENEID. 



B. VI. 345-373. 



311. FHgidus aimus—" the cold season of 
tlie year, Le., winter." So "pomifer dnnus," 
" the apple-bearing part of the year," i.e., 
autumn. Burm. reads amnis instcad of an- 
tius, and would refer it to the Strymon, on 
whose banks immense flocks of cranes as- 
eembled previous to their departure for 
Italy. 

313. Oranles transmittere, Le., ut sibi hceat 
Iransmittere. The infin. after verbs oidesir- 
ing, longing, asking, etc, usually refers to 
him who is asked to do something, but here, 
and in EcL iL 43, it refers to him who begs 
to be allowed to do something. Examples 
of this construction arevery rare. See ix. 23L 

314. Amore, i.e., desiderio — " longing." 
Having tliis place in view, Quinct. calls 
Ufe after death, statio ulterioris ripae. 

316. Arcet submotos, Le., by a kind of 
hysteron proteron, "removes and keeps 
offi" Cf. ^En. LL 353. 

320. Linquunt ripas, viz., after being re- 
fused admittance to the boat. . 

321. Olli— antique form : see ^En. L 254. 
Longceva— the story is, that Apollo, being 
enamoured of the Sibyl, granted her to live 
as many years, as the grains of sand num- 
bered which she could take up in her hand 
at one grasp. 

322. Certissima— "most undoubted," if 
we may be aliowed such a superlative. The 
jiberty of visiting the infernal regions was, 
we saw in 130, a proof of divine origin. 

Deum—& plur. for sing, as in JEu. L 4, 
where see note. Venus is meant. 

324. Jurare et falkre. Critics detect a 
hendiadys (see iiL 148) in this place, which 
they say is for pejerare, but such an ex- 
planation is not ordy unnecessary, but, in our 
opinion, it weakens the force of the expres- 
eion. 

325 Inops — "helpless." No one will per- 
form funeral rites to them on earth. 

327. Datur, sciL CharontL 

330. Admissi revisunt — they arc admitted 
to the boat on thcir return, and thus reach 
the wished-for shore. 

334. Leucaspim — this is the favourite form 
of the acc. of such words with Virgil ; he 
uses tn (Daphnin) in only oue passage, EcL 
v. 62, and there he is compelled by the ne- 
cessity of the raetre. 

Orontes — hewhose death was recorded in 
^n. L 113, where, however, Leucaspis is 
flot mentioned. 

337. Peerlk. considers the whole passage 
to 383 spurious, being, in his estimation, not 
worthy of Virgil ; but his arguments areby 
no means Bufficient to lead us to doubt its 
genuineness. On Palinurus, see cnd of Bk. 
v. The description is hnitated from the simi- 
lar character, Elpenor, in Hom. Od. xL 51 
»qq. 

338. Libyco cursu—ln the voyage from 
A/rica, in that part of it, however, which 



I was perfbrmed after leaving Sicily. Curiu 

| is cqual to in cursu, and does not depend cn 
etfusus. 

345. Fines — on the syntax of this acc see 
notc, J&n. i. 2, 307. 

346. En, in questions expressive of irony 
or iudiguation, which approach rather to the 
character of exclamations, denotes strong 
feeling of mind, as longing and sorrow, 
wrath, etc. See Hand, Tursell. voL iL p 
371. Fides is constantly used by the poets 
for the issue or fulfilment of a prophecy. 

347. On cortina see note, ^En. iii. 92. 
and Illustration there. 

348. Deus — "any deity" (not Apollo), in 
reply to the question quis deorum in 341. 

350. Cui haerebam et regebam — for et quo 
regebam. For examples of similar omissions 
of the relaiive, see EcL viii. 3, 4 ; Gea iH 
282; iv. 8, 10. 

352. Pro me, instead of the more common 
de me, i>x'-? iftou. Me, the accus. before 
cepisse is omitted, since it is evident what 
the subject must be. 

353. Armis — "the tiller," nowhere elsa 
used of it alone. Excussa magistro, for uni- 
fomiity with spohata armis, instead of ma~ 
gistro excusso. 

357. Sublimis ab unda — Le., as he sat oii 
the gubernaculum which had been tom of£ 

359. Cumveste — either " together with my 
gannents, which were soaked as well as 
myself," or the cum is redundant, as it often 
is in the poets. 

361. Ignara — not knowing what chande 
had cast me into the sea, but supposing that 
I had been wrecked, and that I had conse- 
quently endeavoured to save as muchof my 
riches as possible, 

362. Me, Le., corpus meum. So Homer says, 
uutous & iXupia, riu%i, etc. Versant-~ 
the whids now drive the body in to shore, 
and now out to sea. Cf. Eurip. Hec. 28. 

365. His malis—i.e., that my corpse is 
unburied. Terram injice — not the simple 
ceremony of a handful of dust (see Hor. OcL 
L 28, 3), but regular funeral rites. 

366. 1 'dinos — by anticipation, as Velia waj 
not foundcd for a long thne afterwards. 
Vclia was a city of Lucania (called by the 
Greeks Elea, Le., FsXsa), between Paestum 
and Capc Palinurus, celebrated afterwards 
through the Eleatic philosopher Zeno and 
his followers. It was built in the time of 
Cyrus by the Phocaeans, whom that prince 
had expelled from their territories. For 
examples of similar prolepsis, see viiL 361. 

373. Dira— "mad, and uuable tobegra- 
tified." The adj. is used ln reference to all 
things which are severe, or dreadfid beyond 
measure. 

377. Cape memor—i.e., " listen to, and r»» 
member. 

378. A stoiy sunilar to that here told wa» 

137 



.B. VI. SSl-409. 



NOTES ON THE ^ENEID. 



B. VI. 410-422. 



related in ancient times, that the Lucanians, 
suffering under a plague and pestilence, con- 
sulted the oracle, and Avere answered that 
they must make atonement to the Manes of 
Palinurus for the injury inflicted on him. 

381. Palinurus— the"Cape is now called 
Punta di Palinuro. 

3S2. Parumper—"fov a short time." 
Emotce — cf. Hor. OcL iv. 1-5, 11, emovitque 
cutpas. 

354. Ergo— "therefore," "accordingly." 
The poets use this word to express an event 
which fiows from the antecedent circum- 
stances. Hand, Tursell. 

355. Charon is alarmed at the appearance 
of the heavy load which seems to await him, 
and takes care to let it he known at once 
that it Ls ghosts and not men that he ferries 
over. Ab unda, Le. from the middle of the 
stream. 

389. Jam istinc—"ihere now, speak from 
whereyou are." 

391. Nefas, sciL me. Soporce — "sleepfuL" 
Corpora viva — " the bodies of living men." 

392. Alciden, i.e., Hercules. It was stated 
by Orpheus that on the visit of Hercules, 
Charon, being terrified by his appearance, 
at once received him ; but the good-natured 
ferryman was punished for his slackness by 
one"year's imprisonment. 

393. Thesea, etc, see below, C17. 

394. Dis gcniti—Theseus from Neptune, 
and Pirithous from Jove. 

395. Tartareum custodem, Le, Cerberus. 

• 397. Ditis is governed in the gen. by tha- 
lamo, and not by dominam. 

398. Amphrysia — from the river Am- 
phrysus in Thessaly, near which Apollo fed 
the oxen of king Admetus. 

399. Absiste moveri, i.e., cease to be alarmed 
— drive away anger aud fear. 

400. Licet, le.,pcr nos, per JEneam. " For 
aught that we intend, the dread jauitor, 
barking in his cave through all coming time, 
may continue to terrify the sapless ghosts — 
for aught that we intend, Proserpina may 
.still abide in chastity in her uncle"s home." 
Patruus, an uncle by the father's side, for 
Proserpina was daughter of Ceres and 
Jupiter, and therefore niece to Pluto. Ser- 
vare limen — to remain at home, and not go 
abroad: to be a " good keeper at home" was 
a special recommendation to a Greek woman. 

407. Ex ira — "after her passion." So 
Xen. Cyr. L 4, 28, yO.uv ix ruv suTpotr^.v 
^ocxpvuv. Residunt is a verb used of the 
subsidence of a tempest-lashed sea, and is 
thence transferred to the stornis of the 
mind. ' 

408. Necplura his, sciL Sibylla addit. 

409. Eatalis virgce—of the bough which 
none could pluck bnt those to whom it was 
allowed by fate. 

138 



Longo post tempore, Le,, since the times of 
Hercules and Theseus. 

410. Cceruleam— theboat wasbefore called 
ferruginea, 303. 

411. Alias animas. This at first sight 
scems as good as the penny-a-liner's "Pro- 
vidence and another teoman." But the 
idiom is not uncommon in Latin and Greek, 
that, by akind ofattraction, the adj. assumes 
the gender of the word to which it is in ap- 
posifion, instead of being put in that gender 
to which it more properly belongs. Thus 
the sense is, " That he may be able to re» 
ceive iEneas, he thrusts aside the other 
passengers, icho icere ghosts." So Livy, iv 
41, says, eo missa plaustra jumentaque 
alia; and in v. 39 of the same author, circa 
moenia aliasque portas. 

412. Laxat foros — " clears the hatches." 
Le., unloads the boat. .<Eneas is called 
ingens in next line more in reference to the 
tiny boat than to his bodily size as compared 
with other men of the heroic age. AIvco — 
"the hold," the hollowed-out part. It i» 
scanned as two syllables by synizesis. (Sea 
^n. L 2). 

414. Sutilis — patched up either of leather 
or reeds, or other such material. Pahulem, 
Le., aquam paludis, as fons is put for agua 
fontis. On the epithet rimosa compare Lu» 
cian, Dial. Mort. 22, to $1 ffxctQlhov xon 
UTroffoc&fov \(r<ri xoci oiocppil roc troXXoc- 

415. Licolumis, i.e., incolumes. Jahn pro- 
poses to make it the uom., applying to the 
boat, on account of the smallness andfrailty 
of which such an adj. might not be unneces- 
sary. 

41G. Jn— joined oidy to the latter of two 
governed noims. See note v. 512. 

417. According to the ancient custom, a 
dog is placed at the entrance. Syde>'hau 
Palace will have rendered cave canem fami- 
liar to alL 

Trifauci — an adj. found only in this place ; 
it is furmed on the analogy oi" trifa.v, trilix, 
triceps, etc. 

Personat is followed here and at 171, above, 
by au accus. of the place which the sound 
penetrates. 

419. Cerberus rises against JEneas to 
prevent his advance, but the medicated 
cake lulls him to sleep. This idea Virgil 
borrows from the Argonautic poets, who 
relate that the dragon which guarded the 
golden fleece was thus overcome. Tlie 
neck of Cerberus bristled with suakes, in- 
stead of hair. 

420. Qffhm—a. cake, having in its cora- 
position honey, poppies, and other seeds 
and juices, whose effect would be to stupify 
and put to sleep. Observc fame (e long). 

422. Objicit — objectam. The poets, es- 
pecially Ovid, to hnpart more vividness to 
their narrative, often repeat the perf. part 



P, VI. 424-44.5. 



NOTES ON TIIE /KXEID. 



B. VI. 447-4C2. 



pass. of the vcrb of thc preceding olause, 
instead of the simple demonstr. prbn. Sec 

Ovid Fast iii. 21 ; Met. ix. 195. 

424. Scpulto, scil. somyio. Irremeabilis 
Is used as a gcneral epithet of the Styx, "a 
bournc from whlch no taveller returns," 
and does not refer to the ckcumstance of 
^Eneas not returning by the same way as 
that by which he descended. 

42G. Up to 540. we have a description of 
the first part of the lower regions, and in it 
we meet on the frontiers with those who 
have prematurely died. In limine primo, 
may mean "on the vcry threshold," i.e., 
the margin of the district; or, taking away 
the comma after primo, aud connecting the 
words with quos, etc, following, it may be 
interpreted, "Whom in the very opening 
of life," etc 

431. Reference is made in these lines to 
thejudicial proceedings of the Komans in 
capital cases. See "praetor" and "quaestor," 
in the Dict. of Antiq. w 

432. Minos, son of Jupiter and Europa, 
and brother of Rhadamanthus and Sarpe- 
don. He was so celebrated for his just rule 
over Crete, and for the excellence of his 
laws, tliat he was constituted judge in the 
nether world. Cf. Hom. Od. xL 56& 

Silentum. Cf. above, 264. 

433. Concilium — an assemblage of those 
who were to be examined and judged; not 
a council to deliberate. 

435. Insontes — guilty of no crime, but 
only tired of life, which they flung away as 
worthless (projecere). Instead of peperere 
some read reperere, but this lattcr perf. has 
the first sylL long. 

436. Quam vellent, etc Compare with 
this the remarkable declaration of Achilles, 
in OcL xi. 489 sqq. 

.438. Fas, usually applied to dicine and 
natural law, is here used of tlie jura in- 
ferorum. 

Inamabilis — "uninviting," by the figure 
" Lilotes, or Meiosis," for "detested," 
"abominable." 

440. The plains are rcpresented as extcn- 
sive, not on account of the multitude of oc- 
cupants which they are intended to receive, 
But in order that the ill-starred lovers may 
have in them that solitude which they de- 
sirc 

412. Quos. Some books read quas, on 
khe ground that women only are mentioned 
in the sequel. But doubtless Virgil intend- 
ed to represent men too as occupying these 
placcs, and indced Sychaeus is introduccd in 
474, below. 

443. Secreti— as solitude was desirable. 
Myrtea—tiic myrtle was sacred to Venus. 

445. Vliccdra, daughter of Blinos and 
Pasiphae, and wife of Thcseus; she slew 
berself for love ofher step-son Hippolytna 

Procris, daughter of Erechtheus, king of 



I Athens, marned to Cephalus, kingof Phocis, 
by whom shc was unwittingly slain in tl»o 
chase, when, moved by jealousy, shc had 
hid hcrself to observe lier husband's ac- 
tions ; cf. Ovid Met. vii. 672. 

Eriphyle, daughtcr of Talaus, and sister of 
Adrastus, who, being bribed by tlie gift of 
a golden necklace from Polynices, persuaded 
her husband, Amphiaraits, to go to the 
Theban war, where, being a prophet, ho 
knew he was to perish. She was slain by 
her son Alcmaeon for her treachery. 

447. Evadne, the wife of the Argive Capa* 
neus, who, when her husband had been 
slain in the Trojan war, threw herself on 
liis funeral pile and perished. 

Pasiphae, see above, 24. 

Laodamia, daiighter of Acastus, and wife 
of thc celebrated Protesilaus, who was the 
first to fall by a Trqjan spear (Hector's) on 
the landing of the Grecian fleet. She begged 
of the gods an interview with the spirit of 
her departed husband, and expired in his 
embrace ; cf. Lucian, DiaL Mort. xxiii. 

448. Caeneus — at first a woman (daughtei 
of Elatus, one of the Lapithae), under the 
name Caenis, but aftenvards, by the per- 
mission of Neptune, a man, with the changed 
iKime Caeneus, and with the privilege of 
being invulnerable. In the battle of tha 
Centaurs with the Lapithae, Caeneus, un- 
able to be ctherwise overcome, was suffo- 
cated by trees heaped upon him, and turned 
into a bird by Neptune, but compelled to 
assume the original female form after de- 
scending to Hades. 

451. Tliis episode of the meeting with 
Dido, in itself most touching and beautiful, 
is suggested by Hom. Od. xL 542 sqq. 
Quam — it is better to remove the comma 
after heros, so that quam is governed by 
tlie prep. juxta, though in a different line 
from it. This position lends confinnation 
to the first suggestion we havehazarded on 
line 684, Bk. iii. We thus avoid the dis- 
agreeable neccssity of accusing VirgU of an 
anacolouthon (Anglice "blunder"} which 
Wagn. suggests as thc solution of the diffi- 
culty which the syntax presents. 

454. Compare Milton. P. L, Bk. i. 

Faiiry elves, 
Whose midnight revcls, by a forest side 
Or fountain, some belated peasant sees, 
Or dreamshesees, while, overhead, the moon 
Sits arbitress, and, nearcr to the earth, 
Wheels her pale course. 

456 Nuntius, Lc, thc flamcs of the pyre, 
whicii the Trojans saw on thc evening of 
the day on which they loft Carthage. Somo 
suppose it to refer to the words of Mercury 
iv. 563. Ergo expresscs astonlahment 
combinedwitb grief, like our "Ali! then." 
459 Ffdes — pledge, or "bond of faith." 
462. Sentameaaa "rough withbramblos 



B. VI. 464-4S1. 



XOTES ON THE ^XEID. 



B. VI. 489-505. 



and thorns," and is opposed to levis. Situ 
expresses the filth, untidiness, mid squalor 
of uncultivated land grown over with wceds, 
thorns, and thickets. It thence comes to 
mean all kind» o.f nastiness generally. 

464 Hunc, £e., such as I now see ac- 
t ually influenced you ; que ne, for neve. 

Adspectu is the dative for adspectui. 

466. Quemfugis, — "Rather, howisitthat 
you flee from me. " "NVagn. ' ' Whom do you 
iiee from," Le., remember it is your lover 
himself, from whom surely there is no neces- 
sity that you should flee. 

467. Ardentem (agreeing with animum), 
sciL ira. Torva tuentem, vTfifa. llov<ra.v. 

468. Lenibat for kniebat, was endea vouring 
to assuage, etc, a meaning often bome both 
by the pres. and iinperf. 

471. Silex, on the gender and use of this 
word, consult Dict. 

Marpesia, from Marpesus, a Mi in Paros, 
famed for the great value and beauty *>f its 
marble. 

473. Pristinus conjux, her rormerhusband, 
Sychaeus, as opposed to iEneas, whom she 
looked upon as her second: or, shnply, with- 
out any such reference, " who had at a for- 
mer period been her husband." 

474. Curis, as well as illi, is the dat., as 
at v. 172, which see. Gossrau would take 
curis as the ablat., meaning, " by his solici- 
tous attentions." 

475. Casu iniquo — not the " cold treat- 
ment" which he had receivedfrom Dido, as 
some would have it, but the unhappy and 
unmerited fate of Dido, whose excessive 
grief he now feels fully alive to by her im- 
placable hatred and indignation. 

477. Datum — either " chance-given," or 
'• plainly indicated," or " permitted him by 
the fates." Molitur always imphes difficulty 
in the operation undertaken, as here iEneas 
advances in darkness through a dense wood. 
Arva ultima— the remote part of the dis- 
trict near the palace of Pluto, and close to 
Elysium and Tartarus. 

479. Tydeus, son of GEneus (king of Caly- 
don) and Periboea: he was the father of 
Diomede, so famed iu the Trojan war. 
Tydeus perished in the war of the Seven 
against Thebes. 

480. Parthenopaeus, an Arcadian, son of 
Atalanta by Meleager, or Milanio. 

Adrastus, king of Argos, son of Talaus 
and Lysimache, and father-in-law of Poly- 
nices. He was the only one of the Seven 
Chiefs that escaped from the Theban war ; 
the others, Polynices, Tydeus, Partheno- 
paeus, Capaneus, Hippomedon, andAmphi- 
araus being slain. 

481. Ad for apud, superos. The indi- 
fiduals mentioned in the succeedmg lines 

140 



are spoken of by Homer, some of them ou 
the Greek, and eome on the Trojan side. 

489. This passage, which exalts the va- 
lour of iEneas, is adumbrated in Hom. Od. 
xL 605. 

494. Heyne finds fault with this episode 
of Deiphobus, on the ground that there is 
no pleasure in contemplating a being mutil- 
ated in his limbs, and exciting our compas- 
sion neither by his bravery nor auy other 
circumstance. But it is urged in reply by 
Peerlk. that, next to Hector, Deiphobus was 
the most distinguished of the Trojans, and 
that moreover he was an intiinate friend ol 
^neas ; that his fate gave the poet an op- 
portunity of dwelling on the treachery and 
cruelty of the Greeks, a subject which ho 
well knew would be pleasing to his Roman 
readers. The narrative of the share wliich 
the perfidious Helen took in his death is 
calculated to be agreeable to the feelings of 
iEneas, whose anger had been so roused 
agaiust her (see iL 567 sqq.) as that he 
meditated imbruing his hands in her blood 
Besides all this, the scenes of bloodshed so 
conimon from the days of Marius and Sylla, 
to those of the Triumvirs, had habituated 
the Romans to such spectacles as Deiphobus 
presented, and we cannot doubt but that 
there were many Fulvias who could calmly 
contemplate even more disgusting sighti 
than that described. Compare Hom. Od 
xL 386, a passage which the poet seems to 
have had before his eyes. 

On atque, see Mn. iv. 261. And on the 
syntax of lacerum ora, consult note, 2En. i. 
228, and iL 210. The ancie its believed that 
ghosts in the nether world retained the 
same extemal marks as the living men 
exhibited 

496. This line has given rise to much dis» 
cussion, and its faults have led some com- 
mentators to pronounce it spurious. Tha 
repetition of ora is one of its defects, but it 
is likely that the poet meant first to give, 
generally, the disfigured portion of the 
body, and then to return to more specific 
detaiL 

495. Pavitardem. There was a palpitat- 
hig anxiety, but yet a bashful fear, on tho 
part of Deiphobus, to have close intercourse 
with ^neas, as is seen by the circumstance 
that he tried to cover his ghastly wouuds, 
and hide his disgusting mutilations. 

Supplicia — " punishments," Le.. the limbs 
which had been lopped off as a punishment. 
We use the verb "pumsh" in the senje 
of "giving a hearty beating to one." 

502. Suprema nocte, Le., the last night of 
Troy's existence. In the line preceding, 
opto (optavit) is used in the sense, placet, 
licet mihi. Pelasgum, Le., Graecorum. 

505. Ehoeteo in litore. Some copiea omlt 



B. VI. 507-524. 



NOTES ON TIIE JENEID. 



B.VI. 525-543. 



the prep., but it is retained by Forb. and 
others, on the gTOund that VirgU usually 
avoids the concurrence of adj. and subst by 
the interposition of a prep. Were the prep. 
not inserted, the arsis would frequently fall 
saecessively on two simUar endings, as bello 
ex tanto — hM in magna. On the proper 
name, see JEn. UL 108. 

507. The arms of the hero were deposited 
on the cenotaph and his name given to the 
place, so that, according to the poet, there 
was on the Trojan coast a Awtpofiov o-r,p.x. 
Te— on the hiatus, and the shortening of 
the long syllable, see note, JEn. L 16, and 
Ecl. ii. 53. 

508. Ponere, Le., humare. See ii. G44, and 
{ v. 681. Patria depends on decedens, and 
terra on ponere. 

510. Funeris urnbris — "the shade of my 
. " because the body itself had not 

been found. 

511. Sed often marks a return to a sub- 
ject before mentioned ; thu3 it here has re- 
ference to the question of iEneas in 501, 
and may be explained by the fuller expres- 
sion, Sed quoniam istud quaeris. 

Laco.mae, Le., Helen, as found previously 
at ii. 601. Leiphobus had been married to 
her after the death of Paris. 

513. With this narrative compare JEu. il 
25 and 248 sqq., also Eur. Hec. 898 sqq. 

517. Chorum simulans— pretendhig a re- 
Ugious rite, a solemn dance in honour of 
Bacchus, but really to give a signal to the 
Greeks when they ought to attack the city. 

Evantes— the acc. plur. The construction 
Is Phrygias evantes orgia, ilu.Z,ovo-ccs rm 
epyict. Evare, Le., Evoe clamare, Baccha- 
valia concelebrare, is a very rare word used 
t»nly in the participle, and found in CatulL 
lxiiL 392; Sil. i. 101; and Apul. Met; in 
all which places it is intransitive, but here 
it has, after the Greek fashion, an accus. of 
the object, orgia. Forb. 

519. Summa ex arce. Standing on the 
summit of the citadel she summoned the 
Greeks by uplifting the torch. Agamemnon 
returned the signal from his flag ship, and 
thus Sinon knew the moment at which to 
open the horse. Virgil's account of the 
affair is made more feasible by the pretended 
Bacchanalian rite, celebrated for the depar- 
tnre of the Greeks, and at night too. 

521. The poet is hardly consistent with 
nimself in this passage as compared with 
the Episode, iEn. iL 567 6qq. He may have 
followed different traditions on the subject 

523. Egregia, "glorious," "peerless," used 
Ironically— as we say, "precious." 

624. Subduxerat, "had privately taken 
•way my »word before the other weapons." 



But the pluperf. may be cxplained as at 
JEn. h. 259, where sec note. 

528. Thalamo. Silius also uses irrumpere 
with the dat Some copies read thalamos. 

529. JEolides, a name applied to Ulysses, 
expressive of tlie most bitter mockery, for 
his mother Anliolea had been a khid of con- 
cubine to Sisypnus, son of JEolus, before 
sho became the wife of Laertes, father ol 
Ulysses. 

530. Instauratc, Le., command that all 
these events happen afresh in rotation, but 
that the Greeks be this time the objects. 

532. Pelagi, etc., i.e,, Have you beeu 
drivcn by the storms of the sea to the place 
where is the entrance to these regions, or 
do you come on purpose, in accordance with 
an admonition from heaven? The very re- 
mote ancients believed that the descent to 
Orcus lay at the extreme limits of the 
ocean. 

535. Hac vice — " At this turn (or point) 
of the conversation;" or, "During this mu-. 
tual converse;" Le., whilst they thus con- 
versecl 

Aurora, accordingto the ancients, accom- 
panied the sun in all his course. The word 
is therefore equal to Sol. Four horses ara 
here given to Aurora, but only two at viL 
26, as at Hom. Od. xxih. 247. 

536. Heyne has found great difficulties in 
arranging aud accounting for the hours and 
periods of the journey to Hades. But Voss, 
Cerda, etc, seem rightly to dispose them 
thus : ^neas and the Sibyl, after the noc- 
turnal magic ceremony, set out at dawu 
(primi sub lumina solis, et ortus, 255) on 
their descent to Orcus, and occupied the 
whole forenoon and the meridian hours in 
examining those objects which have been 
already mentioned. The evening now ap- 
proaches, on which account the Sibyl has- 
tens ^Eneas, since much is yet to be seen 
and done. and they are under the neces3ity 
of returning to earth before sunrise of the 
following morning. 

537. On fors, see note, JEn. iL 139. 

540. Ambas, simply for duas. Ditis 
moenia, Le., the palace of Pluto. The 
comma usually placed after dexiera has 
been removed by Forb., since dextera quae 
=quarum dextera. 

542. Elysium, for in Elysium. See note, 
^En. L 2 ; cf. also ih. 507. 

543. Exercet poenas. By a poetic con- 
ception, the road which leads to the place 
of punishment is said actually to inflict the 
punishment Observe that what ought to 
be merely one enunciation (ad Tartarum 
miltens exercet poenas) is expressed in two, 
as may be seen at JEa. v. 611 ; Ecl vi. 20, 
Geo. UL 417, etc 

141 



B. VL 645-561. 



NOTES ON THE ^ENEID. 



B. VI. 563-585. 



Tarlara is called impia, because of its 
inhabitants, the impii. 

545. Explebo, etc, Lc, I shall return to 
my proper locality, and make up again the 
coinplement of ghosts ; — for Deiphobus had 
ndvanced with JEneas on the way towards 
the bright Elysium. Now, however, he is 
obliged to retreat towards his own dismal 
abodc 

547. In verbo, Le, cum Jtoc verbo, "on the 
word," "as he spoke." So the Greeks say 
tv iTit for <rlv fsre*. 

549. As they advanee towards Elysium, 
ttc-y see on the left the donjon keep of the 
dread prison-house, Tartarus, surruunded 
by the boihng Phlegethon, and having as 
governor, Rha.clamanthus, — as executiouer, 
Tisiphone, — asjailor, Hydra. 

Moenia — not so much a city, or build- 
ings, as a tract (called lata, whence we 
Imagine the great multitude of the 
wicked), or district fortified by an encirciing 
triple waLL 

551. Phlegethon, called also Pyriphlege- 
thon (fire-boiling), is more rarely men- 
tioned than the other rivers of Hades. 

Torquet ought rather to be torquens, to 
make the sentence properly balanced 

552. Porta adversa— "the gate fronting 
them." Columnae— "theposts." Cf. Hom. 
IL viiL 15. 

Adamanl (a very hard species of stone) 
is often nsed for iron, or brass, or, in fact, 
the very hardest material of anv kind. See 
OreLL Hor. Od. i. 6, 13. 

554. Stat contains the ideas of great alti- 
tude and great strength. On ad auras, see 
note, JEn. iL 759. 

555. Tisiphone—see above, 280, and also 
Geo. iii. 552. The two participles, sedens 
and succincta, without a conjunction be- 
tween them, are not objectionable, since 
the former refers to the position of thebody, 
the other to dress. The cruenta palfa, 
ascribed to her, is borrowed from Hom. IL 
xviiL 538. 

558. Stridor, etc, Lc, "the clanking of 
the iron chahis as they are dragged along," 
two notions being combined into one. You 
may supply either exaudiri ("may be dis- 
tinctly heard") from the foregoing clause, 
or the simple subst verb. 

559. Haesit is the reading adopted by 
Wagner and others, for the more common 
hausit, which is notably insipid. 

561. For quis, qui is found in the common 
editions. But quis is used when a thing is 
so unusual that it may be fairly doubted 
whether there is a name for it or not. On 
the difference between qui and quis, as in- 
terrogatives, see JSn. iiL 608 ; iv. 408. 

142 



563. Casto. See ^n. iiL 409. Praefecit 
— "appointed me as priestess ; " for priest* 
and priestesses were said praefici or praeest* 
in reference to the temples and sacrcd ritea, 
of which they had chargc 

566. On Gnosius, see iEn. v. 306. Rhada- 
manthus was son of Jupiter and Europa, 
and on account of his equitable govern- 
ment of the islands of the Mediterraneau 
entrusted to his care, was appointed judgi 
in the world below, along with his brother 
Minos. See above, 432. 

567. Castigatque auditque. This is calkd 
an example of hysteron proteron (but see 
note, JEn. ii. 353, and iiL 662). Heyne re« 
marks that VirgiL, on his own authority, 
places Rhadamanthus in Tartarus not as a 
judge or magistrate who investigates capital 
charges (as Minos, 432), but as an officer, 
like the iriumviri capitales at Rome, who 
carries out the sentence of the judges, cxe- 
cutes punishment on criminals, and takes 
cognizance of the niinor crimes of theft, 
plunder, sacrilcge, etc 

568. Inani— "vain," "useless," since the 
gods sooner or later take vengeance. Pi- 
acula, Lc, crimina, to expiate which, there 
was a necessity for apiaculum. 

570. Continuo (a^a^), Lmmediately after 
sentence has been passed. 

571. Quatit=verberat quatiens. 

573. When Tisiphone and her sister Furies 
(Alecto and Megaera) appear, then the gate 
is opened wide, and all who have been con- 
demned and carried to thc entrance of Tar- 
tarus are borae in, and the city is again 
shut up. 

575. Facies, like custodia of the preceding 
line, refers to Tisiphonc 

576. Hydra, not that slain by Hercules, 
but any monstrous serpent. Heyne. 

550. Titania piroles — "the sons of Coelus 
and Terra." 

551. Irno fundo — the lowest depth, (of 
Tartarus). 

Dejecti, joined to pubes, is an instance of 
the construction synesis—see iEn. L 70. 

582. Aloidas— the sons of Aloeus (Otus 
and Ephialtes), or rather of Neptune by 
Iphimedia. They were the most powerful 
ofthe Titans. See Geo. L 280; Hom. Od. 
xL 305. 

585. Salmoneus, son of uEolus and Enarete, 
and brother of Sisyphus. He was king of 
Ehs, and became so proud as to consider 
himself a deity, in confirmation of which he 
imitated the thunder of Jupiter by driving 
his chariot orer a brazeu pavement. Jupi- 
ter smote him with his thunderbolt, and 
hurled him beneath Tartarus. Gossrau 
thinks his great punishment to have been 
that, in Tartarus, he was obliged to at- 
tempt the imitation of Jupiter. 



B. VI. 588-G10. 



NOTES ON THE vENEID. 



B. VI. G13-622. 



588. Per Elidis ttrbem, Lc, Sahnonia, 011 
the Alpheus in Elis. 

590. Demens {o-^rXio;, vfaioi) begins 
the verse with peculiar emphasis. 

591. Aere, i.e., either "his brazen car," 
or, " on a series of brazen plates, laid be- 
neath his chariot, on which it might run." 

592. At expresses strong contrast between 
ihc pretended thunder of Salmoncus and 
the real bolt of Jupiter. An ellipsis which 
some suggest is quite unnecessary. Densa 
nubila — the denserthe cloud the more violent 
the lightning-flash. 

593. Non faces, etc " Not firebrands nor 
smoky torches (merely) did he hurL" 

594. Turbine is used of the lightning- 
Bash, as whirhvinds often accompany or 
/bllow the sudden discharge of electricity 
from the air 

595. Tityos, son of Jupiter and Tena. He 
offered violence to Latona, but being slain 
by the arrows of Apollo or Diana, or both, 
he was punished in Tartarus as explained ; 
cf. Hom. OtL xL 57G. 

596. Cernere erat, like »» ttiit. Homer, 
»s quoted in the preceding note, gives two 
vultures. 

597. Obunco for adunco. By immortale 
kcur, Virgil expresses Hesiod's rrrccp 
atdvxTov f Prometheus. 

598. Fecunda — growing again for fresh 
torture. 

601. On Lapithae, Pirithous, and Ixion, 
consult Class. Dict Virgil is the only poet 
who allots to Pirithous the same punish- 
ment as his father Ixion; cf. Hor. Od. iiL 
4, 80. 

Notc that the next line is a hypermeter. 

603. Assimitis is found also hi Cic. N. D. 
LL 55, and Ovid Trist. L 5, 27, etc. 

604. The two adjs. genialibus and altis, 
joincd to toris, nced not offend, since genialis 
torus form one notion, viz., "a social table." 

605. Regificus, for regius, is a very rare 
word, used only by our poet and VaL 
Flac Regifice, the adv., is found in a pas- 
sage of Eunius, quoted in Cic. Tusc Disp. 
iiL 19, 44. 

Furiarum maxima. Either Alecto or 
lvf egaera, See Eur. Iph. Taur. 963. 

608. Invisi fratres. Such as Atreus and 
Thyestes, Eteocles and Polynices. 

609. Pulsatus, "maltreated," generally. 
The respect paid by the ancient Romans to 
parents was so great that no law was 
deemed necessary to repress patricide. 
Fraus innexa clienti. " A web of deceit was 
woven to a clienfs hurt" 

610. Repertis=partis, "acquired." Soli, 
Le., imparting to no one the slightest share 
♦f their wealth. Thosc whc are "hard" 



and obdurate against the appeals ofpoor 
relations" are consigned to no enviable placo 
of torturc 

613. Impia arma. Doubtless, "civilwars" 
are meant, and the cases of those who had 
borne arms against their country. Taken 
in conjunction with what follows. the words 
must refer to the sorvilc war from 681 to 

G83 A.U.G 

Fallere dextras. An unusual cxpression, 
meaning, to break the faith due to one's 
master, and pledged by the giving of the 
right hand. This has reference to the slavea 
and their perfidy in the servile wars. 

615. Quaeforma, scil. scekrum, or poenae. 
Instead ofmersit in the indic. we might ex- 
pect the subj. 

616. Saxum volvunt. The poet represents 
more than Sisyphus at this operation. to 
hi the sequel he consigns to the wheel many 
as the companions of Ixiou. 




617 Districti, etc " Are fastened at full 
length," like criminals on the rack. 

618. Theseus — his torture was complete 
inacticity. Phlegyas (father of Ixion) :— his 
career was one of blood, sacrilege, and ra- 
pine. He burned the temple of Apollo at 
Delphi, and committed other equally darir.g 
acts of depredation in company with his 
brave but abandoned associates, for whom 
he built a city, called aftcr his own name, 
in the district of Orchomenus, in Bccotia. 

G19. Magna voce. The voice of Phlcgyas 
still retaining his faculties as when on earth, 
is magna compared with the exigua vox (493) 
of the shades. Such regrets might be con- 
sidered useless, as after death thcre is no 
room for repentance, but the admonition 
itself was a punishment. 

621. The Sibyl now returas to relate the 
different kinds of punishment from which 
she had digressed at 616. These two lines 
are borrowed almost word for word from L. 
Varius, as Macrobius (iv. L) asserts. 

The persons aimed at here, if any are spc- 
cially intended, are probably either Curlc w 
Marc Antony, or both. 

622. Fixit atque refixit. This verb is used 
because the laws engraved on brazen tableta 
wcre fastencd up tc walls. 

143 



B. i 1. C23-&3. 



XOTES OX THE JEXFID. 



3. VL 648-659. 



tes ispro- 
bably meant See bis history in CLass. 
IHct. 

625, 6. Th se verses occur at Geo. il 43, 
where see notes. They are, as every one 
will remember, almost a translation of Hom. 
II. ii. 48& 

629. Perflce munus susceptum, La, com- 
plete your task by presenting the golden 
boo gh to Proserpine. 

630. The palace of Pluto had iron walls 
forged by Vulcan and the Cyclopes. Atque 
adverso, etc, " and the portals with con- 
fronting arch," Le., the arched portals con- 
fronting the view. Anthon. 

633. Opaca riarum — see note, ^En. L 
310. 

634. Corripiunt — see note, 2£.n. L 418; 
v 145. 

636. Spargit aqua. As Elysium was a 
most sacred place, iEneas is cautious to 
sprinkle hhnself [with the golden bough] as 
he approaches it, in the same manuer as 
worshippers did on earth before entering a 
temple. [There were branches placed at the 
temple doors, and a supply of water where- 
with visitors sprinkled themselves.] 

638. Locos — with the prep. not expressed. 
See note on JEn. L 2. 

640. ' ■ Here an atmosphere more free (than 
ours) clothes the plains, and that (e*=et 
insuper, ovet quidem) vrith a radiant bright- 
ness ; a sun of their own and stars of their 
own do they behold.' 

644. Plaudunt choreas peclibus — "Beat 
with their feet the measured dance." It is 
a more elegant expression than to say cum 
pedum plausu. So the Homeric phrase, 
Tf-vkr,yov £s X°P oy ^^ev trotriv, Od. viiL 
264. 

645. To the chorus of singers and dancers, 
Virgil assigns an individual to act as «.oiooe, 
to accompauy with smging, or a choragus 
to go before singing and dancing. as in the 
ancient chorus. And who more fit for such 
a duty than the Thracian Orpheus, who, 
while on earth, drew after him the listening 
oaks, charmed by the power of his song. 
Orpheus is called sacerdos, on account of 
the orgies and mysteries instituted by him. 
His theology was founded on belief in a 
future life, and in the immortality of the 
souL Hor. A P. 391, calls him sacer inter- 
vresque deorum. 

646. Obloquitur is taken by Heyne, ThieL 
Forh, etc., as a transitive \&rh=sonare 
facit, numeris bc-ing the abL = numerose, 
ibfv§u.o)s, so that the meaning would be, 
" Orpheus makes his lyre in its seven notes 
to soimd in unison (numeris) with the songs 
of the choir." The lyre is, therefore, one 
equipped with seven strings. "Wagn. makes 
numerie the dat. " Orpheua suita the stralna 
of his lyre to tho numbers and measures of 

IH 



thesingersanddancers." ForotheropLoions, 
see the larger commentaiies. Below is a 
representation of the ancient lyre. 




648. Pulchcrrima, referring to the majes- 
tic frame of body, is suggestcd by Hom. IL 
xx. 231 sqq. 

649. Melioribus annis does not refcr to the 
"good old times" generally, but to that 
era of Troy's history as standing in glorious 
contrast to the present aniicted state of her 
interests. 

650. Hus (founder of Ilium), and Assar- 
acus were sons of Tros and Calirrhoe. 
On Dardanus, see .En. ih. 167. 

651. Miratur is better thanmirantur, the 
common reading, since admiration was na- 
tural to ^Eueas only, and not to the Sibyl 
who had seen the same scenes often. 

Inanis currus, not " empty," " deprived 
of their lords, " — but " unsubstantial. '* 
"shadowy." 

653. CurruiWJ.pronouncedastwosyUables, 
cun-um — the line is therefore not a hyper- 
meter. 

655. Cura pascere — on this construction 
see note, ^n. v. 638 ; L 704 ; iiL 299 ; iv. 
565 ; and Geo. L 305. 

657. Vescentes, Le., celebrating feasts. On 
the social banquets ^u.xia.i) hi Elysimn, 
Peerlk. refers to Plat Rep. iL p. 423 Choro, 
Le., inchoro. Laurus is rather the "fcav ' 
than the u laureL" 

659. Eridani amnis, like urbem Patari, 
iEn. L 247; flumen Himellae, viL 714. Eri- 
danus—that fabulous and ubiquhtius river 
of the ancients, considered by later Koman 
writers to be the samo as >be Padus 
(Po), was eupposed to descend to the 
infernsi regions, from the circonistanee 



R VI. 660-706. 



.VOTES OX THE -EXELD. 



B. VI. r -71 



.-.urimvs refers 
to the great body of water brought down, 
and to the speed of its stream. 

660. Manus — passi, like genus — dejecti 
(581, above), is an instance of the construc- 
tion synesis, or ad intellectum, on which see 
note. iEn. i. 70. 

662. Phoebo digna, i.e., grandia, sulJimia, 
praeclara. 

663. Vitam—the manners of men, i.e., 
men themselves. 

664. Sui memores — thosc whose philan- 
thropy and benevolence endeared their 
memory to their fellow-men. The con- 
sciousness of good deeds is represented as 
one of the delights of Elysium. The whole 
of this beautiful pa?sage deserves the care- 
ful notice of the student. 

667. Musaeus — a semi-mythological per- 
sonage of the same class as Olen and Or- 
pheus and by one tradition called the son 
of the latter. Homer is not found here, to 
the surprise of some commentators ; buT it 
would have been an anachronism to have 
introduced the "blind old man" as a con- 
temporary of iEneas. 

665. Humeris. Poets, not less than he- 
roes, are represented by the poets as sur- 
passing the common herd in stature: the 
breadth and conspicuousness of the shoid- 
ders are the first items in commending 
excellence of bodily form. 

673. Certa — "defined," " restricted, " 
"settled." 

674. Toros riparunu L e., the grassy 
banks which form couches. 

Recenlia rivis — fresh and blooming, on 
account of the proximity of the waters. 

Si fert, etc, Le., if you wish to meet 
Anchi- 

678. Dehinc, in scansion a monosylL Lin- 
quunt, they, sciL iEneas and the Sibyl, for 
Musaeus does not accompany them farther 
than the elevation. 

681. Recolere is properly to pass in review 
things that have gone by, but here it means 
to examine and make oneself famfliar with 
future events. Studio, Le., sludiose. 

685. Alacres is the nom. and not thc acc. 
to agree with palmas, as this latter word has 
already its adj., vtrasque. 

Utrasque palmas, for utramque palmnm, 
the plur. of uterque being often used for the 
sing., especially in the case of two things 
which are closeiy joined, or that act together. 

687. Parenti, with emphasis for mihi. 

690. Cf. JEn. v. 731, and vi. 115. 

69L Dinumerans, Le., with longing and 
anxiety calculating the different periods of 
time. Observc the force of di. 

700-2. Thcse lines are rcpcatcd from ^En. 
iL 792-4. 

703. Reducta vaUe-~ " in a wlndlng vale." 

705. Praenatat— " flows past." me in 



used equal to 
praeier, so in Hor. Od. iv. 3, 10, Sed qu-as 
Tibur aquae fertile praefluunt. See also 
Od. iv. 14, 26, and Livy i. 45. 

706. Gens means a race of people having 
a common origin— populus a community 
ruled by the same laws, and living imder the 
same institutions and the same form of go- 
vernment One gens, therefore, can bc sub- 
divided into many jpopuft. See Doderl. aml 
Kritz, SalL Cat. 10, 1. 

707. The simile in this and the followin| 
lines is borrowed from Hom. IL iL 87 sqq. 

711. Porro, for procid, i.e., longo inde cursa 
praetexentia campmn. 

713. '-Thosesouls, untowhichotherbodies 
are due by fate, quaff at the water of the 
Lethaean river care-dispeliing draughts, and 
a lasting forgetfulness (of the past)." The 
poet now enters, in the person of Anchises, 
upon certain philosophical dogmas foundecl 
upon the tenets of the Pythagorean school. 
with some additions borrbwed from the Pla- 
tonic system. The substance of these doc- 
trines is simply this : After the soid is freed 
from the chains of the body, it passes into 
the regions of the dead, where it remains, 
imdergoing purgations of one kind or other 
till it is sent back to this world to be the 
inhabitant of some other body, brutal or 
human ; and after suffering in this way suc- 
cessive purgations, and animating in turn 
different bodies, it is finally received hito 
the heavens, and returns to and becomes 
merged in the great essence, or soid of the 
world, of which it was originaUy an emana- 
tion. Moreovcr, before each of these several 
departures to the upper world to inhabit 
some new frame, the spirits drink of the 
water of Lethe, in order to forget whatever 
has happened to them in their previous statc 
of being. Anthon. 

The idea that spirits retumed to uppei 
earth was commonly entertaincd by thc 
ancients, but it seems a peculiar notion of 
Plato's (Rep. x. p. 621, A. Steph.)that they 
drank first of Lethe. On Plato and his 
doctrines, see " Greek and Eoman Philo. 
sophy" (Griffin, Glasgow), p. 53 sqq. 

715. Securos, "care dispelling;" ab effectb 
dictum, says Heyne, as pallidos morbos, 
" diseases that render persons pale." 

716. Has — some special ones singled out 
from the mass, for the doctrine of metem- 
psychosis did not include all who died. 

717. The repetition of the demonstr. pron. 
has, hanc, of the verbs memorare and 
enumerare, so closely allied in signification, 
renders a copulative conj. unnecessary. 

719. Inest, says Heyne, nescio quae vis et 
dmorr.s eximia in hac JEneae oratione cum 
indignatione aliqua rogantis. And tho tona 
of Virgil'3 hero commanda our eympathy 
the more when we compare hla gentiment 
146 



B. VI. 724-733. 



NOTES ON TIIE iENEID. 



B. VI. 734-743. 



v. ith that of Achilles (Hom. Od. xL 487), 
wbo manifcsted an unsccmly eagerness for 
life. [Wagner, however, rcmarks that this 
is lcss to he rcprehended in a Homcric liero.] 
From a comparison, we at least sce thc 
progress which philosophy had made from 
the Homeric age. 

724. In the nohle passage which follows, 
Virgil, as Ileyne remarks, seems to have 
had in view Lucretius v. 68. Wlth it com- 
pare Cic. de Div. i. 11, and Hom. IL xix. 
483 sqq. 

The four elements, air, earth, fire, and 
water, are mentioned in v. 724, 725. 
Liquentes campos, i.e., mare. 

Terras is preferred by "Wagn. and Forb., 
ctc, to terram, on the ground that Virgfl 
loves to connect two substs., so that, if it 
be possible, one he expressed in the sing. 
and tlie other in the plur. number. 

725. Titaniaque astra, poetically for As- 
trum Titanium, i.e., Sol, for Sol and Luna 
were both of the Titan race. "Wagn. under- 
Jtands the words as forming a kind of epexe- 
getical phrase, meaning Sun and Moon to- 
gcther ; thus, lunam, ac noa lunam solu?n 
sed ittrumque astrum Titanium. "Wakcf. 
(Lucr. iv. 70) and Trapp conjectured Titan- 
aque et astra, Le., both Sol aud the stars. 

726. Spiritus (the great living principle) 
—mens (the great intellectual), the "^vx* 
and vov; of the Greeks. The soul of the 
universe (anima mundi) ishere meant, viz., 
"a spirit or essence gifted with intelligence 
and pervading and animatiiig matter, and 
all things fonned out of matter. The human 
soul is an onanation from this great prin- 
ciple, proceeding from it as a spark from 
thc parent fire." Anthon. Alit, Le., sup- 
ports and endows with the power of repro- 
dnction. Artus is rightly used foi" the dif- 
ferent parts of the universe, as he calls the 
whole frame corpus. 

728. Inde, froin the junction of the genera- 
tive principle, thc spiritus. with the elements, 
all animals are produced. Wagn. Heyne 
takes inde to mean "from the mens," but 
with this, we believe, no one will agree. 
The verbs of the preceding line sufiiciently 
indicate the antecedent to which inde refers. 
Cf. Geo. iv. 212-226. 

729. Marmoreo sub aequore — "under its 
sparkling surface." Marmor is used for 
mare in Geo. L 254, etc. 

731. Hlis seminibus — M In these seeds 
(Le., the emanations from the great soul of 
the universe (as it were sparks from a fire), 
v. hich enliven our mortal bodies, and form 
our souls) there is a fiery energy," etc. 

Xoxia corpora tardant, Le., our gross 
corporeal inclinations so obstruct the action 
Dt' the divine emanation, as to render its 
efibrts at least partially useless. 

733. Binc. From this contact with the 

146 



body arise tlie passions and cmotions of the 
mind. Thiel rcmarks that, by thc verbs of 
fearing and desiring, fejoicing, and grieving, 
the ancients understood all the affections of 
the mind. 

734. Bispiciunt is, according to some— 
prospiciunt. But "Wagner appears to havc 
hit upon the idca properly containcd in the 
word. He says it is applied to those pcr- 
sons, who, having been blind formerly, or 
havmg spent their time in total darkness, 
for the first time sec the light. 

738. This means that impurities contracted 
during life adhere to individuais after death. 
Thesc, he says, must be rooted out some- 
how or other, and penance in the lower 
world is the mode suggested. 

740. Aliae panduntur, etc, The punish- 
mentsaregraduated accordingto guilt; — thc 
least culpable sins are blown away by the 
whid; those next in degree are washed off 
by water, but fire alone will obliterate the 
most heinous. 

742. Infectum, i.c. with which men liave 
polluted themselves. 

743. Quisque suos, patimur Manes. Tliis 
is, perhaps, the most diflicult passage in 
Virgil, and the one that has caused the 
greatest difference of opinion among learned 
commentators. Heynesays, "Asthevcrses 
now stand, either some new purification 
must be understood as taking place iii 
Elysium, or the one which had been begun 
is completed there — an idea quite novel and 
uuusuaL For if the lustration be repre- 
sented in 743, 744 as completed, and the 
Manes sent to Elysium, how again, in 745, 
can there be added the phn.se, donec longa 
dies, Le., till they have been purified? " He 
therefore adopts the opiniou of Trapp and 
others, that the lines should be read in the 
following order : — 

Aliis sub gurgite vasto 
Infectum eluitur scelus. aut exuritur igni; 
Donec longa dies. perfecto temporis orbe, i 
Concretam exemit labcm, punimque relin- 

quit 
Aetherium seiisum atque aurai simplicis 

ignem. 
Quisque suos patimur Manes : exinde pcr 

amplum 
Mlttimur Elysium, et pauci laeta arvsj 

tenemus. 

Some have supposed 743, 744 spurious ; 
and others have denied the genuineness of 
745, 6, 7. A few defend the lines in their 
present order and form. (1), Fea supposcs 
Virgil'8 idea to be, that the purgation is 
finished aftcr thejourney through Elysium 
has been made. [The poet, however, does 
not speak of a journey, but of a long and 
peaceful residence in fields of delight.] (2), 
Thicl thinks that the delay of souls in Bly- 
sium is the second step, as it were, in puri- 



B. VI. 743. 



NOTES ON THE JENEID, 



B. VI. 744-74«. 



fication. and a kind of rcpcated clcansing by 
whicfa tlic spirits, before they rcturn to lifc, 
are fully rcstored to their first and nativc 
condition. (3), Jahu is of opinion that, 
" after purgation, the purified souls come 
to thc Elysian plaina, but that they are 
there dividcd into two classcs: for— that 
thc majority only pass through Elysium, 
and go direct to thc river Lethe, that thcy 
may return hito fresh human bodics pre- 
pared for them ; a few sojouni for a long 
time in the delightful fields of Elysium, 
until, by a lengthened period of non-employ- 
ment, they have lost every imperfection of 
body, so that after a thousand years they may 
again ascend to earth in perfect purity, and 
thcre become the souls of men ofthe most 
distinguished probity and excellence." At 
the best, it must be said, that if this be the 
poets meaning, it is expressed very ob- 
scurely and too briefiy. Forb. is of opinion 
that these lines were humedly put down by 
the poet with the intention that they shyuld 
be carefully polished and perfected, whieh 
revision, however, death anticipated. Wag- 
ner considers all the difticulty rcmoved it' 
donec be taken to mean qvum tandem—a 
sense, however, of which tlie learned critic 
eupplies no cxample. So much for purifi- 
cations and their order. And, now, with 
regard to the words quisque suos, patimur 
Manes: (1), Mancs. which elsewhere means 
the Dii Inferi (i£n. x. 34; Geo. iv. 489, 
ctc), and thus, also, thc Furies (x. 39) is 
here put for the condition in which the 
spirits are, Le., it is put for the punishments. 
Passages in Anson. Epigram. 7-3 ; Stat. Theb. 
vih\ 84; Paullinus, Poem. v. o7: and VaL 
Flacc. iii. 3S9, seem to favour this, the in- 
terpretation of Scrvius, and the commcnta- 
tors gcncrally. Gossrau adopts this ex- 
planation. (2), Take Manes as the acc. 
absolute, quoad being understood, thus: 
All of us suffer these punishments (i.e., we 
undergo purgations equal to punishnvmts), 
not indeed as we now are, souls enclosed in 
bodies, but each in his oicn Manes. Heyne 
and Gesner. (3), Take Manes as the acc. 
of thc object, and interpret thus : Each of 
us suffers those afflictions (for three kinds of 
punishment werc mentioned above) which 
are best calculatcd to purify thc naturc of 
his Mancs, poiluted with this or tlie other 
vice. Forbiger, witli Miinscher, Tliiei flnd 
Jahn. There are still many explanations 
untouchcd, but enoupli have been given to 
make the student think, and to enable him 
to form a judgment for himself. It is un- 
iy for us to notice the conjectural 
readings which have been proposed in great 
nunibers. 

If we were allowed an opinion, we should 
say— leave tiie linea as they are, but put a 
temicolon after iijni, 742, with a full stop 
after Mancs, interpreting with Forb. No. 3. 



abovc. With rcgard to the apparent con- 

tradiction in 745 to the statement of 744, \vc 
think it is removcd by thc following ex- 
planation. Virgil says that our souls, while 
in the body, are polluted and corrupted, and 
to remove the impurities then contracted 
severe penaltics must be undergone. . The 
stains being once removed, the soul is trans- 
ferred to Elysium, that it niay there pass 
through a probationary stage,'and become 
habituated to virtuous fcelings. and forget 
entirely its fonner sinful thoughts and ac- 
tions. Elysium would, in this view of the 
casc, be a second, and finishing place of nuri- 
fication. 

The following suggestion ifl worthy"of 
considcration; we find it in Mr Galbrarth"? 
edition of our poet : " On many Etroscan 
vases, as well as in the wonderful frescoe» 
on tlieir tombs, we find representations of » 
'gnardian angel' in white apparel, and witlt 
ldoks benign, leading, as it werc, to what m 
right, and turning froni what is ^\Tong. 
This is the bright and gay picture of activc 
life, but the artist has depieted, also, scenei 
beyond the death-hour, and then, in the 
majority of cases, no ' guardian angel' ap« 
pears; all is dark and gloomy, and besid« 
the doomcd one stands, not the blessed ad« 
viser of an older time, but a dread avengei; 
armed with a gigantic mallet, and of iirw 
mense frame. Can it be that the ' guardiai 
angel' becomes the 'avenger,' that the ad- 
viser, and the guide, and witness of life, is 
the fell instrument of punishment for error 
unatoned — for guilt unrepented ? Has thc 
recording angel closed the door of mercy ; 
and is his futurc character indicated by his 
name — ' the awaiter ? ' 

To me it appears that the perplexing pas- 
sage under discussion might at least be 
poetically explained by a reference to tliis 
Etruscan idea: ' We each suffcr the dread- 
ful vengeance of those beings who await 
us:'of him who wanied us in life, and who 
now exacts retribution io death. Fbia will 
coincide with Wagner's derivation (i.e., thr.t 
AfaTiesisconnectedwith /««&', f<i*os, fx.ivu, 
and is cognate with mens. the feeling, the 
conscience of a human being), with the 
vulgar interpretation (No. 1, abovc), and 
witii Hor. Eplst. il. 2, 187, Scit Geniu», hu- 
manae deus naturae, mutabilis vultu, albl'9 

ET ATER. 

On the construction qutsquesuos patimttr, 
see Zumpt, § 307. 

744. Pauci—" a few," for thc pollutions ol 
thc many were so great as to dcfy purifica- 
tion. 

Laeta arva, i.c., Elysium, though some 
think tliat a different locality is nicant. 

74-5. Tempoins orbe, i.e., 1000 years. 

746. Rclinquitr—zomz books read rehquiU 
147 



D. VI. 747-750. 



NOTES OS THE fiNEID. 



B. VI. 735-772 



to squarc with eremit, but on the difference 
of tense see yEn. iL 466. note. 

747. *£therium sensum. etc Thk 
In reference to the doetrine of the Pytha- 
goreans a d Stoloa, that the minds of men 
were emanations from thc universal divine 
inind, "a portion of the aetherial World- 
Spirit" Aurai (see iiL 354) is used for 
ignis. •' that \ital spark of heavenly ./?«»)<?." 
Cf. Hor. Sat iL 2, 79, divinae particulam 
aurae. 

74& Volvere rotam per tmno» is an ex- 
rression borrowed from Ennius, meaoing 
"\ hen the cycle o." a thousand years shall 
bave passed;" tolvere rotam—exiaere tem- 
pus in orbem rediens. The MBk anni period 
is horrowed from Plato, Rep. x. p. 616 A, 
and Phaedrus. p, 1223, D. Steph. Forb. 

749 Jjeus, not Mercury, but the deity, 
o ^ccluuv. 
"50. Contexa— see ^En. i. 310, note. 
Tlie whole passajre, from 724, mav be 
tbns translated:— " In the first instance, a 



ycle of years having ntn its coursa 
— bas removed the defilement which grcw 
with our growth, and strengthened with 
our strength, and nmv lcaves (relinguit) tho 
aethereal principlc, free from taint, and the 
' spark of heavenly flame,' single and un- 
alloycd. All these (spirits), when they 
have completed the circle of a thousand 
years, the deity summons, in long array, to 
Lethe's stream, with thepurpose,fo?rf7, that, 
losing rememhrance of the past, they may 
again revisit the vaulted arch above, and 
that they may begin to entertaui a desiro 
to return to mortal bodics." 

Idversos — " as thcy advanced in 
front." 

756. Deindc, Le., postero tempore, 'in 
time to come." 

757. Itala de gente, Le., from Lavinia. 

758. Ituras in nostrum nomen, " about to 
pasa into our posterity," i.'e., will arise from 
our race, and will extend and hand down 
our name, 

60. Ille, ctc Tlie Julian family is de- 



ktnng prbiciple feeds and sustains the air, ! rived ' from ' Ascanius or Iulus , w Jio sll( T 



and tlie eanh, and the ocean, and the re 
aplendent orb of the moon, and the Titanian 
stars. and an intelligent principle pervading 
overy member, puts the entire mass into 
aetifin. and blends itself with the mighty 
fraine of the universe, Thence spring the 
homan species. and the race of beasts. and 
tbe Bying kind, and the monsters which the 
lcep brings forth beneath its glassy surface, 
' In these germinating elements there is a 
fiery energy and a heavenly origin (opcrat- 
mgj so far as polloted bodies do not deaden 
their power, or earth-sprung limhs and 
perishaUe members mar not their influence. 
Hence they are subject to fcars and to 
er.ger longhigs, to griefs nnd to joys : nor 
do tliey. pent np, as they are, in darkness, 
and in the gloomy prison-house (of the 
oody), regard with*care their celcstial ori- 
ginaL Nay, even when life has left them 
at their latest day, every ill does not there- 
fc-e quit their wretched souls, nor do all 
the infirmities and impurities of the body 
entirely depart, but it must needs be, that 
many imperfections. kng manifeat in grow- 
Ing co-existence with their natures, shoidd 
l>e amalgamated with wondrous closeness. 
Therefore they are disciplined for punish- 
ment, and pay to the utmost the penalties 
of former misdeeds. Some are hung up, 
and exposed to the unsubstantial winds: 
from others. the deep-dyed stain of guilt is 
washed away in the depths of a vaat and 
eddying pool, or burned out under the re- 
finhig influence of fire. Eaeh of us suffers 
■eeordmg to the condition of his Manes : 
thcreafter we are sent forth throughout the 
spacious Elysium. and but few of us succeed 
Jn occupymg (permanenlly) the fields of 
bliss, until the tardv lapse of time— Jhe ap- 
148 



ceeded his father, and built Alba Longa. 
But the Alban kings had their origin froni 
Silvius, who was the posthumous son of 
JEneas by Lavinia. Such ia the tradition 
which our poet follows. Others make Sil- 
vius the son and successor of Ascanius. In 
the historical references which follow, the 
student must be unsparing in consulting 
his Roman History, and DicL of Biog. and 
Mythol. 

Pura hasta, non ferro praefixa, Le.. the 
sceptre as an emblem of regal power. Does 
it not rather mean "maiden spear," as we 
say "maiden sworcl" 

7C4. Tibi longaevo, the Homcric vrccth*ct 
TK/.vyircv. Scrum—cf. viii. 582, where 
Evander says of Pallas. Mea sola et sera 
voluptas. 

765. Educet for educabit. In silvis — a 
reference to the story that Silvius derived 
hisname from being brought up in the woods. 

767. Proximus. ' The poet [for Yirgil is 
not a historian] does not record all the 
Alban kings. nor does hc attcnd to chrono- 
logical order. so that Pj'ojri»iu*means "tlic 
ncxt who appeared," who came fbrward bi 
review bcfore Anchises, .rEneas, and the 
Sibyl ; f (r Procas waa the sixth kuig of Alba, 
as Numitor was the thirteenth. 

768. Capt/s is mentioued by the poet in 
compliment to his hero, since Capys, the son 
of Assaracus, was grandfather of ^Eneas. 

770. Si umquam. Servius relates that it 
was not till his fifty-third year that ^Eneas 
SUvius received the kiugdom from his gnar- 
dian, who had usurped the authMity. 

772. Tempora umbrata, etc, " their le^i- 
ples are omamented with civic crowns," ou 
nccount of having plantedcolonie».and 



B. VI. 773-790. 



NOTES ON THE J2NEID. 



B. VI. 792-802 



new cities. Some books read atqui, but tho 
best MSS. have atque 

778. Nomentum, in the terrirory of the 
Sabines, near the springs of the Allia, was 
said to have bcen founded, along with Fi- 
denae and Crustumerium, by three brothers 
many years bcfore the building of Rome. 
Dion. Hal. iL 53. Heyne numbers the colo- 
nies of Alba Longa at thirty. Gabii, a 
colony of Alba Longa, and situated be- 
tween Rome and Praeneste. Fidenae, be- 
tween Rome and Veii. Tlie first syll. of the 
word is usually long. 

774. Collatia, a town of the Sabines in the 
hills (hence its name), not far from Rome, 
and lying between the road to Praeneste 
and the left bank of the Anio. It is now 
called Castellaccio. 

776. Pometios, i.e., Pomentinos, the name 
of the people being put for that of the town. 
Suessa Pometia, a Volscian rather than a 
Latin town. Castrum Inui, a town on the 
coast of Latium near Ardea. Bola, a town 
of the ^Bquians on the hither side of the Anio. 
Cora, a moimtain town of Latium near Veli- 
trae, afterwards confederate with the Vols- 
cians. 

778 Avo, etc, i.e., Romidus (the son of 
Mars) sliall aasist his grandfather, Xumitor, 
in the government, before setting out to 
found Rome. 

779. Assaraci, to be taken adjectively, as 
Wagn. alleges, quoting, Pompilius Sanguis, 
Hor. A. P. 292. On this form of the adjs. 
see note, Mn. iii. 002, and on the genealogy 
of Assaracus, consult L 284. 

780. Wagner thinks that we ought to 
write viden, and sueh contraetions, either 
without an apostrophe entirely, or with two, 
Lc, eitlier viden, or viden\ Mars is repre- 
sented with a helmet having a double 
plume, and so is his son, Romulus, hi this 
place. 

78L Superum la taken by Servius as the 
acc. sing. referring to Romulus, pater 
mcaning Mars, so that the sense would be, 
'• Iliin, a god (one of the heavenly deities), 
his father Mars already marks out with clis- 
tbiguiabed bonour." Ruddiman and othera 
take it as the gen., thus, M His father (Mars) 
marks him out with his own honours, i.e., 
(he honours of deities," a syntax which is 
countenanced by the ordcr of the words. 
Others, again, make superiim depend on 
pater, i.e., Jupiter. 

Equabit is used in two senses, first 
litcrally, and then figuratively. For animos, 
Heumaiin conjecttircd annos as indicative 
of duration. 

785. Berecyntia, i.e., Cybele, so called 
from Mt. Berecyntus, in Phrygia, whcre 
she was carefully worahipped. Cybele was 
represented witb a mural crown (turrita), 
bence the expression. Consult Class. Dict. 

790 Iuli— see above, 760. 



792. Note well thls most beautifuL paa- 
sage, detailing the honours and services of 
Augustus. On the two-fold quantity of hic 
in this line, see note, JEn. iv. 22. 

793. Augustuc is called "Divi genus," be- 
cause he was the adopted son of Juliua 
Cassar, whose apotheosis had, by this thne, 
taken place. 

The emperor is praised, (1,) on account 
of his having restored peace to the empire 
(793 sqq.); (2,) on account of the boundaries 
of the kingdom being enlarged by conques*, 
(795 sqq.) ; and, (3,) on account of expedi- 
tions undertaken to remote parts of the 
world, and journeys performed for the ar- 
rangement of provinces. 

795. Super, i.e., ultra. On Garamanlas, 
see note, JEn. iv. 198. They were con- 
quered by L. Cornelius Balbus in b.c. 19. 
Indos — this has reference partly to the re- 
storation of the standards by Phraates, in 
b.c. 20, and partly to the Indian embassy 
(from the two kings Porus and Pandion) 
sent to Augustus when he was in Syria» 
Cf. Geo. ii. 170; iv. 560; and 'j£.n. 
viL 605 sq., for other praises bestowed on 
Augustus on account of his succeaaes in the 
case of the Indians, Parthians, and otlier 
eastcrn nations; see also Hor. Od. i. 12, 58 
sqq. ; iv. 14, 41 sqq, etc 

796. Extm sidera=extra vias solis, i.e., 
beyond the course of the Ecliptic, south of 
the tropic of Capricorn, meaning thereby 
the most southern parts of Africa generally 
It has been coniectured (by Heyne) that 
Virgil has reference here to the inroad of 
C. Petronius into Aethiopia bi retaliation for 
the ezpedition of Candace, qucen of that 
country, hito Egypt 

798. This verse has already occurred in iv 
482, to which place refer. 

799. Hujus in adventum, etc. The 
flattery here bestowed on Augustus accorded 
well with his own superstitious feelings. 
The basis of the compliment appears in 
Suetonius (Vit. Aug. 94), where it is stated, 
that a few months before the birth of Au- 
gqstua a prodigy occurred at Rome, by 
whichit wns indicated that "Naturewas 
bringing forth a king for the Roman peo- 
ple" — " Regem populo Romano nuturam 
parturirc." Anthon. 

Caspia regna, Lc, the nations bordering 
on the Caspian Sea, particularly the Hyr- 
canians and Bactrians, who were subject to 
Parthian rule. 

800. Maeotia tellus, i.c, the Scythians 
around the Palus Maeotis, Sea oj Azov. 

801. The Nilc iscalled also Semptemfluus, 
Semptemplex. Semptemgeminus is very 
rare. 

Turbant, Lc, turbantur, on the principle 
explained at /En. L 234, whicb aee, 

802. Alcides, i.c, flercules, on whom and 

149 



B. VI. 804-818. 



NOTES ON THE ^NEID. 



B. VI. 815-626. 



his laboqn, consuli Dlct ofBiog. and Myth.. 

(ind Schmitz. Hist of Greecc p. 40 sqq. 

804. Pacarit ricmora, scil., by killing thc 
•\vild boar. Wagner thinks it vcry silly of 
onr poet to have introduced the boar of 
Erymanthus, and thc Lcrnacan hydra, to 
the cxclusion of the conquest of Geryon, 
and the abstraction of the golden apples of 
thc Hesperidcs. as thc rirst two do not imrly 
thc traversing of any great part of the 
earth's surface; and lie does not doubt but 
that Virgil would havealtered thelines had 
he lived to revise his poem. Pecrlk. pro- 
nouuccs them spurioiu. 

' ;ga, i.c. his two tigers. Pampineis 
Kabents — with reins wound round and intcr- 
twined with vine tendrils. 

806. On the name Liber, see Ecl viL 58. 
Xysa. a city. said to have been built by 
Bacchus on isit. Meros. 

807. Bnbitamus. The plur. is used, An- 
rtiises includhig himself in order that the 
reproof may be more lenicnt Virtutem is 
Usedhere.like xpirr^ for gloria virtuteparta. 

S09. Quis—ferens. These words are sup- 
posed by some to be spoken by JEneas, 
but they are uttered by Anchises rather, 
tither in uncertainty. on account of the dis- 
tance at which the spirit still was, or, for 
the purpose of calhng the attention of 
2Eneas to him more pointedl|f, in a way 
Wfaich must be famihar to every one. 

Xuma, so famed by tradition as the foun- 
der of the Roman rehgion. is approprhttely 
Introduced with sacred utensils, and of a 
venc-rable appearance, as he is always ex- 
hibited on eoins of the Calpurnian, Marcian, 
and Pomponian families. 

810. Incana. Gossrau shows that this 
word is derived from the verb ... 

(see Geo. ii. 71). as irfractus (v. 7S4), from 
infringo, and incurvus from incurvo, and 
that it does not mean valde cana. but pcene 
cana. Cf. Ovid Met. viii. 804, Labra incana 
situ. Colum. incana barba. Pliny, in- 
canus color rorismarini. CatuU, incanos 
crines. 

811. Primam (vulgar reading, primus.) 
is taken by most eommentators as equal to 
primum or primo; but SiipfL takes it to 
mean " the youthful eity," a sense, how- 
ever. of p?'imus which requires confirma- 
tion by example, though Hor. 8at L 3, 99, 
prorepserunt primis animalia terris, gfrres a 
certain degree of countenance to the inter- 
pretation. 

512. Cures— the Sabine town afterwards 
united with Rorue, whence, too, according 
to tradition. the term Quirites sprung: see 
Niebuhrs Lects. ou Roman Hist, edited by 
Dr Sehmitz, vol. L pn. 37-39. 

513. Cui subibit, ctc With this contrast 
between the second and third kiugs of Rome, 
cf. LivyL 22, " Hic (Lc, Tullus Hostiljus) 

150 



uonsolum proximo regi dissimiUs, sed fero~ 
eior etiam Romulofuit." 

815. Rendet ciros ct desueta agmina, cf. 
JSn. i. 725. Desuetus is joincd to the dative 

in vii. 0!' 

817. Gaude?is popularibusauris. VirgQ, 
with his patrician leanings, is pcrhaps un- 
just tothc "guod oldking," as theplebeians 
called him. Livy, at least, does not rcpre- 
sent him as of this charactcr. II is meinory 
was ccrtainly venerated by the later ple- 
beians, and he was considered thc foundcr oi 
thc-ir estatc Some put a colon after Ancus, 
making the next linc refer to Servius Tul- 
lius. 

818. Supcrba???, i.c, magnam et exeelsam. 
UUoris, sciL, of public iiberty, and of thc m- 
jurcd Lucrctia. Tlic cut rcpresents a Uctor 
with the virga mA-fasces. 




S23. Utcumque ferent. This phrase leads 
us to conclude that in Virgils time there 
were persons who censured the conduct cf 
Brutus. Minores, i.c, posteri. 

825. Dccios — the father and son who de- 
voted themselves for their country : the ono 
in the Latin war, a. r.c. 414, and the other 
in the Gallie or Etruscan war, A.r.c. 459. 
Drusus — praised in ^ompliment to the Em. 
press Livia. who was of that famdy. The 
most distinguished of tliem was *L Liviua 
SaUnator, consul in 535 and 547, who. in the 
second Punic war, defeated Hasdrubal at 
the Metaurus. 

S26. T. Manlius Torquatus, consul hi 407, 
410, 414 a.u.c. Camillus— the rescucr of 
Rome frora the Gauls, aftcr the disastrous 



B. VI. 8-27-841. 



NOTES ON TUE .ENEID. 



B. VI. 842-84». 



battle of AUia. See Niebuhr's Lectfl. on 
Rom.Hht, yoL L, p. 268 sqq. 

827. Fulgere, so scate~re, fervere, stridere, 
etc, according to tbe custom of a generation 
earber than VirgU. 

828. Nocte, Le., in darkness, for althougb 
Elysium bad a sun of its own (641), yet we 
are here to understand tbe world below, 
geuerally, as a place for spirits to remain till 
again called upou to enliven bodiea 

831. Socer—for Julia, tbe daughter of 
Csesar, was wife to Pompey. Alpmis — re- 
ferring to Ctesar"s inarch from GauL Mts. 
are caUed aggeres, because tbey serve as 
embankments of defence to the countries 
which they surronnd. Monoeci — at the 
extrernity of tbe Maritime Alps waa a pro- 
montory with a tcmple to Hercules Mo- 
noecus, not far from Nicaea. rompey'a 
forces were mostly Eastern. 

835. Tu prior, parce — supposed to have 
reference to the proposal of Caesar to J;he 
Senate to disband his troops, if they forced 
Pompey to do so hkewise. Olympo, as de- 
rivedfrom Iulus or Ascanius, sonof ^Eneas, 
who was son of Venus. 
♦ 837, S, have reference to L. Mummiu? 
Achaicus, the conqueror of Corintli, and 
bumbler of Greece, b.c. 140. 

839. There is a difficulty to know tbe in- 
dividual meant in this and the foliowing 
Hnes: verse 840 shows that it cannot be 
Mtiminioa. Tbe older interpretera referred 
it to Curius.Dentatus, or Fabricius, tbe 
eonqueror of Pyrrhns, but 839 forbids that. 
Heyne concludea that L. yEmilius Paulus, 
who defeated Perseus, is intended, and that 
the latter is called Aeacides, because tho Ma- 
eedonian kings belonging to the Heraclidae 
traced their genealogy from Olympias, the 
daughter of Neoptolemua (aon of Achilles, 
descendant of iEacus), king of Epirus. 

Argos and Mycence are used for the whole 
of Greece. 

840. AchiUi. On this form of the gen.. 
see ^En. i. 30, and iL 476. 

841. Ultus avos Trojae. These words 
supply the reason why the victory referred 
to should be mentioned, for wliat more 
agreeable to the feelings of Trojans than 
that the deGcendants of Achilles should, at 
soine fttture day, pay to the Trojans fttll 
satisfaction for the calamity which tliey 
had brought on them, in the death of friends 
and the destruction of property and city? 
The referencc mcy be eithcr to the con- 
quests of Mummius, or better, perhaps, to 
those of iEmiliug Paulus, which were made 
over thc posterity of Achillcs, 

Ttmpla (e/nerata Minervae. scil., bvAjax, 
son of OUeus (see JEn. i. 41, and ii. 403), 
and by Ulysses and Diomede in the carry- 
ing off of tlie paUadium (see ii. 165 sqq.) 
Tcmerare mcans "to violata things sacred 
witb fool-hardy dariug." Forb. 



842. Calo, M. Porc 

who stands here appropriately in conjunc- 

tion witlt CoBflUa and the Gracchi. 

Tacitum — thc perf. pass. propcr, — " uu- 
recorded," " unnoticed." 

Cossus, A. Cornelius, consul, 428 B.&, 
who slew Lara Tolumniua, king of Veii, 
He obtained the spolia opima, an honout 
which had been attained before hitu onl^ 
by Romulus, over Acron, king of Caeninj. 
and after him only by Marccllus, over Virido- 
marus kingof tlie Insubrian Gauls, b.c. 222. 

843. Graccki genus. The poet refers 
particularly to Semp. Gracchus, consul, 215 
and 213 b.c, distinguislied in the second 
Pumc war, and to his iliustrious grandson 
of the same name, father of the TribuneS) 
Tiberius and Caius. consul, 177 and 163 
b.c., and Praetor, 179 e.c. llc gained a 
famous victory over the Celtiberians. 

844. Scipiadas, duo fulmina, Le., Afri- 
canus, Major, and Minor, the one the con- 
queror, the other the razer of Carthage. 
The fonn of thc patronymic Scipiades is 
Greek, for Scipionides; so Juvenal uses 
ambo Scipiadae (u. 153), and Lucr. (L 27) 
Memmiades; and Virgil himself, Romulidae 
(.-En. viiL 638). 

Parvo potentem — either "powerful (in 
state aflairs) by the parsiinony with whidi 
lie nianaged his slender means, conjoined to 
liis prndence and bravery; " or more simply 
" riclt in his poverty," i.e., by reason of liis 
frugaUty and moderation. 

845. Fabricius — he was sent by the Pio- 
mans aa ambassador to Pyrrhus. 

Senuinus, to whom, whcn cultivating liis 
fann, an ofter of the consulship was made. 
Ilis name was C. Atilius Regulus, to which 
Serranns (sercrej was added as an agno- 
men. He defeated the Carthaginian tfeet off 
the Lipari islands in 257 b.c. He was coi.- 
sul a second time in b.c. 2-30. 

846. Quofessum rapitis, i.e., wearied asl 
am with so lengthened a description of our 
lierocs. how can I aftempt the long list of 
honours of the Fabian family ? 

Maximus, called Cunctator, the opponent 
of Hannibal. 

847. For rcstituis some MSS. read the fut- 
restitues, bttt the fonner is preferable, 
as rendering the description more vivid and 
present. 

848. Excudent — ducent — orabunt — these 
are examples of tbe fut. of admitsion (fn- 
turum concessivum) as in Hor. Od. i. 7, 1, 
Laudabunt alii claram Rhodon ; andL 20, 10, 
Tu bibes uvam. The pres. subj. is moro 
frequently employed in phrases of this khtd, 
but the fut. expresses rather a certain ex- 
pcctation that the thing which we concede 
will certainly happen. i 

Spirantia aera — " the life-breathing sta« 
tues." 
849 Ducent, This verb is properly a^ 
161 



B. VI. 850-870. 



NOTES ON THE jENEID. 



B. VI. 874-8S6. 



plied to thc fashioning of things from soft 
and pliant mctal, likc the Greck ilccuvuv, 
but ia applled to marble and other substances 
naturally hard and imworkablc. 

850. The Greeks excelled in oratory, espe- 
cially furensie, and in mathematical and 
philosophical studies; but of these Virgil 
particidarly refers to one kind, that of the 
gtars. So" Coeli mcatus mcans siderum 
cursus. Dcscribent, kc, definknt in sphaera 
coelesti : radio, ie., virga. These tenns are 
derived from the phraseology of geometri- 
cians, and the last one from the custom cf 
describing figures in the dust (sprinkled on 
a table) wtth a rod or staff. Sce Ed. iii. 41. 
Hevne. 

S52. Observe the strong formof command 
giveu by the imper. and infin., memento 
regere. 

854. Parccrc subjcctis. This clemency 
towards their enemics, on which the Ro- 
mans pridcd themselvcs, Horace attributcs 
to Augustus himself, bellante priorjacen- 
tem Lenis inhostem, Carm. Saec. 51. 

856. M ClaudiusMarcellus. celebratedin 
ihe secoud Pimic war and other importaut 
operations (see above, 842, note), is iutro- 
duced, so that the poet may be led by a na- 
tural transition to M. Marcellus, the son of 
Octavia (sister of Augustus), whose prema- 
ture death at the age of twenty plunged the 
Roman world into grief. 

858. Tumultus meant "asudden risiiig, 
to quell which immediate measures were 
necessary." The term was most frequently 
applied to the incursions of the Ganls. 
Turbante — see note 801, above. 

859. Sistel — a strong word, remiuding us 
of Jupiter Stator. Pocnos — this refers to 
his compelling Haimibal to raisc the siege 
of Nola. Gallum — see 842. 

860. Tertia arma — see 856 and 842, 
note. 

Quirino, Lc, Romulo. Thc regulations 
of Numa provided that the first spolia opima 
should be dedicated to Jupitcr (which Ro- 
mulus had done), the second to Mars (which 
Cossna did), the third to Quirinus (which 
Alareellus did). 

863. Frons laeia parum — a symptom of 
early death, according to ancient belief. 
Similar is our phrase, "Too good to lire 
long." 

864 Quis is herc properly used and not 
qui, since JEneas asks thc "who," and not 
the "what kind." See note, iEn. iii. 608. 
Sic, as described in precedmg liue. 

866. Quantum instar in ipso — a rather 
linusual expression for quanta similitudo ei 
est cum illo Claudio Marcello (quinquies 
Vmsulej quem comiiatur. 

870. The gods were 6upposed to envy 
earth of those men, who were endued with 
lupefiative virtoe. 

m 



874. Campus aget gemitus—Tetemng to 
the pubiic funeral of MarceUus. 

875. The lumulus to Marccllus was erected 
(a.u.c. 726) In thc Campus Martius», hencu 
praeterlaberc, Tiberinc (Pater). 

877. Romula tcllus, for Romulea, sce 2En. 
iiL 602. 

879. Heu pielas— of what avail will behis 
pielas,fidcs, et fortitudo. 

882. An ancient spur, cakar, and tha 
mode of fastening it are shown in the ac- 
companying woodcut. 




SS3. Si qua [sciL via, ratiune~\fala rumpas, 
Le., if you by any means break the arrange- 
ments of the fates — if you can escape from 
your hard fate— hi celebrity and glory you 
wfll rival the great M. Marcellus, ramed for 
the share he took in the second Punic war 
ThusIIeyue. But the explanation ofWagnef 
appears to us much more natural, aud much 
niore pathetic. Putting a note of excla- 
mation after 883 (rumpas), he interprets, 
"Would that you by some means could 
burst through the imrelent ; ng decrees ot 
fate:'" then the words Tu Marccllus eris, 
will have no reference to the former Mar- 
cellus, but to the son of Octavia hiinself, in 
this sense, "You who now sojourn here 
among spirits, will at some time return to 
npper earth to bc that noble Marcellus, the 
delight of the Roman people. How much, 
thereforc, is it to be wished that j-ou would 
anticipate the fates, so that you might 
escape premature death." What foUows 
may thus be connected with the foregoing, 
"But it wiU not be allowed you to reverse 
destiny ; nay, you will die at an early age. 
I shall therefore perform thc due ceremo- 
nies," etc, 

885. The purpureosflores aie to be con- 
sidered as referring to lilia, aud not as indi- 
cating roses or other flowers. This custom 
of scattering flowers over the grare, or 
wreathing them in chaplets, though out ot 
use with us, is stiU common in many coun- 
tries of the contment. Observe the skiU of 
the poet in thcse lines — the deep feeling 
of the mind bursts out at Tu MarceUus 
eris, and theu there immediately fbUows the 
mhd and subdued tone of lamentation and 
resiguation. 

8S6. Animamacc; nulem donisby a welJ. 



B. VI. 837-894. 



NOTKS ON THK /KNELD. 



known elcgancc of oxpression for dona in 
animam accumulctn. 

Inani munere — "a uscjcss, unavailing 
tluty," since it cannot recall the dead to life, 
nor'will the shade know thcreof. Augustus 
and Octavia were very deeply affectcd on 
hearing this passage recited. 

887. Sic, Le., conversing ia this strain. 

888. Aeris is to be governod by rcgione 
(and not by campis) in the seuse of "bright 
regionB." 

891. Exin for exinde, as dcin for deinde, 
responds to postquam above, and is here 
equal to tu;n, post haec. 

892. Laurentes, Le., the Latins and Rutu- 
lians. Ou Laiurentes see viiL 71 and 37L 

894. Sotnni, etc. "There are two gates 
of sleep, one of which is said to be of horn, 
and through it free issue is given to veritable 
apparitious ; the other is carefully finished, 



li. VI. 835-901. 

and shines brightly with ivory of spotless 
white, but through it the intbrnal dcitieK 
send up fantastic drcams to oartli." This is 
founded on Odyss. xix. 5G2 sqq. See Hor 
Od. iii. 27, 41. 

B9S, Hom, as the luost transparent sub- 
stance known by Ilomcr, was considered 
the best meciium for disclosing the realities 
of a future state, forming the "glass door," 
as it were, between the two worlds. 

899. Emittil — on the time of the ascent to 
earth, consult notes on 535 sqq. 

900. Viam secat. t'-u,vh <rr,v o^ov 

90L Caieta — anamegiven by anticipation 
(see beginning of next book). The town 
was iu Latium. fifty miles north of Napies; 
it is now called Gaeta. Gossrau advances 
arguments to prove that the last two hnes 
of this book are spurious, but we deeni it 
unnecessary to enumerate them. 






M^VNA^ 




[Cjuboh.— Panqf. Griechinnen und Oriechen.] 



METRICAL INDEX. 



(K.B.— .1 long or shori mark placed over thefirst vowel of a diphthong apphes to (h« Utiirt 
diphthong.'] 



BOOK I. 
Une 

2. Italiam lato piofiigus Lalvmiaque | venit. 

(La|vlnjaque | by synizesis or synacresis. L> 
16. PGsthablta colulsse Sa|/«o,- JtJc ( ilKus uma. 

(Samo — Final voicel not elidcd. 2.) 
41. Unius ob nox.' et furtas ajacis uiki. 

(Oilei — Synizesis or synaeresis.) 
73. Coimulbio jungam stabfll, prGpriamque dlcabo. 

(Synizesis or synaeresis in Connubjo, 3 sylls. 3.) 
120. J~uii valid' lliulnei n<J|vem jam fortls achatae. 

(Ilionei — Synizesis or synaercsis.) 
13i. Eiir' ad se Zephyrumque \v\cClt, dehmc | tfJIa fiitur. 

(d'hlnc — Synizesis or synaeresis.) 
195. Ylna bonus quae | dtinde c«',dis oiierarat acSstSa. 

(deinde — Synizesis or synaeresis.) 
256. Osciila libavit Da\iae dehlnc \ talia fatur. 

(See above, 131.) 
303. Qul teneant n' Inciilta vTd|e7 W/Mljnesne fSraene. 

(videt — Final syllaWe lengthened by the arsis.) 
332. Jactemur doceas Ignar' homlnumqng \6\corUm- 

qu' Erramus 

(qu' Erramus — Synapheia. 4.; 
405. Et ver' Incessu patu]?< dS& \ iil' ubl niatrein. 

(dea— Final voicel savedfrom elision by the pause. 5.j 
448. JErea ciii gradlbus surgebant, llmlna | nixcs- 

qu" ^Ere trabes .... 

(qu' JEre trabes — Synapheia, see above, 332.) 
478. Per terr' et versa pul|r^ in|scribitur hasta. 

(pulvls — Last syllabk lengthened by arsis.) 
611. IIR>|nea pe*t\\t dextra laevaque Serestiim. 

(Ilionea— The penult long, according to the Ionic dialect. 6.) 
617. Tun' nr aeneas quem Dardani'd fTwichisae. 

(Dardanio — Finul voicel not elided, 7. See above, 16. Spondaic verse.j 



1 For an explanation, see note on line 2. But iynizesxs should always make a syllable /orj^. wherens 
the one in qucstiou is short. We should rather sav, therefore, that the pecuhanty anses from tho 
kiterchange of i and.j wi* one another (so u and v). which often took place among the Romans, v«., 
from » being used sometimes as a vowel and sometimes as a consonant Here, of course, 1. is c 



2. For an explanatlon of the principle, eee note, JEn. iii. 211. 

3. The secoud syllable in connubium is always long; see note on line 74 

4. Consult note on Book i , line 332. 5. 8ee note on Hne 405. 
<• In Ionlc, 'lXiovr,c&, in Attic, ' D.iovtei. 

7. Thetrne princlple ba» been exploined in the note on Une 8U, Book lii 



METRICAL INBKX. 

Uh 

65L rergama eum peig|r?< jnlcCneessosqu' hymen&eo». 

(Peterei— Final suJJable Jengthcncd by arsis.) 
CG8. Litora jacte'f:7r c'Jl\\s Janonls Inlquae. 

(Jactctur— Final syJlabJe lengthened b\i arsis.) 
C93. Aurea | composuit sponda, medlamque' locavlt. 

(Aurea — A dissuJJable. bu sunizcsis or suna etii., 
72G. Atria: dependent lychni laquearibus | Ciurcis. 

(Aureis — A dissyJlable; see line above.) 



BOOK II. 
16. JEdiflicant sectaqu' Intexunt | &bti&& | costas. 

(Abiete— Pronounced tibjHt, qf three syJlabies. X.) 
204. Et MSnS|iS4fs e~t \ ipse doli fabricator ||p*e. 

(Menglina Fnr suJlabJes. Epeits— 77?/'«! sylJabki.) 
411. Nostror' 5DrQl|mar <>/•*! tiirque nriserrima ciedes. 

(Obruimur— FinuJ suJlable Jcngthened by arsit.) 
442. Haerent | parie~ti\b\is scalae postesque sub Ipsos. 

(Parietibus — To bc pronottnced pCirjttibus. four suliabJes. 2.) 
492, CBstSdSa sfuierre valeut: labat | clrictt \ crebro. 

(Aricte— To bc pronotmced arjcte, three syJJabJes. See lln« 
563. Et direpta do]//j(7^ et \ parvi casfis liili. 

(Domlis — Final sylhtble lengthened by arsis.) 
745. Quein non Incusav' amens homlnumque de|*5r<7//!- 

gu' Aut quid in . . . . 

(qu' Aut quid in — Synapheia. See L 332.) 
774. Obstupuji .«tf*e,runtque com' et voxfaucibus haeslt 

(Steterunt— SustoJe. 3.) 



BOOK III. 
4S. Steteiunt— SystoJe, as in Jine 774 o/ the preceding book. 
74. Nereidum mH [ trl i~t \ Neptu|no (7e'gae6. 

(In matri and Neptuae thefinaJ votccJ not eJtJeJ. 4.) 
91. Limlna qtie Wurilsque dei totiisquE moveri. 
(Liminaque— Iht que Jengthened by arsis.) 
112. Idaeiimque \\e' mus: hinc | fidX sllentia sacrls. 

CSe-imis—Final suJJabie Jengthened by arsis. 5.) 
122. Id5mg|n«a dSJcem desertaque litora Cretae, 

(Uomenea—Pcnuit Jong. accorJing to the Ionk dialecL 6.) 
136. Connfibiis. Sce note 3 on foregoing page. 

211. Insulae Ioirio In mSgno quas dlri Celaeno. 

(FinaJ suUabJes qf insuJo? and lonio shortened, m imitatton o/the Greei mode. 7 ) 

212. //a>y-'(7i'aeque colunt Sliae Plrineia pSstquam. 

(Harpyia?— Harpyi. a spondce, the yi beivg a Greek diphthong. 8.) 
164. Dond cRflhlnc auro grsM|a .«<?<: ltSqn' elephanto. 

(Dehinc — Here maJe a JissyllabJe, though usually a monosyJJabJe ; the votfel e M 
sJtortcned be/ore the i, andthe/inaJ a in gravia lengthened by the arsis.* 



1. Pee first note on preceding | 2. Consult Srst noie on preceding pege. 

3. l.e., t«kiug as ehort a svllable nsually long. 

4. The true prindple is stated in the note on line 811, Boofc ill. 

6.,The pause after nemus, as required by the sensA «nust also be taken tnto aocoun* 

«,'ConsVilt note 6 on prt-cedkig page. 

7. On thig pecullarity, see uote on tbe line,iii tli( Commentary. 

t ttoedipbUiODgvanjwarHo tae Greek vi. Thus, ^arpytg, " AfTVtK. 



MKTRICAL DfDWL, 

Um 

;agT anchlj*. Ffctflrfa dlgnate «fipirbo. 

(Anchisa— Final tyUabte iengthened by the artis. L) 
504. Atqu' Idem ca!«« u[nam facvemus utramque. 

(CasGs — Ftnal syllabk lengthened by the artis.) 
l>:*. Flm' est gnceladi sem|i«*r*ffj | fulmlng corpus. 

(SemiustTUU — To be pronounced sem-j Qs-tum, thret syUablu, bu synimtlt. «•) 
602. Hdc sit Srit. Scio me Danais e classibus unQm. 

(Sdo — one sytiabk, by syn u 
606. SIper6[o_A</w«/iium manlbus p^russe jfivabit. 

(Pereo — Fmal coicel not elided. 3.) 
nstit&runt. Systok—tee note 3, aboxt. 



BOOK IT 

64. Pectori{d_u fiiArjans splrantia r " 

(Pectoribus — Final syUable lengthened by the m 
' ijiubio. Consult Book L, line 73, qf this l 
158. Connubiis. See line abote. 

\'.l mandat. 
(Alloquiriir — Fmal syllabk lengthened by the a 
23-5. Quld strult Int q :' " ' In gente morlimr 

(Spe — Final coicd not eli.'- 
302. Thyids ub' | audito stlmfuai- : 

(Thyia»— A dissyllable—fi a diphthor, 
1-sS. Omnla Mercurio slmHIs vocemque cojorem- 
Bt . . . 
(_*u' Et . . . Synapheia—s. 
629. Imprecdr arm* armls; pugnent Ipslqug nt\ 
_u'Hac . 

(_■«* Hiec Synaph&a — see line | 
667. Lamentls gemlruqu' et f emL*: 

(Femineo — Final eoicel not elided. 6.) 
486. Semianf memque' slnu german' Implexa fo 

-To be pronounced sem-jinl-mem. 7.) 



BOOK V. 

26L Tict5r apfid rapldum STmoenta sub[ffid [ alto. 
(DJ5— Consult note on Boot iiL, line 211. 8.) 
Iniceis Ibant eviuctJ temponi [ taeniis. 
(Taeniis — To be pronounced Uen-j 
284. OID serva da tur Op?r | haud Ignlra Mmfrvae. 

(Datur — Final syUable lengthened by the arsis.) 
i H | munere victfir amlcl. 
ya.us- JfeMi synabie lengthened by the tm 
>52 Dat SaJo v-iLQs oneros' Itqu' unguibus [ inrmfc | 
(Aureis— A dissyUabk by tymzetit or tynaertsis.) 

L Tbere ia no occ&rfoo fcr oor bere baving recourse to a Doric nomintitrre m «r. 

2. Make tbe i oi ttna a conaonant: thoa, xns-j w-n>m, etc 

3. Tbe troe principle U «tated in note, Book :iL 311. 

4. Conaoh ncte on Unc 211, Book UL, whcre tbe explanation is gtren. 

5 In Greek &v.x;. Compare note on line 112, Book iiiin this Indf x. 

6 Tbe tme princiole b ttated in tbe note on line 211, Book iii 
7. Consnh note 1. flrst pag^ o: Met. Index 

& Obacrre that tb« flnal rowel In /bo U ihort here, becatue, after one of tbe tw3 tbort timet in ittl 
long • ia eat otT, tbe re m a int ng one U in tbe rtww, not tbe arii* of tbe fcot, asd, tbertfcrt «_ i . 
■trea» «f *• T3»w kdd npoo it, h remaJa» «hork 



METRICAL INDEX. 

Lihe 

133 Et magnos niembror' artus magn' ossa la\certds-\ 

qu Exuit 

(qu Exuit—Synaplieia. See note L 332.) 
432. Oatua lab\sat vastos quatlt aeger anheUtus artus. 

(Genua— To bepronounced genvi, as a dissyllable, L) 
52L Ostentans artemqug p5t|er a>c|umqug sdnantem. 

(Pater— Final syllable lengthened by the arsis.) 
589 PdriZtt.bus texturn caecls Itgr anclpltemque. 

(Parigtlbus— See Book iL, line 442.) 
663. Transtra" pgr et remos et pictas|a&i&£ puppes. 

(Abigtg— See Book iL, line 16.) 
C97. Implentiirque siiper piippes sem|«'«^a «!a|descunt 

Semiustii — To be pronounced sem-jus-tS. 2.) 
7Gj. Concili' elysIumqugc8l|o /ji7c|casta Sibylla. 

(Colo — Final voicel not elided. 3.) 
7-33. Roborit navlgils iiptant remosque Tu\dente$- 

qu' Exigui. . . 
(qu 1 Exigui — Synapheia. See L ) 
826. Nesaee Sploque Thalliique Cymouoceque. 
853. Nnsqu' amlttej&a* octfjlosqug stib Rstra tSngbat 

(Amittebat— Fin syltable lengthened by the arsis.) 



BOOK VI 

33. BIs patrlae cecidere nianiis. Quln protenus | omnia. 

(Omnia— To be pronounced omn-ja, by synizesis or synaertsis. 4.) 
126. Tros anclilsla|c/i7/ac?'lls descenstis averao. 

(Anchisiada— Final syllable lengthened by the arsis.) 
201 Ind' ubl vener' ad faujcc? grav'S\Vsnias aveml. 

(GraVolentis — The e being elided. 5.) 
K4. Plngug si\\per ole | Infundens ardentlbtis extls. 

(Super — Final syllabh lengthened by the arsis.) 
3S0 Ferreiqu' Eumenldum thalam' et Dlscordla demens. 

(Ferrei — A di$s"Ilahh\ by synizesis or synaeresis.) 
287 Bnareus — Three siillables, eus being a diphthong.) 
289. Gurgor.es \ Jldrpyi' iiQqu 1 et forma tricorporls iimbrae 

(Harpyi, a tpondee, yi being a diphthong. 6.) 
412. Deturbat iiixatque fCros, sinrulaccipit | CtJveo | 

(Alveo — A dissyUable, by synizesis or synaeresis.) 
507 Nomen et amia locum ser| vant £<?a|mlce ngqulvi. 

(Te — Yoicel shortened in imitation of the Greek. 7.) 
602. Quos stiper atra sllex jam jam lapsura ca\denti] 

qu' Imminet . 

(qu Imminet — Synapheia. See L 332.) 
C53. Per ciimpos pascuntur equf. Quae gratla cturuum. 

(Curriium— Tico syllables, by synizesis. Most copies read currum. x 
678. Desuper osten^di dehinc \ surnma cacumlna llnquunt 

(Dehlnc to be pronounced d'hlnc, by synaeresis. See L 13L) 
7C8. Et Capys et Xumi!/or et \ qul te noming reddet. 

CXumitor— Final syllable lengthened by ihe arsis.) 

1 . Tne poets occasionally take advantage of the doubl power of «, and maKe it a consocstrt ta 
words where such a change is necessary or convenient. Here, therefore, the u is regarded as a coa- 
sonant, and the e in genua is long by position. See note 1, flrstpage of Index. 

2. Consult note 1, first page of Inder. 

3. The true principle is stated in the note on liue 211, Book iii. 

4. Consult uote 1, first page of Index. 

5t The word graveolenlis ought to be written grave olentit, separatelv. 
6. Consult note on line 212, Book iii. (Index). 

7 Observe that U loses one of its short times, and that tlie other remalns Bhort, bccauss )n the (Aate- 
Consult note on line 861, Book v., and on Une 211, Book iU. 



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